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'made him; a behaviour that, while it fills him with gratitude, endeared them to their king and country, and has covered them with glory and honour.

Highly fenfible of their merit, he fhall continue, while he lives, to look upon it as much his duty, as it will for ever be his inclination, to give them every poffible proof of his affection and efteem; which he fhould be happy to make as apparent as their valour has been, and will be, confpicuous and exemplary to after-ages.

An account of the extraordinary cere monies obferved, on account of the Sovereign's prefence, at the inftallation of his royal highness prince William and the earl of Bute, as knights of the garter, at Windsor, Sept. 22, 1762.

T HE inftallation was preceded by the ceremony of the bishop of Salisbury's taking the oaths as chancellor of the order, after which his majefty put the gold chain with the badge about his neck, and delivered the purfe to him, &c.

When the fovereign and the knights had retired to their ftalls, Garter, with the ufual reverences, took up the banner of the late fovereign, and holding it up, immediately Clarenceux and Norroy, kings of arms, joined, and making their reverences, repaired to his royal highness the duke of Cumberland, and his royal highnefs the duke of York, the two fenior knights; who thereupon joined, and making their reverences together, received the banner from Garter, and being preceded by the two kings of arms, advanced to the first step, or hautpas, where they repeated their re

verences, and coming to the rail, made one to the altar; then kneeling, they delivered the banner to the prelate, who, affifted by the prebends, placed it upright at the fouth-end of the altar.

In the mean time, according to his majesty's particular directions, all the other knights, as attending the offering of the fovereign's banner, advanced from under their banners, and made their double reverences: The two knights who made the offering returning with reverences as before under their bany


The fword of the late fovereign was then delivered by Garter to their royal highnesses, and offered in like manner; and then the helm and creft; which being done, their royal highneffes returned, and went into their stalls.

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After the two new knights were installed, divine service began.

And at the words of the offertory Let your light fo fine, the organs playing, the officers of the wardrobe spread a carper on the steps before the altar, and Black Rod making his obeifances, went up to the rails of the altar, on the right-fide, where he received from the yeoman of the wardrobe, a rich carpet and cushion, which, with the affiftance of the yeoman, he laid down for the fovereign to kneel upon.

In the mean time Garter fummoned the knights from their ftalls, beginning with the junior, each knight making his reverences in his tall, and repeating the fame with his companion in the choir, retired under his banner.

All the knights ftanding under their banners.

The fovereign, making his reverence to the altar, defcended from his ftall, and then making another


reverence, proceeded to the offering.

As the proceffion paffed the duke of Newcastle, the fenior knight (not of the blood royal) who was to deliver the offering to the fovereign, he came from his banner, placing himself a little behind his majefty on the right fide, and coming against the lord chamberlain's ftall, he came from under his banner, going on the left-fide of his majefty.

The fovereign coming to the rails of the altar, Black Rod delivered the offering on his knee to the knight, who prefented it to the fovereign; and his majefty taking off his cap, and kneeling, put the offering into the bafon held by the prelate, affifted by the prebends.

The fovereign then rifing, made one reverence to the altar, and being in his ftall, another; the lord chamberlain, and the knights who delivered the offering, retiring behind their banners, when they came oppofite to them in the return.

Dinner being ended, the knights placed themselves on either fide, at the upper-end of the hall; and grace being faid by the prelate, and the fovereign having washed, the knights all together made their reverences to his majefty, who put off his cap and re-faluted them; and a proceffion was made back to the prefence chamber, in the fame order they came from thence.

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lived in good repute, forty years; he married an English woman of French extraction, her grand-mother being of the family of GardeMontefquieu, and related to the chief nobleffe of Languedoc.

Calas and his wife were Proteft ants, and had five fons, whom they educated in the fame religion: But Lewis, one of the fons, fome time fince became a Roman Catholic ; his father's maid-servant, a religious Catholic, who had lived thirty years in the family, having greatly contributed to his converfion; but the father was fo far from expreffing any refentment or ill-will on the occafion, that he fettled an annuity upon Lewis, and ftill kept the maid in his family.


In October 1761, the family feems to have confifted of the father John Calas and his wife, woman fervant, Mark Anthony Calas the eldest fon, and Peter Calas, the fecond fon. Mark Anthony had been educated as a scholar, with a view to his becoming an advocate or counsellor at law; but he was not able to get himself admitted as a licentiate, because he muft either have performed fome acts, which, as a Proteftant, he could not have performed; or have purchased certificates, which he either thought unlawful, or found too expenfive: He could not follow the bufinefs of a merchant, becaufe he was not qualified for it by his education, nor his turn of mind; he therefore became difcontented and melancholy, and endeavoured to diffipate the gloom of his mind by playing as billiards, and other expenfive pleafures, of which his father often expreffed his disapprobation with fome warmth, and once threatened, that if he did not alter his conduct, he would turn him out of doors; or expreffed

expreffed himself in words to that effect. The young man's difcontent and melancholy ftill increased, and he seems to have entertained thoughts of putting an end to his life, as he was continually felecting and reading paffages from Plutarch, Seneca, Montaigne, and many other authors on fuicide, and could fay by heart a French tranflation of the celebrated foliloquy in Hamlet, which he frequently repeated, with fome paffages from a French tragicomedy, called Sidney, to the fame effect.

Anthony, whom the found fitting alone in the fhop, very penfive; fhe gave him fome money, and defired him to go and buy fome Roquefort cheefe, he being always the market-man for cheefe, as he knew how to buy it good better than any other of the family.

She then returned to her guest La Vaiffe, who very foon after went again to the livery-itable, to fee if any horfe was come in, that he might fecure it for the next morning.

On the 13th of October 1761, M. Gober la Vaiffe, a young gentleman about nineteen years of age, the fon of La Vaiffe a celebrated advocate of Touloufe, having been fome time at Bourdeaux, came back to Touloufe to fee his father; but finding that his father was gone to his country-houfe, at fome diftance from the city, he went to feveral places, endeavouring to hire a horfe to carry him thither. No horfe, however, was to be hired; and about five o'clock in the evening he was met by John Calas, the father, and the eldest fon Mark Anthony, who was his friend. Calas, the father, invited him to fupper, as he could not fet out for his father's that night, and La Vaiffe confented. All three therefore proceeded to Calas's houfe together, and when they came thither, finding that Mrs. Calas was still in her own room, which the had not quitted that day, La Vaife went up to fee her. After the first compliments, he told her, he was to fup with her by her husband's invitation; fhe expreffed her fatisfaction, and a few minutes after left him, to give some orders to her maid: When that was done, the went to look for her fon

In a fhort time Anthony returned, having bought the cheese, and La Vaiffe alfo coming back about the fame time, the family and their gueft fat down to fupper in a room up one pair of stairs, the whole company confifting of Calas the father and his wife, Anthony and Peter Calas, the fons, and La Vaiffe the guest, no other perfon being in the house except the maid servant, who has been already mentioned.

It was now about seven o'clock; the fupper was not long ; but before it was over, or, according to the French expreffion, when they came to the defert, Anthony left the table, and went into the kitchen, which was on the fame floor, as he ufed to do; the maid asked him if he was cold? he answered, Quite the contrary; I burn; and then left her: In the mean time his friend and the family left the room they had fupped in, and went into a bedchamber; the father and M. La Vaiffe fat down together on a fofa ; the younger fon Peter in an elbow chair; and the mother in another chair; and without making any enquiry after Anthony, continued in converfation together till between nine and ten o'clock, when La Vaiffe took his leave, and Peter, who

who had fallen asleep, was awaked to attend him with a light.

On the ground floor of Calas's house was a shop and a warehouse ; the warehouse was divided from the fhop by a pair of folding doors: When Peter Calas and La Vaiffe came down ftairs into the fhop, they were extremely shocked to fee Anthony hanging in his fhirt, from a bar which he had laid across the top of the two folding doors, having half opened them for that purpose. Upon difcovery of this horrid fpectacle, they fhrieked out, and the cry brought down Calas the father, the mother being feized with fuch a terror as kept her trembling in the paffage above. The unhappy old man rushed forward, and taking the body in his arms, the bar, to which the rope that fufpended him was faftened, flipped off from the folding doors of the warehouse, and fell down: Having placed the body on the ground, he loofed and took off the cord, in an agony of grief and anguish not to be expreffed, weeping, trembling, and deploring himself and his child. The two young men, his fecond fon and La Vaiffe, who had not had prefence of mind enough to attempt taking down the body, were ftanding by, ftupid with amazement and horror; in the mean time the mother, hearing the confufed cries and complaints of her husband, and finding nobody coming to her, found means to get down ftairs. At the bottom she found La Vaiffe, and hastily and eagerly demanded what was the matter; this question rouzed him in a moment, and inftead of answering her, he urged her to go again up ftairs, to which, with much reluctance, fhe confent


ed; but the conflict of her mind being fuch as could not be long borne, fhe fent down the maid, Jannet, to fee what was the matter; when the maid discovered what had happened, the continued below, either because she feared to carry an account of it to her mistress, or because the bufied herself in doing fome good office to her mafter, who was ftill embracing the body of his fon, and bathing it in his tears. mother therefore, being thus left alone, went down, and mixed in the fcene, that has been already defcribed, with fuch emotions as it muft naturally produce. In the mean time, Peter had been fent for La Moire, a furgeon in the neighbourhood; La Moire was not at home, but his apprentice, M.Groffe, came inftantly: Upon examination, he found the body quite dead; and upon taking off the neckcloth, which was of black taffety, he faw the mark of the cord, and immediately pronounced, that the deceafed had been ftrangled. This particular had not been told; for the poor old man, when Peter was going for La Moire, cried out, "Save at least the honour of my family; do not go and spread a report that your brother has made away with himself."

By this time a crowd of people was gathered about the door, and one Cafing, with another friend or two of the family were come in; fome of those who were in the ftreet had heard the cries and exclamations of the father, the mother, the brother, and his friend, before they knew what was the matter; and having by fome means learnt that Anthony Calas was fuddenly dead, and that the furgeon who

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who had examined the body, declared he had been ftrangled, they took it into their heads that he had been murdered; and as his family were Proteftants, they prefently fuppofed that the young man was about to change his religion, and had been put to death for that reafon. The cries they had heard, they fancied were thofe of the deceased, while he was refifting the violence that was offered him. The tumult in the street increased every moment; fome faid that Anthony Calas was to have abjured the next day; others, that Proteftants are bound by their religion to ftrangle or cut the throats of their children, when they are inclined to become Catholics; others, who had found out that La Vaiffe was in the house when the accident happened, very confidently affirmed, that the Proteftants at their laft affembly, appointed a perfon to be their common executioner on these occafions, and that La Vaiffe was the man, who, in confequence of the office to which he had been appointed, had come to Calas's to hang his fon.

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The poor father, therefore, who was overwhelmed with grief for the lofs of his child, was advised by his friends to fend for the officers of juftice to prevent his being torn to pieces for having murdered him.

This was accordingly done: One was difpatched to the Capitoul, one David, the firft magiftrate of the police, or principal civil magiftrate of the place; and another to an inferior officer, called an affeffor: The Capitoul was already fet out, having been alarmed by the rumour of a murder before the meffenger fent from Calas's got to his house; He entered the house with VOL. V.

40 foldiers, took the father, Peter the fon, the mother, La Vaisse, and the maid, all into cuftody, and fet a guard over them: He fent for M. de la Tour, a phyfician, and M. La Marque and Perronet, furgeons, who examined the body for marks of violence, but found none except the mark of the ligature on the neck; they found also the hair of the deceased done up in the ufual manner, perfectly smooth, and without the leaft diforder; his cloaths were alfo regularly folded up, and laid upon the counter, nor was his fhirt either torn or unbut. toned.

Notwithstanding these appearances, David thought fit to give into the opinion of the mob, and took it into his head that old Calas had fent for La Vaiffe, telling him he had a fon to be hanged, that La Vaiffe had come to perform the office of executioner, and that the father and the brother had affifted him in it.

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The body, by order of this poor ignorant bigot, was carried to the town-house, with the cloaths. The father and fon were thrown into a dark dungeon; and the mother, La Vaille, the maid, and Cafing, were imprisoned in one that admitted the light. The next day, what is called the verbal procefs, was taken at the town-house, inftead of the spot where the body was found, as the law directs, and was dated at Calas's house, to conceal the irregularity: This verbal procefs is fomewhat like our coroner's inqueft; witpeffes are examined, and the magiftrate makes his report, which is the fame there as the verdict of the coroner's jury with us. The witneffes examined by this Capitoul were the phyfician and furgeon, who proved Anthony


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