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Anthony Calas to have been ftrangled; the furgeon, having been ordered to examine the ftomach of the deceased, depofed alfo, that the food which was found there had been taken four hours before his death. As no proof of the fuppofed fact could be procured; the Capitoul had recourse to a Monitory, in which the crime was taken for granted, and all perfons were required to give fuch testimony concerning it as they were able, particularizing the points to which they were to speak. This Monitory recites, that La Vaiffe was commiffioned by the Proteftants to be their executioner in ordinary, when any of their children were to be hanged for changing their religion; it recites alfo, that when Proteftants thus hang their children, they compel them to kneel, and one of the interrogatories was, whether any perfon had feen Anthony Calas kneel before his father when he strangled him; it recites too, that Anthony died a Roman Catholic, and requires evidence of his catholicifm: These ridiculous opinions being thus adopted and published by the principal magiftrate of a confiderable city, the church of Geneva thought itfelf obliged to fend an atteftation of its abhorrence of opinions fo abominable and abfurd, and of its aftonishment that they should be fufpected of fuch opinions by perfons whose rank and office required them to have more knowledge and better judgment.
But before this Monitory was publifhed, the mob had got a notion, that Anthony Calas was the next day to have entered into the confraternity of the White Penitents. The Capitoul immediately adopted this opinion alfo, without
the leaft examination, and ordered Anthony's body to be buried in the middle of St. Stephen's church, which was done; forty priests, and all the White Penitents affifting in the funeral proceffion.
Four days afterwards, the White Penitents performed a folemn fervice for him in their chapel; the church was hung with white, and a tomb was raised in the middle of it, on the top of which was placed a human skeleton, holding in one hand a paper, on which was written abjuration of herefy, and in the other a palm, the emblem of martyrdom.
The next day the Francifcans performed a fervice of the fame kind for him, and it is easy to imagine how much the minds of the people were inflamed by this ftrange folly of their magiftrates and priests.
The Capitoul continued the profecution with unrelenting feverity; and though the grief and distraction of the family, when he first came to the house, were alone fufficient to have convinced any reasonable being that they were not the authors of the event which they deplored, yet having publickly attefted that they were guilty in his Monitory without proof, and no proof coming in, he thought fit to condemn the unhappy father, mother, brother, friend and fervant to the torture, and put them all into irons on the 18th of November. Cafing was enlarged upon proof that he was not in Calas's houfe till after Anthony was dead.
From thefe dreadful proceedings the fufferers appealed to the parlia ment, which immmediately took cognizance of the affair, annulled the fentence of the Capitoul as irregular,
regular, and continued the profecu
When the trial came on, the hangman, who had been carried to Calas's house, and fhewn the folding doors and the bar, depofed, that it was impoffible Anthony fhould hang himself as was pretended; another witness swore that they looked thro' the key-hole of Calas's door, into a dark room, where they faw men running haftily to and fro; a third fwore, that his wife had told him, that a woman named Mandrill, had told her, that a certain woman unknown had declared the heard the cries of Mark Anthony Calas at the farther end of the city. Upon fuch evidence as this, the majority of the parliament were of opinion, that the father and mother had ordered La Vaiffe to hang their fon, and that another fon and a maid fervant, who was a good Catholic had affifted him to do it.
experiment whether he was guilty or not, hoping he would, in the agony, confess the crime, and accufe the other prifoners, whofe fate, therefore, they fufpended: It is, however, certain, that if they had had evidence against the father that would have juftified the fentence they pronounced against him, that very evidence would have juftified the fame fentence against the reft, and that if they could not juftly condemn the reft, they could not juftly condemn him, for they were all in the houfe together when Anthony died, all concurred in declaring he hanged himself, which thofe who did not help to hang him, if hanged by others, could have had no motive to do, nor could any of the prifoners have hanged him by violence, without the knowledge of the reft.
One La Borde prefided at the trial, who had zealously efpoufed the popular prejudices; and though it was manifeft to demonftration that the prisoners were either all innocent or all guilty, he voted that the father should firft fuffer the torture ordinary and extraordinary, to discover his accomplices, and be then broken alive upon the wheel, to receive the laft ftroke when he had laid two hours, and then to be burnt to ashes. In this opinion he had the concurrence of fix others, three were for the torture alone, two were of opinion that they fhould endeavour to afcertain upon the fpot whether Anthony could hang himself or not, and one voted to acquit the prifoner. After long debates the majority was for the torture and the wheel, and probably condemned the father by way of
Poor Calas, however, an old man of fixty-eight, was condemned to this dreadful punishment alone; he fuffered the torture with great conftancy, and was led to execution in a frame of mind which excited the admiration of all that faw him.
Two Dominicans, father Bourges and father Caldagues, who attended him in his laft moments, wifhed, "their latter end might be like his," and declared that they thought him not only wholly innocent of the crime laid to his charge, but an exemplary instance of true chri itian patience, fortitude and charity.
One fingle fhriek, and that not very violent, efcaped him when he received the firft ftroke, after that he uttered no complaint. Being at length placed on the wheel, to wait for the moment which was to end his life and his mifery together, he expreffed himself with an humble hope of an happy immortality, and [K] 2
a compaffionate regard for the judges who had condemned him. When he faw the executioner prepared to give him the last flroke, he made a fresh declaration of his innocence to father Bourges, but while the words were yet in his mouth, the Capitoul, the author of this catastrophe, and who came up. on the scaffold merely to gratify his defire of being a witnefs of his punishment and death, ran up to him and bawled out, Wretch, there are the faggots which are to reduce your body to afbes; Speak the truth. Mr. Calas made no reply, but turned his head a little afide, and that moment the executioner did his office.
tins, and they took parish children apprentice: They had then five, Philadelphia Dowley, about 10 years old; Sarah Hinchman, about 12; Anne Naylor, about,13; Mary, her fifter, about eight; and Anne Paul, whofe age does not appear; but as Hinchman is faid to have been the biggest girl, fhe was probably not more than 10.
These children were kept to work in a fmall flip of a room, fo close, that their breath, and the heat of their bodies, made it fuffocating and unwholfome, and they were not only treated with unkindness but feverity, but were not allowed fufficient food: As it was natural to
Though the teftimony of a dying man had thus acquitted the rest of the prifoners, yet the judges, that they might act with an uniform abfurdity throughout the whole affair, banished Peter Calas for life, and acquitted the reft. The widow and the other fufferers are feeking fuch redress from the king as can now be had, to whom the fentence of the judge was not fent for confirmation as it ought to have been.
The judges have thought fit to fupprefs this trial; the widow petitions that it may be ordered to be laid before the parliament of Paris for a revifion.
Some account of the murder of Anne Naylor, by Sarah Metyard, and her daughter Sarah Morgan Metyard.
N the year 1758, Sarah Metyard, the mother, kept a little haberdafher's fhop in Bruton-ftreet, Hanover-fquare, and her daughter, then about 19 years old, lived with her; their chief bufinefs was making of filk nets, purfes, and mit
fuppofe they would complain, another punishment became necessary, and they were fuffered to go out of doors but once a fortnight, and then were never alone. Anne Naylor had a whitloe upon her finger, fo bad that it was obliged to be cut off, and, being befides a weak fickly child, fhe became particularly obnoxious to the inhumanity and avarice of the petty tyrant, of whom he was condemned to be the flave.
Being almoft worn out by a long feries of ill-treatment, the girl, at length, ran away, but was foon brought back; after this fhe was treated with yet greater feverity, and kept so short of food, that finding her ftrength decay, she watched for an opportunity to run away a now befecond time; but this wa come very difficult, for the mother and daughter being apprehenfive of fuch an attempt, and dreading the confequences of a complaint, yet more than the lofs of the girl, were careful to keep the ftreet door falt, and their unhappy victim in the upper part of the house.
this time, the other children were ordered to work in the room by her, that they might be deterred from attempting to escape, by feeing the punishment that was inflicted upon one who had thus offended already.
It happened, however, that on the 29th of September, fhe watched the door's being opened for the milkman, and creeping down ftairs, took the opportunity of the daughter's back being turned, to flip out; but the daughter mifling her while fhe was yet in fight, called out to have her stopped, and the milkman, as she was running with what ftrength she had left, caught her in his arms: The poor child expoftu lated with the man, and preffed him with a moving earneftnefs, to let her go; Pray milkman, fays fhe, let me go, for I have had no victuals a long time, and if I stay here, I fhall be farved to death: by this time the daughter was come up, and the milkman having no power to detain the child, and it being impoffible for her to efcape, the fell again into the hands of her mercilefs tyrants; and the daughter hav. ing dragged her into the houfe by the neck, flapped to the door, and then forced her up ftairs into the room, where the old woman was ftill in bed, though fhe had started up, and joined in the cry, upon the first alarm. Here he was thrown upon the bed, and the old woman held her down by the head, while the daughter beat her with the handle of a hearth-broom; after this, the was forced into a two pair of ftairs back room, and a ftring being tied round her waitt, fhe was made falt to the door, with her hands bound behind her, fo that the could neither lie nor fit down. In this manner was she kept ftanding without food or drink for three days, being untied only at night that the might go to bed, and the laft night she was fo feeble, that the was obliged to crawl up to bed upon her hands and knees; during
The first day she said little, her ftrength failing her apace; the next day, the faid nothing, but the pains. of death coming on, the groaned piteously; on the third day, foon after fhe was tied up, her ftrength wholly failed her, and fhe funk down, hanging double in the string which bound her by the waift: The children being then frighted, ran to the top of the ftairs, and called out, Mifs Sally! Mifs Sally! Nanny does not move; the daughter came up ftairs, and found her without any appearance of fenfe or motion, hanging by the ftring with her head and her feet together; but she was fo far from being touched with pity, that he cried out, If he does not move, I'll warrant I'll make her move, and immediately began to beat her with the heel of her fhoe: finding, however, notwithstanding the blows, which were very hard, that the poor wretch fhewed no figns of fenfibility, fear took the alarm, and the haftily called up her mother. When the old woman came up, the fat down upon the garret flairs, at the door where the child was ftill hanging, and the firing being at length cut, the laid her across her lap, and fent Sally Hinchman down flairs for fome drops: When the drops were brought, the girls were all fent down ftairs, and the mother and daughter were foon convinced that their victim was dead.
Having confulted together, they carried the body up fairs into the fore garret, next to that where the child
child used to lie, and locked the door that the other children might not fee it. They pretended the had had a fit, from which the foon recovered, and for two or three days they infinuated, that he was confined in the garret to prevent her running away, having made a third attempt to escape; and the mother herself, in fight of the children, took victuals and carried it up into the garret, pretending it was Nanny's dinner.
On the fourth day, the body being stripped, was locked up in a box; and, in confequence of a plan concerted between the mother and daughter, the garret door was left open when the children were fent down to dinner, and the ftreet door was also opened and left a-jar; when they were at dinner, the mother faid to the daughter, Hark! Sally, don't you hear a noife, go and fee what it is; to which the daughter, as had been agreed, replied, there is no noife, and continued at table; then faid the old woman to Sally Hinchman, Go and fetch Nanny down, foe fhall dine below to-day; Hinchman went up, and finding the garret door open, and the child not there, ran back frighted, and faid, Madam, Nanny is not there Run down then, faid the old woman, and look below; upon this feveral of the children ran down, and finding the ftreet door alfo open, came up, and told what they had feen-Aye, faid the old woman, then he is run away at laft; and it was he that I beard, when I mentioned the noise; girls, did not you hear a noife? O! law madam, faid the poor children, implicitly concurring in an opinion they did not dare to contradict, fo we did.
Thus they hoped to account for the
child's abíence to her fellow-prentices, who were not, however, without fufpicions; one of them, in particular, obferved, that if she had run away, fhe had run away without her fhoes, of which she was known to have but one pair, and they were found in the garret foon after the fuppofed efcape; another remarked, that they had all her shifts. in the wash, and that it was not likely fhe fhould efcape without
either fhift or fhoes: The old woman hearing this whispered, faid, That he went without her shoes for fear of being heard to go down stairs, and that if he could but get into the street, fhe would not mind being barefoot; the fhifts fhe could not fo readily account for; and a person who lodged in the house, having afked what was become of Nanny, was answered by her fifter, that he was dead. The lodger was fatisfied with the answer, having no fufpicion that her death was not natural; but the mother hearing of it, asked Molly Nailor, Who told her that her fifter was dead? fhe replied, Philly Dowley, one of her fellow-prentices: Philly, therefore, was sharply reproved. Molly was foon after deftroyed as her fifter had been, and the horrid fecret flept with the mother and daughter.
It became neceffary, however, to keep the children out of the garret, for the body was become very offenfive; they were therefore ordered not to wash their hands there as ufual, but to wash them in the kitchen, and the garret door was kept locked. But at the end of two months, the putrefaction was fo great, that the whole houfe was infected, and it became abfolutely neceffary to remove the body.