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[552 evening, in the usual manner, and pre- sons on the animal system is essentially served in the joint of a bamboo, was different. carefully strained into a bowl. The sap The first 17 experiments were made of the following substances, which had with the antsbar; the rapidity of its efbeen finely grated and bruised, was care- fect depends, in a great degree, on the fully pressed and poured into it, viz. size of the vessels wounded, and on the Arum, Nampoo, (Javanese,) Kaemferia, quantity of poison carried into the cirGalanga, Kontshur, Amomum, Bengley, culation. (a variety of zerumbed,) common onion In the first experiment, it induced and garlic, of each about half a drachm; death in 26 minutes, in the second, in the same quantity of finely powdered 13 minutes. The poison from different black pepper was then added, and the parts of the island has been found nearly mixture stirred.
equal in activity The preparer now took an entire fruit The common train of symptoms is, a of the capsicum fruticosum or Guinea trembling and shivering of the extremipepper, and, having opened it, he care- ties, restlessness, discharges from the fully separated a single seed, and placed bowels, drooping and faintness, slight it on the fluid in the middle of the bowl. spasms and convulsions, hasty breathing,
The seed immediately began to reel an increased flow of saliva, spasmodic round rapidly, now forming a regular contractions of the pectoral and abcircle, then darting towards the margin of dominal muscles, retching, vomiting, exthe cop, with a perceptible commotion cremental vomiting, frothy vomiting, on the surface of the liquor, which con- great agony, laborious breathing, viotinued about one minute. Being com- leat and repeated convulsions, death. pletely at rest, the same quantity of pep The effects are nearly the same or per was again added, and another seed of quadrupeds, in whatever part of the the capsicum laid on as before ; a similar body the wound is made. It sometimes commotion took place in the fluid, but acts with so much force, that not all the in a less degree, and the seed was car- symptoms enumerated are observed. ried round with diminished rapidity. The oopas appears to affect different The addition of the same quantity of quadrupeds with nearly equal force, propepper was repeated a third time, when portionate, in some degree, to their size a seed of the capsicum being carefully and disposition. To dogs it proved placed in the centre of the fluid, remained mortal, in most experiments, within an quiet, forming a regular circle about it- hour. A mouse died in ten minutes ; a self, in the fluid, resembling the halo of monkey in seven minutes; a catin fifteen the moon. This is considered as a siga minutes. that the preparation of the poison is A buffalo, one of the largest quadrucomplete.
peds of the island, died in two hours and The tshettik is prepared by separating ten minutes, though the quantity of poithe bark of the root, and boiling it, and son introduced in this experiment was after separating the bark from the water, proportioned to that which was thrown exposing the extract to the fire till it is into the system in the experiments or about the consistence of sirup. After smaller animals. this, the preparation is the same as of the If the simple or unprepared sap is antshar.
mixed with the extract of tobacco or An account of 26 experiments is de- stramoniumre (instead of the spices mentailed by Dr. Horsfield, on which he re- tioned in the account of the preparation) marks, that he has selected from a large it is rendered equally, perhaps more, number of experiments, those only which active. are particularly demonstrative of the ef Even the pure juice, unmixed and fects of the antshar and of the tshettik, unprepared, appears to act with a force when introduced into the circulation. equal to that which has undergone The poison was always applied by a the preparative process, according to pointed dart or arrow, made of bamboo. the manner of the Javanese at Blam
The operation of the two different poi- bangan.
[554 Birds are very differently affected by fect which a wound produces; but the this poison. Fowls have a peculiar ca- stomachs of fowis resist its operation. pacity to resist its effects. A fowl died The poison of the antshar does by no 24 hours after the wound; others have means act so violently on quadrupeds as recovered after being partially affected. that of the tshettik. Dr. H. observes
In regard to the experiments made with he gave it to a dog; it produced at first the poison prepared from tshettik, its nearly the same symptoms as a puncoperation is far more violent and rapid ture; oppression of the head, twitchings, than that of the antshar, and it affects the faintness, laborious respiration, violent animal system in a different manner; contraction of the pectoral and abdowhile the antsliar operates chiefly on the minal muscles, an increased flow of stomach, and alimentary canal, the re- saliva, vomiting, great restlessness and spiration and circulation, the tshettik is agony, &c. which continued nearly two determined to the brain and nervous hours ; but, after the complete evacuation
of the stomach by vomiting, the animal A relative comparison of the appear- gradually recovered. ances on dissection, demonstrates, in a Rumphius asserts, that a small quanstriking manner, the peculiar operation tity may be taken internally as a mediof each.
cine. After the previous symptoms of faint
In animals killed by the antshar, the ness, drowsiness, and slight convulsions, large vessels in the thorax, aörta and it acts by a sudden impulse, which, like venæ cavæ, were, in every instance, a violent apoplexy, prostrates at once the found in an excessive degree of distenwhole nervous system.
sion: the viscera in the vicinity of the In the two experiments, this sudden source of circulation, especially the effect took place in the sixth minute lungs, were uniformly filled in a preterafter the wound; and in another, on the natural degree with blood, which in this seventh minute, the animals suddenly viscus, and in the aörta, still retained a started, fell down head foremost, and florid colour, and was completely oxycontinued in convulsions till death en- genated. On puncturing these vessels, sued.
it bounded out with the elasticity and This poison affects fowls in a much spring of life. The vessels of the liver, more violent manner than that of the of the stomach, and intestines, and of the antshar, death having frequently occurred viscera of the abdomen in general, were within the space of a minute after the also more than naturally distended, but puncture with a poisoned dart. not in the same degree as those of the
The simple unmixed decoction of the breast. In the cavity of the abdomen, bark of the root of the tshettik is nearly a small quantity of serum was sometimes as active as the posion prepared accord- effused. ing to the process above related. The stomach was always distended
The resinous portion of the bark is hy with air, and in those instances in which no means so active as the particles so- the action of the poison was gradual, luble in water,
and in which vomiting supervened in the Taken into the stomach of quadru- course of the symptoms, its internal coat peds, the tshettik likewise acts as a most was covered with froth. violent poison, but it requires about The brain indicated less of the action twice the period to produce the same ef- of the poison, than the viscera of the
thorax and abdomen. In some instances Mr. Brodie, in a paper on vegetable it was perfectly natural-in others, marks poisons, (Phil. Trans. isil,) has given an account of some experiments made by him, of a small degree of inflammation were with the upas antiar, from Java, furnished by discovered. Mr. Marsden, from which it appears, that, when inserted in a wound, it produces death,
An undulatory motion of the skin, and (as infusion of tobacco dors, when injected of the divided muscles, was very evident into the intestines,) by rendering, the heart in some of the dissected animals. insensible to the stim'ilus of the blood, and stopping the circulation.
The appearances observed in the aniP Lor. Mag. Vol. 1
mals destroyed by the tshettik were
356 very different. In a number of dissec- Macassar, they are said to have finally tions, the viscera of the thorax and ab- discovered an almost infallible remedy domen were found nearly in a natural in the root of the Criouin asiaticum, state, and the large vessels of the thorax (called by Rumphius, radix toxicaria.) exhibited that condition in which they wbich, if timely applied, counteracted, are usually found after death from other by its violent emetic effect, the force of poisons.
But the brain and the dura mater An intelligent Javanese informed Dr. shewed marks of a most violent and ex- Horsfield, that an inhabitant was wouocessive affection. In some instances the ded in a clandestine manner, by an arrow inflammation and redness of the dura thrown from a blow pipe, in the fore mater was so strong, that on fisrt inspec. arm, near the articulation of the elbow. tion, Dr. H. supposed it to be the conse- In about fifteen minutes he became quence of a blow previously received, drowsy, after which he was seized with until he found, by repeated examina- vomiting, became delirious, and in less tions, that this is a universal appearance than half an hour he died. aster death from tshettik.
The intelligent reader will not fail to Rumphius had an opportunity of per- remark the extraordinary resemblance, sonally observing the effect of the poi- as well in regard to the plant itsell
, soned darts or arrows on the human sys- which yields the second of the poisons tem, as they were used by the natives of bere described, as to its preparation and Macassar, in their attack on Amboina, use, subsisting between the tshettik and about the year 1650.
the wourali of the Indians of Guiana, a Speaking of their operation, he says, curious account of which was given in the poison, touching the warm blood,' is our 35th No. (Ath. p. 339.] The exisinstantly carried through the whole body, tence of a practice so similar in two such so that it may be felt in all veins, and distant quarters may afford a subject for causes an excessive burning, and violent interesting speculation to those who are turning in the head, which is followed by fond of investigating the origin of the fainting and death.
different nations scattered over the sufAfter having proved mortal to many face of the globe. of the Dutch soldiers in Amboina and
POETICAL CHARACTER OF AKENSIDE, THOMSON, &c.
From the Monthly Magazine. THE Pleasures of Imagination," tures in general vague and indistinct.
although disfigured by verbosity, But the praise due to the author of the and written in a style abundantly too Pleasures of Imagination.” is on account ornate, is a poem which cannot fail of of the beauty, justness, and sometimes being perused with pleasure. In de- sublimity, of his sentimeats: the exalted scription, AKENSIDE is not happy: he spirit of independence which breathes labours to supply, by an elaborate accn- throughout his writings; and the ease mulation of splendid epithets and gor- and elegance with which he clothes mo. geous sentences, that freshness and rich- ral precepts in the most flowing and ness of landscape which is to be seen no- harmonious versification. where but in Nature, and in the produc Thomson is an author whose merits tions of those artists by whom Nature and defects have not been very accuhas been most closely copied. The rately balanced-for, while some have superior effect of unsophisticated sim- exalied him to the right band of Milton, plicity in description has been triumph- others have placed him among the herd antly shewn in our own times by the of imitators. Truth, in this instance, as “Poet of Cumberland.” Neither in ab- in so many others, lies between the ex stract imagery is Akenside successful: tremes ;-in style he is an imitator, and his metaphors are confused, and bis pic- a bad imitator, of Milton; but he has
557) Poetical Character of Akerside, Thomson, Young, and Couper. (558 nothing else in common with him. His in gloom—it is his residence, his eledescriptions are pictures of Nature, ment; when he quits it, and attempts most accurately and strongly drawn, more cheerful and engaging pictures, but they want the glow of imagination, he fails. This forms his most striking which should raise them to a level with dissimilarity from Milton, with whom their prototypes. Nature, however faith. he has sometimes been compared; he fully copied, is not all we expect from may occasionally approach bim in the the poet, for the copies will always want terrible and the gloomy, but the poet of innumerable graces, which are to be Paradise Lost knew every chord in the found in the original; these it is the bu- instrument, and could touch them all siness of the poet to supply from the with a master's hand. Young when he abundant sources of imagination. Thom- would be tender is turgid, when he son saw the beauties of Nature, but he would be gentle is insipid. Those parts did not feel their invisible and undefioa- of his Night Thoughts which are purely ble associations. When Shakspeare didactic bave been much praised, and, paints Nature, every hill and every glen perhaps, beyond their merit; for in 100 swarms with spirits ; if he looks into a many instances the matter is commoncowslip-bell, he discovers the “delicate place, and the style declamatory. Ariel" nestling there; the hills on which The “ Task of Cowper" is the finest his eye is feasting are “heaven-kissing didactic poem in our language ;-simhills;" and even the very air which he plicity of style, energy of sentiment, and breathes "smells wooingly.” So, too, richness of imagination, are the rare chawhen Milton points out to us the beau- racteristics of this original production. ties of Nature, we perceive that “mil- His satire is of the most caustic kind; lions of spiritual creatures walk the it stops not at the little follies and imearth;" we hear voices“ sole or respon- perfections which flutter over life, and sive each to other's pote,” and the moon darken the surface, but cuts deep into appears as
the root of vice, and hunts after her in "One who had been led astray
the inmost recesses of the heart. His Thro' the heaven's wide pathless way."
domestic pictures are enchanting; they
sparkle with the vivid and unfading coIt is such“ fine frenzies” as these which lourings of Nature; they have the ease charm us in the poetry of Shakspeare, and familiarity of Horace, without his and Milton, and Wordsworth; and the grossness. The Roman bard is seldom want of which is the great detect of without his bottle or his mistress ; CowThomson. He pleases the seader, but
per is surrounded by the endearments of does not astonish him; he sporis on the friendship, and the feast of intellect. surface of Nature, but never plunges Another characteristic, which must not into her inysteries ; his pictures are ac- be passed over, is his honest and manly curate, they are beautiful, they form a indignation at that pernicious system brilliant and gorgeous temple, but they which has caused so much of the misery want the presence of the inspiring Deity which bas afflicted the world. The folwhich alone can ballow and consecrate lowing lines furnish a lesson which the fane.
should never be forgotten Young is the sublimest of poets since Milton : he astonishes principally by the “War's a game which were their subjects wise, grandeur and gloom of his abstract ima- Kings would not play at. Nations would do gery. The passage beginning, “Oh well treacherous conscience while she seems to extort their truncheons from the puny grasp to sleep,” is too trite for quotation; but Of heroes, whose infirm and baby minds I know of nothing which surpasses it, Are gratified with mischief
, and whw spoil, except that fine poetical exclamation of Because meo suffer them, their toy, the world." Shakspeare's Richard II. - Within the
Henry NEELF. hollow crown that rounds the mortal Kentish-Town, April 4, 1817. cemples of a king," &c. Young moves
The Castle of Dunanachy.
OR, THE CASTLE OF DUNANACHY.*
An interesting Tale of other Times. " As flies the inconstant sun over Larmon's grassy hill, so pass the tales of old along my soul by night. It is the voice of years that are gone : they roll before me with all their deeds."
OSSTAN. TWO TWICE had he visited Dunanachy, mind, like the red path of the lightning
and for the second time repaired on a stormy cloud.' O my mother, dear again to England, when, “ in some few are you still to my recollection ; dear weeks after his departure, intelligence you will ever be to the bosom of your reached the inhabitants of the castle, that Malvina; the memory of your virtues
the Earl had espoused the daughter of steals across my soul like the opening | an English nobleman, with whom, and beams of the morning, like the memory
a numerous party of their acquaintance of joys that are past, pleasant and mournand relations, it was their intention to ful; they dwell within my heart like visit Scotland ; and for that purpose the gale of the spring, that sighs in the orders were issued, and workmen in- bunter's ear, when he wakes from dreams stantly employed, to put the castle and of joy, and has heard the music of the its environs in the highest possible state spirits of the bill.” of repair, to new furnish such apartments Surprise, not pleasure, dwelt upon the as were intended for the use of the new features of Mrs. Douglas, when in formCountess, and to remove from sight every ed of Lord Dunanachy's esponsal of article which had belonged to her pre- the Lady Gertrude Davenport. She had decessor, or been in use in the suite of long perceived bis indifference towards rooms, she usually occupied at Dunana- Malvina ; she had trembled for ber hapchy. In a word, all was bustle, hurry, piness and for her interest, and had sufexpectation, and anticipated pleasure on fered much apprehension. Now she the part of the domestics, while the feel- experienced a thousand fears for both. ings of Malvina were various, and such Personally she knew not Lady Gertrude, as might naturally be expected to arise in but she bad frequently heard of her from the youthful bosom at one moment look- the correspondents both in Scotland and ing forward with lively hope to a share in England, who transmitted ber the in the innocent amusements natural to news of either capital, and enlivened her her years and gaiety of disposition, at retirement by regular details of what the next experiencing a thousand fears was passing in the theatre, where she and apprehensions, lest she should not berself had once performed a part, and give satisfaction to her new mother, and became acquainted with the principal feeling a saddening reflection at the idea actors of the various dramas which, as of her father's strict prohibition of a sin- in more modern times, were composed gle article belonging to her own mother, of a heterogeneous mixture of characters, being permitted to remain in its place. strutting and fretting their hour upon the “ Ah ! thought she, “ this gay new stage ; some good, soine bad, some virbride has completely superseded the re- tuous, and some profligate. collection of the virtues and excellencies Of Lady Gertrude Davenport she had of my dear departed parent, and perhaps often heard ; but no part of her friend's she, too, will rob the poor Malvina of communications had tended to impress the remains of a father's confidence and her with a high opinion of her Ladylove. Alas ! I feel rejoiced when I ship's worth or talents. Beautiful she think that my father will be happy, far was said to be ; but it was invariably happier than he has appeared since death added she was vain, haughty, selfish,viobereft him of my sainted mother ; yet lent, and devoted to pleasure ; nearly I know not how it is, but my mind is thirty years the junior of the Earl, who not at ease. A troubled joy rises in my was then in his Gfty-second year, and so See Ath, p. 304.
completely the slave of fashion, and al!