Human-Centered Software Engineering - Integrating Usability in the Software Development Lifecycle

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Ahmed Seffah, Jan Gulliksen, Michel C. Desmarais
Springer Science & Business Media, 8 dic. 2005 - 391 páginas
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Human-CenteredSoftwareEngineering: BridgingHCI,UsabilityandSoftwareEngineering From its beginning in the 1980’s, the ?eld of human-computer interaction (HCI) has beende?nedasamultidisciplinaryarena. BythisImeanthattherehas beenanexplicit recognition that distinct skills and perspectives are required to make the whole effort of designing usable computer systems work well. Thus people with backgrounds in Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) joined with people with ba- grounds in various behavioral science disciplines (e. g. , cognitive and social psych- ogy, anthropology)inaneffortwhereallperspectiveswereseenasessentialtocreating usable systems. But while the ?eld of HCI brings individuals with many background disciplines together to discuss a common goal - the development of useful, usable, satisfying systems - the form of the collaboration remains unclear. Are we striving to coordinate the varied activities in system development, or are we seeking a richer collaborative framework? In coordination, Usability and SE skills can remain quite distinct and while the activities of each group might be critical to the success of a project, we need only insure that critical results are provided at appropriate points in the development cycle. Communication by one group to the other during an activity might be seen as only minimally necessary. In collaboration, there is a sense that each group can learn something about its own methods and processes through a close pa- nership with the other. Communication during the process of gathering information from target users of a system by usability professionals would not be seen as so- thing that gets in the way of the essential work of software engineering professionals.
 

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Índice

An Introduction to HumanCentered Software Engineering Integrating Usability in the Development Process
3
11 Introduction
4
12 Major Obstacles for Effective Integration
5
13 The Series of Workshops on HCISE Integration
9
14 Why Human Centered Software Engineering?
10
15 Audience
12
Principles Myths and Challenges
15
Key Principled for UserCentred Systems Design
17
94 Applying PUF in UML
155
95 Implementing These Additions in UML
164
96 Example Transformations
166
97 Conclusion
168
UCD Unified and Agile Processes
171
Which When and How Usability Techniques and Activities Should be Integrated
173
101 Introduction
174
102 Usability Methods Approach to Integration
177

21 Purpose and Justification
18
23 The Project
19
24 Definition and Key Principles
26
25 Tools for Applying UCSD
29
26 Application
31
28 DiscussionConclusions
32
HCI Usability and Software Engineering Integration Present and Future
37
31 Introduction
38
32 Development Processes
40
33 Artefacts
45
34 Design Knowledge
49
35 Organisational Approaches
52
36 Conclusion
56
Surveying the Solitudes An Investigation into the Relationships between Human Computer Interaction and Software Engineering in Practice
59
41 Introduction
60
43 The State of the Practice
63
44 Knowledge of SE and HCI
64
45 Working Together in the Workplace
65
47 Implications of the Process Issues
67
48 Use of HCI Methods
68
410 Future Research
69
Convergence or Competition between Software Engineering and Human Computer Interaction
71
51 Introduction
72
52 Design Processes and Methods
73
53 Design Representations in SE and HCI
76
54 Viewpoints in HCI and SE
79
55 Theoretical Underpinnings
80
56 Conclusions
83
Requirements Scenarios and Usecases
85
Experience with Using General Usability Scenarios on the Software Architecture of a Collaborative System
87
61 Introduction
88
63 The Usability and Software Architecture Project
89
64 Prior Use of USA Materials
98
65 Questions for a Realworld Case
99
66 The Merboard Project
100
67 USAS Application to Merboard
102
68 Summary of Findings
109
69 Ongoing Work
110
Linking User Needs and Use Casedriven Requirements Engineering
113
71 Introduction
114
72 Understanding User Needs
116
73 Linking User Needs to User Requirements
117
74 Writing User Requirements from the User Point of View
120
75 Evaluating the Approach in Industry
122
Guiding Designers to the World of Usability Determining Usability Requirements Through Teamwork
127
81 Introduction
128
82 Related Methods
130
83 Development of KESSU URD
131
84 General Features of KESSU URD
132
85 Steps of KESSU URD
136
86 Findings from the Case Studies
140
87 Conclusions
141
88 Discussion
142
Transforming Usability Engineering Requirements into Software Engineering Specifications From PUF to UML
147
92 The Putting Usability First PUF Methodology
148
93 The Unified Modeling Language
152
103 Integration Proposals Based on SE Methods
179
104 Summary of Integration Proposals
182
105 Mapping Between Usability and SE Activities
183
106 Assignment of Usability Techniques to Activities
186
107 When to Apply Usability Activities and Techniques
187
108 Discussion
198
109 Conclusions
199
Coping with Complexity
201
112 The Designers Model
204
113 User Engineering Modeling
206
114 Continued Development
217
Towards a Model for Bridging Agile Development and UserCentered Design
219
121 Introduction
220
122 Software Development Risks Reasons for the Agile Approach
221
123 Characteristics of Agile Development
224
124 UserCentered Design
229
125 UserCentered Design Qualities in Agile Development
230
126 Discussion
238
127 Towards a Model for Bridging Agile and UCD
239
Ripple An Event Driven Design Representation Framework for Integrating Usability and Software Engineering Life Cycles
245
131 Introduction
246
132 Background
250
133 Current Practices
252
A Design Representation Framework
257
135 Contributions
261
136 Potential Downsides of Ripple
265
UCD Knowledge and UI design Patterns
267
Integrating UserCentered Design Knowledge With Scenarios
269
142 Whats in Design?
270
143 An Integrative Example
276
144 A Design Knowledge Research Agenda
277
145 Related Work
284
146 Conclusion
285
Patterns of Integration Bridging User Centered Design Into The Software Development Lifecycle
287
Foot in the Door for internal usability group
290
Foot in the Door for external consultants
294
UCD Focus on Early Definition and Design
297
UCD in Every Phase
303
156 Conclusion
308
UI Design Patterns Bridging Use Cases and UI Design
309
162 Tree An Example of a UI Pattern
312
163 Composed UI Design Patterns in Use
321
164 Pattern Descriptions in Practice
325
165 Future Work
328
166 Conclusions
329
UI Patterns From Theory to Practice
331
172 Pattern Identification
332
The Dome Case Study
335
174 Pattern Evaluation
344
175 Further Research
350
176 Conclusions
351
References
353
Authors Index
379
Subject Index
387
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