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that each may immediately repair Madrid, without any previous noto his respective court. Lisbon, tice to his majesty, to make the April 23, 1762.

neutral kingdom of Portugal the Don Joseph TORRERO. theatre of war, to oblige his most JACQUES BERNARD O'Dun. faithful majesty, calmly to see his

provinces and ports occupied by -Translation of the answer to the fore. Spanish armies; to intimate to him, going memorial.

that for this purpose, the faid

armies were already posted upon DON Lewis da Cunha, in execu- the frontiers of this kingdom : add

tion of the orders, which he has ing to all this, that he ought not received from the most faithful king, only to infringe all the treaties of his master, in answer to what is peace and commerce, which he contained in the memorial, which has with the crown of England, but was presented to him on the 23d likewise to declare an offensive war day of the present month of April, against the said crown; the whole by his excellency Don Joseph Tor- conceived in a stile, by no means Tero, ambassador from the Catholic gentle or persuasive, but rather exking, and by M. James O'Dun, p:effing, in the strongest terms, that minifter plenipotentiary from his the intention was not to pegotiate, most Christian majesty, informs but to break; and his faid most

faithful majesty having seen this That having positive orders to confirmed in the second memorial, fet apart from the substance of the presented by the said Don Jofeph business under consideration, the Torrero, and M. James O'Dun, adventitious,

expreflions, on the first instant, therein declarsuch as have hitherto never been ing, that his Catholic majesty had used between sovereigns, with which already given ultimate orders, that the faid memorial is filled ; his his troops should enter the domimost faithful majesty has found in nions of this kingdom, without it nothing new, that by giving an waiting for any other answer, or opening to negotiation, thould make consent of his most faithful majesty, him alter his former resolutions, That his faid most fathful macommunicated in the answers of him, jesty solely places his honour and the secretary of state, dated the glory, in being faithful to his royal 20th of March last, and the 5th of word ; in the observance of the duthe present month of April. ties of his crown ; and of religion

That the effective rupture, which and humanity, which forbid his the said allied ministers have now entering into an offensive war aowned, in such clear and express gainst any power, although ever so words, was not matter of surprise indifferent to him, and although not to his majesty, after having seen allied by reciprocal treaties, which that this unexampled' negotiation have been adhered to for this age was opened by notifying to his most past; as are tho!e which subfift with faithful majesty, in the first me- the crown of England. .morial of the 16th of March last, That their Catholic and most that it had been determined be- Christian majesties have been intween the courts of Paris and formed with very little bocerity, if



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any body has suggested to them blockade and infestation were that

any clause in the answers, which dered, from the time of the Family: went from this court on the 20ih compact, to invade and seize upon o: March, and the 5th of the pre- this kingdom ; which are terms sent month of April, could be inter- that plainly few, that Portugal preted in the sense that his, most was neither to ask nor expect fucfaithful majelty should own, that cours from the said courts, which England bad given cause to break had joined themselves in alliance to those ancient defensive alliances; attack it ; and that the laient fire because on the contrary, he owes has always been on the side of those, to the crown of Great Britain, all who had determined to act offen. that good harmony, which is the fively, and not on the side of him natural efficiet of those ancient al who has endeavoured, and does onliances.

ly endeavour to defend and preserve That his most faithful majesty,who himself in peace, which, by ail has a high opinion of the power and laws of Gúd, of nature, and nafriendship of their most Christian tions, he has a right to do. and most Catholic majesties, cannot

That if his Catholic majefly were doubt that their said majesties would truly informed of what has hapbe the first to disapprove of the step pened in preceding wars, he would of breaking his neutrality, to make find, that his crown and subjects an offensive war againff his allies, have reaped many and great bein the manner already related. nefits, upon several occasions, from

That his faid majesty fees no the peace inseparable from the neu. other difference between his neu- trality of Portugal, and of which trality and that of other powers, there are in Madrid many living than the manner in which his fron- witnesses; and that it has not been tiers are beset, under no other pre- the crown of England alone which tence than the persuasion, that it is has profited by the neutrality and convenient to the courts of Paris peace of Portugal. and Madrid, that Portugal Dould That, finally, his most faithful break through all the above-men- majesty understands that he has the tioned ties; but surely mere con- same right to defend his kingdom veniency without any legitimate from invasion, which is permitted title, has never hitherto authorised

to every private person, who is inbelligerent powers to attack those difpenfibly obliged to defend his which are neuter, and who enjoy own house against any body thac the advantages attending on peace. should enter it without his consent,

That his most faithful majesty And that his majesty confining could wish, that the blame imputed himself to this fole point of the nato him for not having complained tural defence of the neutrality and that the frontiers of his kingdom peace of his kingdoms, ports, and were blocked up and infested, were subjects, will exert his utinoft efforts, not fo fully proved by the said me- together with his allies, in case, inorials of the 16th of March, and notwithstanding ail that has been the firít instant, where it was de- related, he be attacked ; and has clared in express words, which can- given the necessary orders, in his not be misunderstood, that the said secretary's office, that Don Joseph


Torrero, and M. James O'Dun, rent general officers of his Catholic be furnished with the usual paff- majetty have successively, fince the ports, as soon as they please to send 30th of April laft, spread various for them ; and that, in such case, parers through my dominions, expreffes be sent to his ambassador prescribing laws and fanctions to don Joseph de Silvan da Pecantra, my subjects, invading at the same and to his minister Pedro da Costa de time my provinces with an army Almeeda, with orders to leave the divided into various bodies, attack. courts of Madrid and Paris, in the ing my fortified places, and perfame manner as the faid ambassador petrating all the aforesaid hostilities, of his Catholic majesty, and minitter under pretence of directing them to plenipotentiary of his most Christian the advantage and glory of my majelty do here.

crown, and of my subjects, and in Palace of Alcantara, April 25, 1752. fuch light even the Catholic king Don LEWIS DA CUNHA. himself has represented the case to

me; and whereas, notwithstandM. da Cunha, upon delivering to ing all the contradictory and unthe Spanish and French minillers heard-of motives, an offensive war the above answers to their memo- has been made against me, contrary rials, acquainted them at the same to truth and justice, by the aforetime, that the passports, which they said two monarchs, through mutual had demanded, would be ready, consent: I have ordered it to be whenever they pleased to send for made known to all my subjects, them; accordingly they took up that they hold all disturbers or viotheir passports the 26th, and the lators of the independent sovebarges being ready for them, they reignty of my crown, and all invaset out the 27th.

ders of my kingdom, as public ag

gressors and declared enemies; that Dicree, or declaration of war, ilsied from henceforward, in natural de

by order of his Portuguese majesty fence, and necessary retorrion, they against Spain.

be treated as aggreflors and declar

ed enemies, in all and every sense ; WH

Hereas the ambaffodor of Car- and to oppose them in their persons

tile, Don Joseph Torrero, in and effects, all military persons and conjunction with Don Jacob O' others authorised by me, make use Dun, minister plenipotentiary of of the most executive means which France, by their representations, in these cases are supported by all and the answers I have given there- laws; and that in like manner, all to, it appears that one of the pro- faid military persons, of whatever jects agreed to between the afore- rank, quality or condition they be, said powers in the Fainily-pact was, quit all communication and corre. to dispose of these kingdoms at if spor.dence with the said enemies, they were their own, to invade under the penalties decreed against them, to occupy them, and usurp rebels and traitors. I likewise orthem, under the incompatible pre. der that all the subjects of France text of aflifting me against enemies, and Spain, that reside in this city, which they supposed for such, that or in the kingdom of Portugal and never exiited; and whereas diffe- Algarva, retire within the precise term of 15 days, to reckon from the resting of my ambassador, Don Joday of the publication of this de- feph Torrero at Eftremos, who was cree, otherwise they shall be treat- c'etained there, in violation of his ed as enemies, and their effects con- character, after he had been sufferfiscated ; and that in all the wet as ed to depart from Lisbon, and had well as dry ports of this kingdom, arrived on the frontier, in virtue of all commerce and communication passports from that court; but notcease with the aforesaid monarchies withttanding such insults were pow. of France and Spain, and all fruits, erful motives for me to keep no manufactures or goods of any kind, longer any measures with the king of the produce of the said monar- of Portugal, nevertheless adhering chies, be deemed contraband, and to my firli resolution of not making the entry, fale and use of them be an offensive war against the Portuprohibited. Ordered that this de- guese, unless forced to it, I deferred cree be afixed and transmitted to giving orders to my general to treat every country, that it may come to them with the rigours of war; but the knowledge of all my subjects. having read the edict of the king of I have given orders to the intendant Portugal of the roth of last month, general of the people to grant paff- in which, misrepresenting the upports to all the aforesaid, who have right intentions of the most Christentered these kingdoms, bona fide, ian king and myself, he imputes to on their business, that they be per- us a pre-concerted design of invad. mitted to retire unmolested.

tesmu treat

ing his dominions; and orders all Palace of Nossa Senhora da Adjuda, his vassals to treat us as enemies,

18th of May, 1762. and to break off all correspondence With the rubrick of his majesty. with us, both by sea and land; and Published 238 May, 1762.

forbids the use of all productions Antonio Luiz De Cordes. coming from our territories, confil.

cating the goods of the French and The king of Spain's declaration of Spaniards, and likewise ordering

war against Portugal, iffilled the them to leave Portugal in a fort16th day of June.

night, which term, however straight,

has been further abridged, and Eicher my representations found- many of my subjects have been ex

ed in justice and utility, nor pelled, plundered, and ill treated, the fraternal persuasives with which before the expiration of it. And I accompanied them, have been the marquis de Sarria having found, able to alter the king of Portugal's that the Portuguese, ungrateful to blind affection for the English. His his goodness and moderation, and ministers, engaged by long habit, the exactness with which they have continue obstinate in their partia- been paid for every thing they have lity, to the great prejudice of his furnished for my troops, have profubjects; and I have met with no- ceeded so far as to excite the people thing but refusals, and been insult- and soldiery against my army; so ed by his injurious preference of the that it would be dishonourable to friendship of England to that of carry my forbearance any farther.. Spain and France. I have even re- For these causes I have refolved, ceived a personal affront by the are that from this day my troops shall


treat Portugal as an enemy's coun- to publish the present ediêt throughtry, that the property of the Portu- out your jurisdiction. guese should be confiscated through

D. RICHARD WALL," out my dominions, that all the Por. tuguese shall leave Spain in a fort- The French king's declaration of war night, and that all commerce with

againsi Portugal. them shall be prohibited for the fu

HE king and the Catholicking

being obliged to support a On June 25, the king of Spain war against England, have entered sent to the viceroy of Navarre, and into reciprocal engagements to curb, to the governors of the provinces the excessive ambition of that crown, of Spain, an order in the following and the despotism which it pretends terms:

to usurp, in every fea, and parti“ Since the Portuguese, through cularly in the East and West Indies, an inveterate hatred for the Spanish over the trade and navigation of name (a hatred founded only on hereditary prejudice) have carried Their majesties judged that one their barbarities to such extremities, proper ttep for attaining this end as to cut off the ears and noses, or would be, to invite the king of Porin other cruel manner to mutilate tugal to enter into their alliance. several Spaniards who were leaving It was natural to think that the proPoriugal, in consequence of the de- posals which were made to that claration of war, who are arrived prince on that subject, in the name on our frontiers thus mutilated and of his majesty and of his Catholic disfigured, and as the Portuguese majesty, would be readily accepted. government has endeavoured to This opinion was founded on the shake, by motives of interest, that consideration of what the most fidelity and love which good sub- faithful king owed to himself and jects owe their country, by publish- to his people, who, from the being, on the 17th, at Yelves, and ginning of this present century, without doubt through all their have groaned under the imperious frontiers, that any Spaniard banished yoke of the Englsh. Besides the from Spain, who would retire with event hath but too clearly shewn the his wealth to Portugal, shall en- necessity of the just measures taken joy all sorts of franchises, and be by France and Spain with regard treated as a native there : although to a suspicious and dangerous neuhis majesty believes that he has no trality that had all the inconveniensubject so unworthy the name of a cies of a concealed war. Spaniard as to be tempted by such The memorials presented to the offers ; if, however, there should court of Lisbon on this subject have be any one so bas-, be it known to been made public: all Europe hath him from this hour, that if he should seen the solid reasons of justice and at any time return to Spain, he shall conveniency which were the founsuffer the infamy and punishment dation of their demand on the king due to traitors and deserters of their of Portugal: to those were added, country. His majesty orders you on the part of Spain, motives of the

other powers:


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