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lulled in the most profound security those terms, and the laft could not at a house of pleasure, called Oranie- be very flattering to her. His baum on the sea fhore, when a fol. terms were rejected ; and he was dier brought him an account that required to sign an unconditional his kingdom was taken away from resignation of his crown, according him.

to a form that was prepared for Astonished, and wholly unpre- him. Not satisfied with depriving pared for this event, he was some him of his crown, it was thought time fenseless, and entirely at a loss fit to make him the murderer of his what part to take. When he was own reputation'; and this unforturouzed from this trance by the ap- nate prince, moved with the vain proaching danger, his first suggestion hope of life, figned a paper declarwas to defend the place with his ing his conviction of his inability Holstein guards ; but tho' satisfied to govern the empire, either as a of their attachment, he doubted fovereign, or in any other capacity, their strength, and he knew it was and his sense of the distress, in in vain to hope for any effort in which his continuing at the head of his favour from the Russians. affairs would inevitably involve

Nothing then remained but it. After he had signed this abdicafight, by which he might escape tion, he gave up his sword, and was to Holstein, and wait fome favour- conducted to prison, where in a short able turn of fortune. This late time, but according to lord of powerful fleets and ar- what had been universally July 6. mies embarked in a small vessel, expected, he died. The disorder, and with a few attendants, and which killed him, was called an rowed towards Cronstadt: but he hemorrhoidal cholic. had not proceeded very far, when Thus was a revolution of such he was informed that this fortress immense importance effected in a was in the hands of his enemies, fingle day, and without thedding and that every avenue for escape a single drop of blood. The was shut against him. Dejected and unfortunate emperor enjoyed the desponding he returned to Oranie- power, of which he had made fo baum After some short and tu- imprudent and unpolitic an use, multuous deliberation, he resolved no longer than fix months. His to abandon all thoughts of defence, wife, without any hereditary title, and to throw himself on the com- is sovereign mistress of the Russian paffion of the empress.

empire ;

and the most abfolute On her march' fhe met his mef- power on earth, is now held by an fengers, who brought letters con- elective monarch. taining a renunciation of the em- Immediately on this revolution a pire, and ftipulating no other terms number of manifeftoes appeared, than leave to return to Holítein, in which the conduct of the late and the satisfaction of taking with czar was severely condemned, the him, as the companion of his re- weakness of his perfonal character treat, the countess of Woronzoff and exposed, and designs of the blackest one single friend.

kind, even that of murdering his Reasons of state would not permit confort, attributed to him. Those the empress to consent to the first of manifeftoes at the same time were

filled with the strongest declarations verse of that of her husband. She of affection from the empress to the dismissed all foreigners from her consubjects of Russia, of regard to fidence and service; the sent away their interests, and of attachment to the Holstein guards, and chole their religion ; and they are all Russian, whose ancient uniform was filled with such unaffected and fer- revived with new lustre, the emvent strains of piety, as must needs press herself frequently condescendprove extremely edifying to those ing to appear in it. The clergy who are acquainted with the senti- were restored to their possessions, ments of pure religion, by which and their beards. She conferred great princes are generally animated all the great posts of the empire on ocasions of this nature,

on native Russians, and entirely Nothing could be more able than threw herself on the affections of the conduct of the empress, fince that people to whom the owed her her accession to the throne. In al- elevation. most ail respects it was the very re

CHAP. V. Effe&t of the revolution in Russia on the king of Pruffia's affairs. Situation of the nerv empress. She adopts a neutrality. Russian conquests restored. Ruffians quit the Prullian camp. King of Pruffia draws marjhal Drun from Buckersdorff

. Schweidnitz - besieged. Marshal Laudohn attacks the prince of Bevern. Is repulled. Disposition of the French and allied armies

. Broglio removed. Battle of Graebenftein. French defeated. Lord Granby drives the French from HombourgPrince Xavier of Saxony defeated. Gottingen evacuated. French army called from the Lower

Rhine. THIS HIS great change in the go. There were also great advantages

vernment of Russia, it was uni- on the side of Russia, if the empress versally feared, would be followed should not hold the peace concluded by a total change of system with re- by her late husband to be binding gard to foreign affairs. The peace on her, as none of the conquests and alliance with the king of Prur. were at this time evacuated. Every ha were very unpopular measures in thing seemed to conspire towards Muscovy. It was not probable that plunging the king of Pruffia into the close and intimate connection the abyss of his former distresses, which had sublisted between the after he had emerged from them, king of Prussia and the late czar, only for such a time, and in such a could greatly recommend him to manner, as to make them more bitthe successor. And as it was ima- ter and insupportable. gined that this revolution must have Fortunately, however, for this been in a great degree owing to wonderful man, the empress, who the machinations of those courts,

had come

to the Russian throne whom the czar had irritated by in the extraordinary manner that we withdrawing from their alliance, have seen, could not look upon there was the greater reason to ap- herself as fufficiently secure to unprehend that the power, which was dertake again a war of so much imnow set up, wo exerted in portance as that which had been their favour.

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jult concluded. It was necessary, fufpicion that the conduct of the for some time at least, that the latter might have been influenced should confine her attention solely by the councils of the former, to her own safety. Therefore it was searched eagerly amongst the paexpedient to collect, within itself, pers of the late emperor for eluciall the force of the empire, in order dation or proofs of this point. They to oppose it to the designs of the found indeed many letters from the many malcontents, with which that king of Prussia; but in a strain abempire always abounds, and who, solutely different from what they though not attached to the interest apprehended. The king of Prussia of the late czar, and little inclined had, as far as prudence would adto revenge his fate, would find mit, kept a reserve and distance in now both inducement and opportu- regard to the rash advances of this nity for raising troubles and at- unhappy ally. Too experienced to tempting new changes. Very plau- be carried away by his inconfidefible pretences for such attempts rate impetuofity, he gave him much existed from the time of Peter the falutary, though fruitless, advice; Great ; who, whilst he improved he counselled him to undertake and strengthened his kingdom, left nothing against the empress his in it, at the same time, the seeds of consort ; to desist from the war civil wars and revolucions.

with Denmark; to attempt no These confiderations, whatever changes in the religion and funher desires might be, induced the damental laws of the country ; and czarina to continue so much of the not to think of coming into Gerfyftem of her predeceffor, as co- many. incided with her fituation. She On hearing these letters read, the therefore declared to the king of empress is said to have burst into Pruffia's ministers, “ that she was tears of gratitude, and made in conresolved to observe inviolably, in sequence the strongest declarations all points, the perpetual peace con- in favour of this prince. They were cluded under the preceding reign, not without effect. Orders had that nevertheless she had thought been given with relation to Prussia, proper to bring back to Russia, by which threatened a renewal of hoe the nearest roads, all her troops in ftilities. They were foon suspended. Silesia, Prussia, and Pomerania." The army of the Russians was in

It was not the critical situation deed separated from that of Pruffia; alone of the czarina which produced but all the important places, which this moderation; the prudent be- the Russians had, with so much haviour of his Prussian majesty, du- bloodshed, and through so many sing the time of his connection with difficulties, acquired, and which gave the late czar, had a confiderable them the command of every thing share in reconciling the mind of else that remained to the king, this empress to him, and of perpe. were faithfully restored. tuating fomething like the raine

This change from a strict allifriendship, with interests so very dif- ance to a cold neutrality, though ferent. The Ruffian senate, flaming it made no small difference in the with resentment against this mo- Prussian affairs, yes, all things connarch, and against their late fcv:- sidered, must be segarded as an reign; and the empress full of escape, and as a deliverance almost

as

as wonderful as his former. How- finally cut off; they could not atever, this circumstance could not tempt any thing considerable for fail of inspiring fome degree of con- the relief of that place. Prince fidence into his enemies, which the Henry held them in continual king of Prussia endeavoured above alarm for Bohemia, and a great all things to prevent.

part of their attention, and no small On the 21it of July, the orders part of their forces were kept conarrived at the allied camp from Pe- tinually engaged upon that fide. tersburgh, for the Russians to fepa- The king of Pruflia having thus rate themselves from his army, and pushed back marshal Daun, invested return without delay to their own Schweidnitz, and laid fiege to that country. The king, without being important fortress before his face. confounded by this sudden order, This was the fourth time which that and instead of jackening his effors place had been besieged since the on account of this defertion, re- beginning of this war; and this cirsolved to fall with vigour, and with- cumstance alone might suffice to out delay, upon marshal Daun, and shew the many and extraordinay to attack him before the news of this changes of fortune which diftinchange could reach him. Since he guished these campaigns. We apcould no longer profit by the arms prehend no inflance has happened of the Russians, he endeavoured to before of any place like this of real profit at least by their appearance ftrength being so often successively in his camp. The very next day taken and retaken in the course of therefore he attacked the Austrian a single war. army, whose right wing occupied As Schweidnitz is the key of Sithe heights of Buckersdorff, drove lefia, and, though not quite a regular them from that eminence, and from place, is notwithstanding well situatsome villages where they were ad- ed and well fortified; as the garvantageously posted. The success was rison amounted to nine thousand not owing only to the spirit of the men, commanded by a good offiactual attack, but to an apprehen- cer, and allisted by a very expefion of the Austrians, that the whole rienced engineer, and as two great united army of the Prussians and armies of the enemy observed all Muscovites was on the point of en- his motions, it was necessary to gaging them. The king of Pruf- make the difpofitions for the fiege fia made an use of those allies, in with uncommon care. His infanthe moment they deserted him. try were encamped on the heights

This lively attack was made with behind Schweidnitz. His cavalry a loss of only three hundred men formed a chain in the plains of on the side of the Prussians; the Keintzerdorf, to be nearer the camp number of the Austrians killed is of the prince of Wirtemberg, which not known. The prisoners amounted was situated so as to prevent any to one thousand ; and fourteen' enterpize from the country of pieces of cannon were taken. It Glatz. The prince of Bevern com. was indeed no more than an af- manded a strong corps, which posted fair of posts; but its consequences itself advantageously near Corel. were important ; for the communi- One under general Werner did the ca ion of the Imperialists with fame at Neissa. S.hweidnitz was now entirely and [C].4

By these dispositions the Prussian , able to marshal Broglio. In him convoys were protected, the prin- the French court was obliged to recipal places in Silesia guarded, the cal, and in some measure to difa siege of Schweidnitz covered, and grace, one of the very best of their an easy communication preserved officers. A suspicion, and that not between all the detached corps em- weakly founded, prevailed against ployed in those several services. this general, that unable to bear a

The effects of this wise dispofi- competitor in fame, or an associate tion were foon felt. Marshal Daun, in command, he had often, in ordespairing to succeed against the der to disgrace those with whom he army, which, under the king in per- was to act, neglected to improve fon, covered the fiege of Schweid- his favourable opportunities; and nitz, endeavoured to break this chain, that in some instances, by his conand by that means distress the Pruffi- duct, he had purposely occasioned ans who where carrying on the fiege. fome failures, and even defeats. This Laudohn was therefore detached, was a fault which no great qualiwith a very fuperior force, to at- ties in an officer could compensate. tack the prince of Bevern, and to He was therefore removed from his drive him from the advantageous command, and the conduct of the post he occupied. This attack was army left to the prince de Soubise, made with all the celerity and reso- who was infinitely beloved by the lution, which distinguish the ope- soidiers for his generous and benerations of this brave officer. But volent difpofition; and marshal the prince, mindful of the disgrace d'Etrees, who has been so often he had formerly suffered in this pro

mentioned in the course of this hic vince, opposed him with such con- ftory, was associated with him. ftancy and perseverance, that the The plan of the campaign, on king of Prussia had time to come to the part of the French, did not difhis relief. The Austrians were then fer much from that which had been put between two fires, routed, and formerly pursued. They had, as pursued with a terrible slaughter. before, two armies; this under the

This attempt being defeated, the prince de Soubise and marshal king of Pruffia met with no distur- a’Etrees on the Weser, and another bance in the preparations for the under the prince de Condé on the fiege, and the trenches were opened Lower Rhine. on the night of the 18th of July. The disposition of the allies was

Whilst the king of Prussia was also but little varied. The heredi. making this advantageous use of tary prince was posted in the bihis fortune, the armies of the French shopric of Munster, to watch the and the allies in Westphalia were latter of these armies ; and prince not inactive. Among the comman- Ferdinand in person, with the body ders of the former a great disunion of the army, lay behind the Dya had long prevailed. The marshals mel to make head against the forde Broglio and de Soubise had mu- So little had the French protually accused each other; the fited by their superior numbers, camp and the court were for some and superior resources in this contime entirely distracted with the ca- tinental war, and so little decisive bals of the partisans of those of use had they made even of some ficers, The result was not favour- advantages in the field, that this

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