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NOTICE.

Any information derived from personal knowledge of the countries described in the Handbook for Greece, and calculated to correct errors and supply deficiencies therein, is requested from all those into whose lands this volume may chance to fall. Such co-operation alone can ultimately produce a complete and perfectly accurate work. As a general rule, the pages to which the observations apply should be specified. Notices of new routes, and of improved means of communication and accommodation, will be particularly acceptable. All letters on this subject may be addressed to the Editor, care of Mr. Murray, Albemarle Street.

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HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS

IN

GREECE;

DESCRIBING

THE IONIAN ISLANDS; CONTINENTAL GREECE, ATHENS,

AND THE PELOPONNESUS;
THE ISLANDS OF THE ÆGEAN SEA; ALBANIA; THESSALY; AND

MACEDONIA.

FOURTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED.

WITH A MAP OF GREECE, PLANS, AND VIEWS.

LONDON:
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.
PARIS: GALIGNANI; XAVIER AND BOYVEAU. CORFU: TAYLOR.
ATHENS: WILBERG. ALEXANDRIA AND CAIRO: ROBERTSON.
MALTA: MUIR, CONSTANTINOPLE: WICK AND WEISS.

1872.

S.C. F
The right of Translation is reserved..

FOLLOWING AGENTS :

Germany, Holland, and Belgium. AIX-LA

MANNHEIM . ARTARIA & PONTAINE.CHAPELLE T. A. MAYER.

LOFPLER.-KOTTER. AMSTERDAM'. J. MULLER.-W. KIRBERGER.

METZ . . WARION. ANTWERP : KORNICKER.

MUNICH : : H. MANZ. BADEN-BADEN DR. MARX.

NÜRNBERG SCHRAG.--ZEISER. BERLIN . ASHER.

PESTH . . HARTLEBEN.-G.HECKENAST. BRUSSELS . MUQUARDT. KIESSLING.

-OSTERLAMM.-RATH. CARLSRUHE . A. BIELEFELD.

PRAGUE. . CALVE COLOGNE. . GUEVEN.-NELTE & CO.

ROTTERDAM. KRAMERS.-PETRI.DRESDEN ARNOLD

ROBBERS. PRANKFURT. C. JÜGEL.

STRASBURG, TREUTTEL ET WURTZ.GRATZ LEUSCHNER & LUBENSKY.

GRUCKER-DERIVAUX. THE HAGUE NIJHOPP & CO.

STUTTGART , P. NEFF. HAMBURG MAURE SÖHNE.

TRIESTE . . MUNSTER.-COEN. HEIDELBERG. MOHR.

VIENNA

C. GEROLD.-BRAUMULLER. KISSINGEN JUGËL.

WIESBADEN KREIDEL. LEIPZIG. . BROCKHAUS.- DÖRR.

Switzerland.

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France.

AMIENS. . CARON

KSEILLES. CAMOIN FRERES.-
ANGERS
BARASSEN

MEUNIER.
AVIGNON CLEMENT ST. JUS7.

MCITPELLIER LEVALLE. AVRANCHES ANFRAY

NANCY

GONET. BAYONNE JAYMEBON-LASSERRE.

NANTES

PETIPAS.- POIRIER LEGROS. BORDEAUX · CHAUMAS.-MULLER.-SAU.

-ANDRE. VAT-PERET.

NICE

BARBERY PRÈRES-JOUGLA BOILOGNE . MERRIDEW.-WATEL

ORLEANS. . GATINEAU.-PESTY. BREST . HEBERT.

PARIS CAEN

GALIGNANI. - XAVIER AND
.
BOISARD.-LEGOST.-CLE-

BOYVEAU.
RISSE'.

PAU. . LA PON.
CALAIS
RIGAUX CAUX.

PERPIGNAN , JULIA FRÈRES.
CANNES. BARBERY.-TAYLOR

REIMS

BRISSART BINET-
ROBANDY.

GEOFFROY.-GIRET. CHERBOURG. Mlle LECOUFFLET.

ROCHEFORT BOUCARD.
DIEPPE
MARAIS,

ROUEN . .

LEBRUMENT.-BAULARD.
DINANT
COSTE

SAUMUR. GAULTIER BRIE'RE.
DOUAI
JACQUART.-LEMÄLE.

ST. ETIENNE DELARUE.
DUNKERQUE VANDENBC'SSCHE.

ST. MALO. HUE.
GRENOBLE VELLOT ET COMP.

ST. QUENTIN. DOLOY.
HAVRE
BOURDIGNON.- FOUCHER.

TOULON. MONGE ET VILLAMUS.
MM. BUYS.

TOULOUSE GIMET & COTELLE.
LILLE
BEGHIN.

TOURS

GEORGET. LYONS. .AYNE' PILS.-SCHEURING.

TROYES. LALOY.-DUFEY ROBERT. MERA.

Spain and Portugal. GIBRALTAR. ROWSWELL

MADRID

DURANBAILLIERE.
LISBON. MATT, LEWTAS.

MALAGA : : FR. DE MOYA.
Russia, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway.
ST. PETERS-
ERS] WATKINS.-WOLFF.

ODESSA . CAMOIN
BORG,

CHRISTIANIA, BENNETT. MOSCOW .'. GAUTIER-DEUBNER.-LANG. I STOCKHOLM : PRITZE.

Ionian Islands. Constantinople. Greece. MUIR,

CORFU . J. W. TAYLOR WICK & WEISS. ATHENS, KARL WILBERG.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

The subject of this Handbook is CLASSICAL GREECE, in which term are included the Ionian Islands, Continental Greece, and the Peloponnesus ; the Bands of the Ægean Sea which belong to the Hellenic kingdom; the Egean Islands which appertain to the Ottoman empire ; two provinces of that empire which border on Greece, namely, Thessaly and Albania ; and the adjoining Ottoman province of Macedonia. In all of these countries the greater part of the population is Greek in religion and language.

This edition was in the first instance revised and enlarged in 1860 by Sir George Ferguson Bowen, the editor of the third edition of the Handbook, who incorporated the potes and observations of himself and other travellers through a large portion of the region described. Circumstances having preFented its appearance at that time, it was in February, 1871, placed, in its revised form, in the hands of another editor, who having been long resident in the Levant, has had opportunities of correcting every portion of the book, and of adding to it such information as was nieded to reuder it of practical usefulness at the present day. No pains have been spared in the task of revision, but the same degree of accuracy can hardly be attained, and will not be looked for, in descriptions of the less visited regions of Greece, and the adjoining Ottoman provinces, which would be expected in a Handbook for Switzerland or Italy.

i'.'ii'; . The description of the greater portion of the monuments of ancient Athens, contributed to the previous edition of this work by Mr. F. C. Penrose, the well-known architect and writer on Athenian architecture, has been again inserted. Of the splendid Athenian remains laid bare by recent exploration, the Stadium has been described from the German of Herr Ernst Ziller, to whom the task of its investigation was entrusted by the King of the Hellenes; whilst the descriptions given of the Dionysiac Theatre, and of the Sepulchral Monuments on the Sacred Road to Eleusis

some of the most interesting of which have been laid bare only a few weeks are for the most part based on the Greek writings of Mr. Rousopoulos, Professor of Archæology in the University of Athens. These three Scenes of classical interest are now for the first time collectively described in the English language.

Several gentlemen resident in the Hellenic kingdom have lent valuable advice or assistance to the editor in the preparation of this Handbook ; mbore especially are his thanks due to Mr. Finlay, the historian of Roman, Mediæval, and Modern Greece. Much of the second section of the work

has been revised by an American traveller, Mr. Kecp, who has, in the course of the last two years, explored nearly all parts of Hellas. The quotations which will be given from various authors will be acknowledged in the proper place. Amongst the works consulted may here be specified those of the late Sir Thomas Wyse, and that of the Rev. Henry Tozer, whose recently-published Researches in the Highlands of Turkey throw so much light on “ the least known of all the countries of Europe," but one which contains so much to reward the trouble of investigation.

A few explanatory words may be added with reference to the form in which Greek names will appear in the following pages. A work containing quotations from many writers, all of whom may not have adhered to an uniform method of orthography, must present some anomalies. For the most part the usually received Latin form of Greek words has been made use of, but this rule has in some instances been departed from when by rendering the Greek K by the same letter in English, instead of by C, it has been possible to retain the exact Hellenic spelling, and thereby to facilitate the pronunciation of names of localities in Greece.

A short catalogue of the principal objects in the national collection of Greek Antiquities at Athens is given in a Postscript at p. xi.

R. G. W.

Athens, Marele 100%

*** The Publisher will be greatly obliged by information of any errors or omissions whichi may: be detected by travellers on the spot, while making use of this Handbook. :::::

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS, AND PLANS.

PAGE Newly excavated Street of Tombs on the road from Athens to Eleusis .. xiv Levinge's Anti-vermin Apparatus Plan of Athens .. .. ..

.. to face 129 The Acropolis restored ..

.. 143 Ground Plan of the Acropolis..

.. 147 » » Parthenon ..

, ,, Erechtheum Panathenaic Stadium, Athens .. Ground Plan of Dionysiac Theatre, Athens

196 Theatre of Dionysus ..

.. 199 Map of Crete .. .. ..

to face 372 Map of Greece.. ..

.. at the end.

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