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DEVON AND EXETER ASSOCIATION. At the Monthly Meeting of this Society on Saturday, November 15th a large assembly of Schoolmasters and Mistresses were collected together from various parts of the county of Devon. Matter for discussion ras introduced by Mr. Austin on “ Associations” in a very able and elaborate discourse, which was succeeded by an interesting and instructive disquisition.
On Saturday, December 20th, a paper was read by Mr. England on “The relative duties of School-Managers, Masters and Pupil Teachers.
THE DORKING ASSOCIATION. At the Annual Meeting at this Association on Saturday, November 1st a paper was read by Mr. Howard of Mickleham on the expediency of establishing a Teachers' Benevolent Institution. The paper which was listened to with much attention showed the necessity existing for such an Institution, the insufficiency of Benefit Societies, Deferred Annuities, and Life Assurance, to meet the cases contemplated, the duty of Teachers to provide for such necessity, the nature of the Justitution required, namely, a fund for the temporary relief of Teachers' families in time of sickness, or other urgent necessity, the providing a home for aged and infirm teachers of both sexes, and the establishment and support of an Asylum for their orphans and offering some suggestions and calculations showing how these objects might be accomplished. It was shewn that if the teachers of this country in connection with the church of England would unite in this good work, the first of these objects might be accomplished by a penny weekly subscription, while if a proportion equal to three-fifths of the whole body of Teachers would pay a monthly subscription of one shilling the second object might be provided for in the space of three years, and the third, the Orphan Asylum might also be accomplishdd by a perseverance in this course for a few years longer. The propriety of establishing a Training College in connection with an Orphan Asylum was strongly urged, it being deemed most appropriate that the orphan children of Teachers should be trained to the same pursuits, and which would moreover entitle the institution to the patronage of the Government.
Resolutions in favour of this object were unanimously passed by the members present.
THOMAS SWINDELL, Ockley, Dorking.
TESTIMONIAL OF RESPECT. To Mr. William Pinder, on resigning his situation, as master of Fondale Mines National School, by the parents of the children and friends, an elegant silver tea and coffee service. Also by the Pupil Teachers and children, Ex. pository Readings from the Book of Revelation, by the Rev. Dr. Cumning.
THE PARENTS' DUTY IN REGARD TO SCHOOL MATTERS.
First-Be careful to send your children to school regularly, and at the appointed time ; irregularity of attendance is opposed to a child's progress, for what he learns in one day, if not kept up, may be forgotten the next. Let nothing short of sickness induce you to keep your child away from school ; although you may find little advantage to yourself by making use of him for odd jobs at home, recollect that in doing so you would be depriving him of his time the only time he may ever bave for being under wholesome discipline and religious training and teaching. Recollect that what your child now loses, after years cannot restore to him: many things can only be acquired in youth, and the age will soon arrive, when he will be forced to work for his daily bread. Now, therefore, is the child's time; do not rob him of it, it is sinful to do so; you had better suffer any inconvenience and even loss, than rob your ohild of that only period in which his mind and soul may be cultivated for time and for eternity.
Second-Take care that your children return home when the school hours are over. Why? Because if they stop to play, they may take up with bad habits and get into mischief. All that the school teacher may do for them, in the way of moral training, by a morning's labour, may overthrown by a very short ramble with bad companions. In every town or village there are numbers of loose boys; the roughs and blackguards of the place, prowling about to tempt others to idleness and wickedness. If you suffer your children to have the greater part of the time between school hours to themselves, the probability is, that all your efforts at home, as well as those of the teacher at school, will prove useless, and that they will grow up swearors, liars, and thieves. “Evil communications corrupt good manners,
66 Whoso meddleth with pitch shall surely be defiled,” says the proverb. One bad companion is sufficient to ruin any child, even the best; for as I told you before, childron are great copyists -- they fall into vice as they do into virtue, by imitation. What folly it must be in a parent, to think that his children can play with the profane, the idle, the passionate, and the impious lads in the streets, without defiloment. No my friends, if you value your own peace or your children's happiness, you must resolutely keep them from the streets, and from the society of improper characters. If you do not do this, expect to spend your oid age in mourning over the ruin of their bodies and souls, with the bitter reflection that the fault is yours.
Third- Never give heed to any complaint made by your children against the teachers, till you have had an opportunity of making a proper enquiry. Nothing is more common than for children to come home and make complaints against their teachers, and the better the disipline of the school, the more prone troublesome children are to do so; they dislike correction, they do not like tasks or control, and they frequently come home with gross misrepresentations, tending to excite the ire of their parents. In all cases of complaint, therefore, go to the schoolmaster or schoolmistress, speak in a mild and friendly manner and let him or her fully understand that you do not come there to find fault, but to enquire. At the same time shew your readiness to support them in their duties, if you think they are properly performed. If you do this, the teacher will listen to anything you have to say, and you will co operate together cordially and happily foi the benefit both of your children and yourselves.
Fourth-Make a point of holding communication with the school teachers from time to time. Let them see that you are anxious for your children's improvement-shew your readiness to assist them in their labours to the best of your power-ascertain from them not only the intellectual progress your children are making, but their moral behaviour also don't conceal their faults from them, but ask their assistance in correction. Do not interfere with the school-teachers in their duties--often undertaken, be it remembered, from the purest motives, and carried on with the warmest zeal, under the prospect of a very inadequate reward ; the school teacher, as I have already told you, is one of your best friends. - Extract from How do you manage your Young Ones.
NOTES ON MILTON.
The division of a country's literature | formed on the model of the Italian into periods is often fallacious. Though masque, and the lover of Plato recog
may speak correctly enough nizes in it the most delicate dreams of generally of this or that age, an "the divine philosophy.” Again, Milauthor's writings will often have to be ton's love for Gothic romance almost classed among those of some earlier tempted him to choose, as Spenser had generation than his own. In Milton's done before him, Prince Arthur for case it happens so. Cowley, Waller, his hero, and, cven after he had made and Marvell were certainly the popular choice of his more solemn subject, was poets of his day, and may fairly be continually leading his imagination taken as representing the taste of the away captive, and perhaps also had its age. Milton's poetry has little in share in making him, as Mr. Campcommon with theirs, and whereas bell conjectures it made his predecessor Dryden worked that vein onward, and « lean towards words of the olden showed himself a true child of the time." Not only, however, was his generation that crowned Waller as the mind of a more earnest and religious *maker and model of melodious verse.” | cast than Spenser's, but other influences Milton rather stept back into the com- had done their work upon him before, pany of the Elizabethan poets. in the well-earned leisure of his life,
Drydön in the preface to one of his he pondered his greatest poem; so poemas says, “Milton has acknow that he could not quite rest among the ledged to me that Spenser was his flowers of medieval legend. In original.” On these points certainly mature manhood he had left the Milton cordially sympathised with “quiet and still air of delightful Spenser : in his admiration and imi- studies” to plunge into the excitement tation of the Italian poets, in his at- of the civil war; he had been mixed tichment to a Gothic subject and story, up with the sternest practical questions in his blending of chivalry and reli. that an English statesman has ever gion, and in his Platonism. This been called on to solve : he had sympathy is most evident in his earlier aided their solution with all the power poems. L'Allegro, Il Penseroso, Ly of hits vigorous mind; he had taken tho cidas, and the sonnets are Italian in most active interest in all the religious their structure and spirit. Comus is controversies of those restless times ;
he had, though we are apt to think of than divine, and more than human, him onlyas a poet, been the foremost and but yet not separable compounds of the successful champion of spiritual, human and divize. intellectual, and civil liberty. His treatment of scenery is in the trained to the task he sat down, as ever same spirit. He suggest enough to under the great ask-master's eye, at enable our minds to realise its beauty, the age of fifty, to meditate a poem and bring us into its presence, but we "such as the world should not will never feel that he is painting from ingly let die."
memory, nor find ourselves reminded of Milton's learning much, but not of particular spots, nor can even say too much, has been said. The direct that the garden of Eden is of any imitations of Homer, Virgil, or Dante, country. A noticeable instance of the the classical or modiæval allusions, power he possessed of laying his learnthese are but a small part of it, and iug under contribution, while seembut the simple embroidery of scholar- ingly indulging his imagination only, ship. Attentive reading brings to is in the passage where Adam answers light latent evidence of attainments Eve's most natural and womanlike such as one would have thought almost question, why the stars shine, while unattainable by one man. We know they two, earth's only inhabitants, that he wrote Latin prose and verse as are asleep. For the glory of God, he
luently, if not as well, as English ; | tells her, and for the sake of those who that he was master of the modern shall be born hereafter ; also he adds, languages, and well read especially in Darkness would regain her old pose Italian literature; that his daughter session, and the life of things, which read Homer to him, and Euripides, his their soft fires cherish and gently premodel in tragedy; that the Hebrew pare to receive the sun's fiercer heat, scriptures and Rabbinical lore were would perish in the night. Now, to among his favourite studies; but one who knew nothing of the Manibesides these we come upon such chæan and earlier Gnostic fancies about countless traces of his acquaintance the kingdoms of light and darkness, with the philosophical and religious and nothing about the speculations of speculations of all times preceding, Milton's contemporaries on the chewith the history and geography of mistry of nature, this would appear other countries then but little known, but as a beautiful original thought. with Saxon Saint-legends, the details We have already said that his of life in the middle ages, and medi- English is older than that of the poets æval works of art, together with the of his time, and that this may have writings of his own countrymon, that resulted partly from the bent of his we wonder that poetry can move under earlier tastes. It was, however, mainly such a load. Yet all this acquisition owing to his familiarity with Latin. did not destroy the freshness of his The two periods in the history of our fancy. His learning furnished sub- language when the accession of its sidies, but his imagination never gave Latin element mainly occurred were up the command. His Adam and Eve first, when the Normans were exchangare neither like the men and women of ing their own language for the English, our work-a-day world, por are they ab- the influx being then through the mestractions, but distinct creations. His dium of the French, a Romanz or corfiends do not take after the vulgar rupted Latin language ; and secondly, conceptions of evil spirits, nor again when ancient literature began to be follow Dante's type, nor yet reproduce studied, at which time we received the classic demi.gods. They are less largely' from the Latin by way of
direct importation. This latter period, in words and idiom than that of any known as the revival of learning, we poet since the Reformation. Of this may understand to extend through the the Hymn on the Nativity, and most reign of Henry the Eighth and his im- of his sonnets may be quoted as exmediate successors. Its influence of amples, backed by many long passages course has never disappeared, but has from the "Paradise Lost.” In fact he long since ceased to be operative to was no great innovator in the matter the same extent or in the same sense of introducing foreign words or idioms. as we find it in the writing of the Many of his words have changed their generations immediately succeeding meaning, and like current coins have Bacon, for instance, runs into Latin had their image and superscription prose with very little violence to the
worn down by the attrition of conphraseology or construction of his ser- versation since his day, but he intro
The same is true of Sir duced but few, and comparatively fow Henry Wotton, and Sir Thomas that he used have been since withBrowne. It is evident that they had drawn from circulation. Let any one the Latin idiom in their minds, and try to paraphrase his thoughts, and had studied Latin authors as models in they will soon be convineed of the composition. This fashion had hy no marvellous aptness of his language. means, therefore, died out, so far as From whatever source it has been the prose writers are concerned, in fetehed, they will generally find that Milton's time. The writings of the there was reason for the election. It two last mentioned, as well as those of is not so idiomatic as Shakspere's, but Burton, Seldon, and Taylor, no less the dramatist must needs be idiomatic than Milton's own prose compositions to be natural, while meditative poetry, could have been produced only by men being removed from conversational asdaily familiar with Latin authors. sociation, is less bound by the limits
The poetry of Milton's time, being of conversational language. He used mostly lyrical, spoke in Saxon, for the English tongue as a scholar who Saxon, wbich is still, nothwithstand. knew the value of every word as it ing its forcign alliance, the mother- came to mind; or rather as a skilled tongue, has always been to us the musician, who, with an instrument at the language of the feelings. Milton command of vast compass, drew from also often speaks almost exclusively in it, as he was inspired, harmonies which Saxon, though his poetical language for depth and strength and exquisite generalis may be said to be more Latin / modulation have never been surpassed.
Flotes of Lrssons.
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
For CRITICISM. In such Lessons it should be the were called Saxons. Their King, who teacher's object to draw from the was called Edward, had just died, and history such moral lessons as it is cal- was buried at Westminster Abbey. culated to teach.
His character had been such that he I.—The previous condition of Eng- | had cared little for his kingdom, but land.
had paid more attention to Catholic This will be partly recapitulation. superstitions than to anything else. Refer the children back to the year At his death his brother-in-law, 1066, A.D. The people living here | Harold, took the crown, but he was