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Memoir of the late J. Neild, Esq.


mad, and that my impertinent curiosity planned and the best regulated prison I would perhaps send us both to prison : had seen before, or, I think, since. It is alter this reproof I was silent on the situated near a canal; the plan octagon; subject. He however accompanied me separate courts for men vagrants and to many of the hospitals, wbich appeared men criminals: one side is for women, to be affectionately attended by some and in the middle of their court is a bafernale religious order : and this I ob- son of water for washing the lineo of the served in the provincial gaols, which in house ; and a large wooden horse, to my several visits to France I visited. ride by way of punishment ; their bedOn my return home I found I had lost rooms uniform, and in a range, somea diamond ring, in the place of which thing like Chelsea Hospital; every range some sharpers had substituted one of opens into a gallery or lobby, which is paste.

open to the air of the court: the prisoner Fresh imported from Paris, from has an uniform clothing, with the number whence I had brought many curious ar- of his room. The work-rooms are on ticles, my shop soon became visited by the ground floor, and there were more carriages, and I found my business in- than 100 prisoners, with only one person crease beyond my capital; but I found to superintend them; he was at one end no difficulty in borrowing 500l

. ; which, of the room, with a desk before him, and with the frugal management of my aunt a large book, in which were entered the in my household concerns, soon opened names of the prisoners, the crimes for flattering prospects. In 1772 a sermon which they were committed, the time of was preached, on behalf of persons im- imprisonnent, from one to twenty years, prisoned for small debts, at which I was according to their crimes; the day the present. A general approbation of the work was begun, the day it was finished, idea was declared, and a few of us the measure of the piece, the task due formed ourselves into a committee, and per day, observations, such as sick, visited the prisons to search out proper lame, &c. &c. and deficiency of task, objects. The distress and extreme punishinent, &c. &c. &c. Though this wretchedness to which we were eye-wit- room was so crowded, not a word was nesses, deterniined us to lay an account spoken by any of the prisoners during before the publick, who instantly caught the time we inspected it; no noise or the flame, and enabled us to reach out confusion, all were silent and attentive the hand of pity to a very large number to their work; in short, it appeared a of miserable sufferers in confinement. most poble institution. A few years af

In May 1773, the Society for the ter, being at Ghent, I think in 1781, Relief and Discharge of persons impri- having no acquaintance there, I could soned for Smail Debts, was instituted or not gain adınissiou; but was told the formed; and, in 1774, I was unani- manufactory was destroyed, and the mously elected the Treasurer. At this whole in a very bad state. At Bruges time I visited some of the prisons in and the prison is on a much smaller scale ; about the metropolis, and reported upon some were employed in making cloaths, them every week. The finances of our and others in making saddles, bridles. Society increased, and my visits and in- &c. &c. for the army. In 1780 I had quiries extended ; so that in a few years the honour of the King's commission in I had travelled over a very considerable a corps of volunteer infantry, in which I part of the kingdom.

was actively employed, till there was no In 1778 1 married the eldest daughter further occasion for our services. Ju of John Camden, of Battersea, esq. by 1781 I visited Warwick Gaol, and in the whom I had two sons and a daughter. dungeons caught the gaol fever or dis

In 1779 I went through Flanders temper. Mr. Roe, the keeper, was too into Germany, and getting acquainted ill to accompany me, and sent his turnwith Col. (afterwards Gen.) Dalton, I key. Roe's death was, I believe, accewas, through his interest, permitted to lerated by drinking. When I found visit La Maison de Force, at Ghent. myself sick, which was almost iinmeThis was, without exception, the best diately, I took a post chaise lo Stratford,

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Memoir of the late J. Neild, Esq.

[654 where I arrived just as the coach was 427 persons confined to this wretched setting out to London. I got into it, state of captivity. Lord Romney, as and soon

reached St. James's-street. President of our Society, did me the I did not, however, recover for some honour of presenting this book to the time. This sickness, and my young King, and his Majesty was pleased most family, made me more cautious of enter- graciously to receive it. The approbaing dungeons, which had now become tion with which it was honoured by the less necessary, from the labours of the public, together with the very consiimmortal Howard, whose visits and in- derable benefactions to the Society for quiries comprehended every class of pri- Relief of Persons imprisoned for Small soners, whilst mine were particularly Debts in consequence of it, induced me directed to the debtors.

to publish a new and more copious ediI did not wholly abstain from mak- tion, in 1802, and likewise extend my ing remarks on felons, particularly in visits to Scotland and Wales. the dungeons of the two prisons at Ches As I kept a diary, so I wrote to my ter and Liverpool.

benevolent friend Dr. Lettsom, an acThe acts which passed in consequence count of the most striking occurrences ; of the benevolent Howard's Reports, and to his suggestions alone the pubproduced an immediate and general re- lishing my prison remarks owe their form in prison police, by the abolition origin. It had been my constant pracof taps. Several new gaols were built, tice, in my various prison excursions in which solitary cells supplied the place during a period of 30 years, to wait upon of dungeons; and, in many prisons, the magistrates, particularly of cities women were not loaded with irons, and boroughs, and respectfully to repFrom this period to 1791

resent what I saw amiss in their gaols. visits

my less frequent, and extended to the I was always received with cordiality try, as business would permit.

and kindness; and, as they were struck This

year I lost a most amiable wife, with compassion at the recital, reforma my own health was rapidly on the de- was determined upon, and resolutions cline, and my business increased beyond entered into; but, after a lapse of eight my abilities or power to manage.

In or ten years, guess my surprize, when 1792, having only two sons to provide I found nothing done! So total and for, I retired from business with a very general a neglect must be produced by ample fortune; and, as my health be

I inquired into it, and came restored, recommenced my prison

found many who were magistrates, from visits and inquiries, reports of which local situations, and before they were (as far as related to debtors) I made re- acquainted with its duties, were out of gularly, at the meetings of the commit- the commission; others, whose active tee, in Craven-street. In 1800, when situations in commerce denied them the excessive dearness of provisions, and

time ; some, who had large families, the difficulties of the poorer classes of were afraid to venture inside of the prithe people required an extraordinary re- son; and many were numbered with lief, the necessity of a general visit and the dead.

Under these discouraging inquiry into the state of all the gaols circumstances I had almost despaired, struck me very forcibly.

when Providence raised up a man, by I set about it inmediately, and in whose labour the cloud was dispelled 1801* published my first Account of and that life, hitherto spent uselessly, Debtors, by which it appeared there became fruitful. If Howard owed any were 39 prisons in England and Wales thing to Fothergill, I am in a ten-fold which did not furnish the debtor with degree indebted to Dr. John Coakley any allowance whatever; and in these Lettsom. He first suggested, nay, rethere were, in the month of April 1800, quested permission to publish some of

those crude remarks, which I had sent The two-penny loaf in London, August for his perusal, and by which commu1783, weighed 21 ounces. in March 1501, the nication I had found a sensible relief: (wo-peony loaf in London weigned oniy six

they were begun and continued without

some cause.


Varieties : Critical, Literary, and Historical.

[656 design ; written in the hours of fatigue, [The Memoir here terminates, but lassitude, sickness, and the bustle of not so the benevolent labours of Mr. inns; little calculated to appear before Neild. His health did not, bowever, the publick, except in matters of fact. allow him to visit Ireland as he in

These remarks on prisons were in- tended; but he continued to inspect troduced with a preface, which ca sed the various prisons of England, Stola general sensation, and brought a de- land, and Wales, and to suggest numegree of celebrity on the Visitor of Pri- rous improvements, both in regard to song he neither desired or deserved; the construction of the wards, and the whilst it enriched his funds as Treasurer internal management of these establishto the Society for Small Debts, in the ments. In 1812 he published the “State sum of 328l. 2s. 9d.evidently occasioned of Prisons," above alluded to, in a large by the reading the Gentleman's Maga- and very elegant 4to volume, with a zine, in which they were inserted. portrait of the author. It is a Work

The benevolence of my friend did teeming with valuable information. not rest here; for, as he was no stran He continued his exertions, as Treager to the inside of the prison-house, so surer of the Society for Small Debts, undid he frequently accompany me to til the time of bis Death, which took those abodes of guilt and misery, and place Feb. 16, in the year 1814. suggest what his professional skill so April 1817.

T.J. PETTIGREW. well enabled him to do, to my great advantage, and the prisoners' comforts. ON JAMES NEILD, Esq. LL.D. Many new gaols are now (1806) build

By Miss PORTER. ing; and, from the alterations and im- Hence the true Christian, lord of Appetite, provements wbich have been making The conqueror of low bot fierce resentments these four years, and are now daily which in a painful fever keep the soul making, the particulars of which my Free from impediments, pursues with ardoor • State of Prisons' will notice, my visits All that adorns and meliorates the man; will become less necessary.

As soon as That polishes our life, or soothes it; ills. this work is published, and I cap pro- points to the squalid cottage of Afriction,

Where'er Counpa-sion with her glist'oing eye vide for my necessary absence, 1 pro- Jews, Moors

, and Infidels,are all bis Brethren. pose visiting Ireland; and happy will Jews, Moors, and Infidels are all his Brethren

. the short remaining period of my life be could he, in some remote and barbarous laud, spent, if I can suggest to a brave and Make pale Distress give way to blooming Joy,

By powerful gold, or salatary arts, generous people, any improvements in lle'd traverse wilds or swelling seas to court their prison police, and of which I am the god-like uffice; his expanded heart informed there is much need.

lo every climate feels himself at home.


A NEW CHANGE of air for CONSUMP saved by oncommon methods, he advised TIVE PATIENTS.

a removal 10 a very aguish part of Essex. DR

R. Wells some time ago proved, by He accompanied her to a relative's house

authentic documents, that consump- on the spoi. The consequence was, that tion was ipfioitely less prevalent in those within three days, she was seized with a fenny counties where agues prevail, than tertian ague, and never fougbed once in the otherwise most healthy counties after the second fit. He kept her there of England.

until she had seven returns of the paA young lady very far gone in con- roxysm, and then bringing her to town, sumption, applied to the doctor for ad- he easily stopped the ague by proper revice; and as he thought she could only be medies. -New Blon. Mug.

Varieties : Critical, Literary, and Historical.

(658 ILLUSTRATION OF PROVERBS, &c. tertainment, these noble guests were conMERRY ANDREW.

ducted to a sumptuous bed-chamber, by Formerly every itinerant quack doc- the Prince Tiberius and the beautiful tor, who made a practice of baranguing Princess Jacqueline. Thirteen pompous the people at fairs and markets, was at- beds ornamented the vast apartment ; tended by a buffoon, dressed in a motley that in the middle was for Charlemagne, garb, and whose business lay in playing who, being in no humour for sleeping, tricks for the amusernent of the specta- proposed to amuse himself and his tors, while his master cheated them out iwelve companions by a species of conof their money.

The servant was inva- versation, which the author of the roriably named “ Merry Andrew ;" but it

mance call “ Gaber,"* and which conis singular enough that the original An- sisted in making the most ridiculous rhodrew was the doctor bimself, being no domontades. He began with vaunting less a man than Andrew Borde, a native that, with his good sword Joyeuse, he of Pevensey in Sussex, and bred at Ox- could cut a man in twain, although deford, where he took a degree and then fended by the best tempered armour. became a Carthusian in London : but Orlando, bis dephew, prosessed, that by disliking the severity of that order, he one blast of his horn he would level with quitted it, and studied physic, for which the ground fifty fathom of the walls of purpose, and being of a rambling dispo- Constantinople. Ogier, the Dane, unsition, be travelled over the greatest part dertook to overturn the edifice in which of Europe, and even into Africa. On they had been entertained, merely by his return he settled first at Winchester, tying a cord round the centre pillar of but in 1541 he went to Montpelier, the hall, and exerting his force in pulling where he took his doctor's degree, wbich at it. In short, every peer had his pewas confirmed to him afterwards by the culiar boast, and thut of the Marquis University of Oxford. The practice Oliver was the only one which distinof Andrew Borde, notwithstanding his guished itself from the rest ; but, uoeducation and the honour which he ev- luckily, froin its ludicrous nature, even joyed of being physician to Henry the it cannot be repeated. The “ Gabs" Eighth, ill became the gravity of his being completed, the party composed profession ; for it was lois custom to themselves to sleep, with a calmness of travel about from town to town, enter mind which they would hardly have taining the populace in public with possessed, had they known what was to witty stories, while he adıninistered to befal them the next morning. For it their complaints. On this account he chanced, that the Emperor Hugo, who obtained ihe name of “ Merry Andrew,” had expected that from the conversation and when he died, several empirics of thirteen such paragons of valour and arose, who, having neither his knowl- wisdom he should gain documents of edge por his humour, endeavoured to importance towards the good goverr:inake up for both by hiring some lively ment of his empire, had placed a spy. and agile fellows, whose business it was concealed in a hollow column, who was to play tricks and put the crowd into directed to note every word which good humour.- Nei Mon. Mag.

passed, and to report it in the morning. ROMANCES.

The person appointed executed his There is a romance little known, en, commission faithfully; and having, by uitled “Galienus restored,” which, from

means of a private stair-case, acquainted the specimen which an ingenious French Hugo with the whole conversation, be writer gives of it, must probably be very was so much disappointed to find, in the. interesting The account of a visit,

room of the maxims which he expected, which, the author says, Charlemagne a pack of improbable lies, that, forgetful and his twelve peers paid to an Emperor of the laws which hospitality enjoins, he Hugo, at Constantinople, and the recep- sent word to the whole party, by a hero tion wbich that prince gave to them, is, as the same writer expresses it,

“ Une

• From“ Gaber," it is supposed, is derived

“ The gift of a Gab," which has moch the des plus grand naivelez qu'on ait ja

same sense as is mentioned above. (iab, or mais ecrites.” After a magnificent en- Gob, is used in the North to signify mouth.


Varieties : Literary, &c.


ald, that unless they performed each ing remarkable for beauty or youth, yet man his “gab," completely and without few women live happier in the conjugal deceit, he had taken a solemn oath to state, as the heartiness, the sincerity, and hang up every one of them, not except- the general good br our (not to mening the venerable Charlemagne himself. tion the frequent absences) of their mates, It is certain that nothing but a very bil- make ample amends for those small deter aversion to liars could have driven ficiencies, as to delicacy or politeness, the good prince to this hasty measure, which they sometimes might complain of. since he was obliged, in the execution of Two of the brightest points in the it, to expose the bonour of his family in character of a seaman seem to be, ina very delicate point. The remainder of trepidity and presence of mind. the story is somewhat too long, rather out partiality we may say, that it is in too profane, and much too free, for this the British mariner particularly that these work : wherefore those who wish to qualities are to be observed. In the know how Charlemagne and his peers hour of extreme danger, he does not, were extricated from the scrape must like the Portuguese, the Italian, or the consult Menage, who will inform them Russ, either ask assistance from, or deof the unprecedented condescension and nounce vengeance against his patron humanity of the fair Princess Jacqueline, saint. No, he trusts to his owu agility and of the very indifferent figure which and resolution for salety; and if he ima celestial messenger made by under- precates curses on any head, it is on his taking a business quite out of his line, own, or on that of some lubber who is SAILORS.

not as active as himself in the general The race of sailors are so truly eccen- work of preservation. tric, that notwithstanding the numberless Superstition and profaneness, those anecdotes with which they supply con- extremes of human conduct, are too of versation, there are inany interesting cir- ten found united in the sailor ; and the cumstances relative to their very peculiar man who dreads the stormy effects of character yet left untold. Like other drowning a cat, or of whistling a coudarts, that of navigation possesses a num- try-dance, while he leans over the gunber of technical terms peculiar to itself. wale, will too often wantonly defy his The sailor forms these into a language, Creator by the most daring execrauons and introduces them, without hesitation, and the most licentious behaviour. But into all companies, on all occasions, and, most assuredly he is thoughtless of the generally, with brilliant success, as nau- fault he commits, and (like the poor* tical expressions are pointed, humorous, fellow who spied land, after many days and easily adapted to the situations of intolerable sufferings of hunger and thirst common life,

in the boat of the shipwrecked Centaur) loured to hardships, to dangers, and thinks that he is at liberty to express his to a perpetual change of companions, gratitude, or his distress, by the method the seaman contracts a species of stoic. which to him appears most apt and most ism which might raise the envy even of expressive. a Diogenes. “ Avast there !" cried a But the sailor's character must not sailor to his comrade, who was busied in be dismissed, without some notice being heaving overboard the lower division of taken of that fraternal regard which a messmate just cut in halves by a chain- reigns among them all, let the outsides shot, “ Avast ! let us first see if he has of some be ever so rugged. No tie of not got the key of our mess-chest in his freemasonry, no oath, no bond of sociepocket!"

tv, can unite any denomination of manAs their enjoyments are simple and kind together as sailors are few, sailors are equally at home at Port is in the most trying situations of life Royal, Halifax, Canion, Cape Coast that the effects of this onion are inost Castle, or the Point at Portsmouth.

If a sea-officer dies, leaving a From the admiral to the cabin-boy, family behind him unprovided for, his their attachment to the fair-sex is cariest, suas become the cinidren of his frater la-ting, and almost indiscriminate. The wives of seafaring men are far from be See “ Captain loglefield's Xarrative."


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