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O R, A

D I C T I O N A R Y
A R T S, SC I E N C E S,

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MISC ELL ANEOU S L IT ERATURE;
Constructed on a PLAN, -

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The H IS To R Y, T H E o R Y, and PR a c T 1 c E, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements;
AND FULL EXPLA NATIONS G1ze N of THE

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NATURAL and ARTIFIcIAL Objećts, or to Matters Ecclesiastical,
Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, &c.

Including Elucid ATIONs of the most important Topics relative to RELIGION, MoRALs,
MANNERs, and the OEconoMY of LIFE :
To G E t li e R w i t is
A Description of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, &c.
throughout the Wo R L D ;

A General History, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States ;
A N D
An Account of the L1 v e s of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,
from the earliest ages down to the present times.

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ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUND RED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

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angle, there are a range of hills extending for several.

miles, which consist all of pozzolana. The province of Val de Noto is more homogeneous in the matters of which its soil confists, than the two other dales of Sicily. These, in every hill which they contain, exhibit a vast variety of different matters. So amazing, indeed, is that variety, that they may be confidered as exhibiting a collection of specimens of all the different materials which enter into the compofition of the globe. In those two dales few volcanic produćtions have been yet observed. But it is not to be inferred for this reason, that they contain but few. They may be hereafter discovered in great plenty. In the volcano of water at Maccalubbe, between Aragona and Girginti; in the baths of Castellamare, near Alcamo and Segeste; in the baths of Termini, in the isles of Lipari; in the hot waters of Ali, between Mesfina and Taormina, by the lake in the valley of Caltagirone; in all these places, which comprehend the whole circumference of Sicily, the influence of the volcano of Etna is, in some measure, felt. Nay, it would even seem, that in these places there are so many volcanic craters. All of these are so disposed as to show that they existed prior not only to the volcanic matters, but to the other substances intermixed with them. The waters of the sea have, in former times, risen much higher than at present. But how they retreated, • or whether they are to continue stationary at their present height, we know not. For more than 2000 - years, during which Sicily has been inhabited, and has had cities and harbours, the sea has not been observed either to recede or encroach in any confiderable degree. When the sea subsided from mount Etna, the mountain must have been covered over with such matters as the sea usually deposits; consequently with calcareous matters. A part of those matters would be indurated by the action of the atmosphere, while the rest would be carried down by the rain-waters, and again conveyed into the ocean. The torrents of rainwater which pour down the sides of mount Etna have furrowed its sides, by cutting out for themselves channels; and they have removed from its summit, and are ftill removing to a farther distance, all the extraneous bodies upon it. In many places, they flow at present over a channel of lava, having cut through all the matters which lay above it: still, however, there remain in many places both calcareous matter and other marine productions, which show that this volcano has been once covered by the waters of the ocean. But these are daily wasting away; not only the rains, but - 2

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