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Present state of the Sandwich Islands.


of Turnbull, Lisianski, and Langsdorf, never healed since amputation) might be and much interest has been excited re- cured, he was tempted to abandon his specting him; but none of these navi. possessions, and leave his situation of gators ever saw him. From a volume ease, for one which in his helpless situarecently published, “A Voyage round tion must at least be precarious. On the World, by Archibald Campbell," applying to Tamaahmaah for permiswe have some further account of sion to depart, he said, “ if his belly told Tamaahmaah, and from one who, by him to go he was at liberty to do so," residing with him, had every opportunity sending by him his compliments to of personal observation. Campbell King George; expressing, however, was a native of a village near Glasgow, much astonishment at hearing, that and having escaped from an English Campbell, together with many thouman of war, entered himself on board an sands of others, his subjects, had never Indiaman. Whilst at Canton, he was seen their sovereign. By the captain of enticed from his ship by the commander the ship he sent a present to the king, of an American vessel, bound to the of a feather cloak, accompanied by a north-west coast of America, on which letter, which he dictated, reminding him coast the vessel was afterwards wrecked. of Captain Vancouver's promise of Before they reached Kodiak, his feet sending a Man of War, and regretting becoming mortified from the extreme that the distance prevented his assisting cold, were both amputated at Kodiak, him in his wars. From Wahoo, Campby a Russian surgeon; here he remained bell went to Rio Janeiro, and after a some time, employed to teach thechildren residence there of two years returned to of the natives English. In the hope, Scotland. On his return he procured however, of meeting with an American admission to the infirmary at Edinburgh; vessel at the Sandwich islands, in which but was at length discharged as incurahe might return home, he was induced ble. He was noticed by Mr. Smith on to leave Kodiak, in the Neva (the ship board one of the steam boats on the commanded by Captain Lisianski, in Clyde, playing on the violin for the Captain Krusenstern's expedition.) From amusement of the steerage passengers Kodiak they proceeded to the island of Mr. Smith took him home, and, struck Wahoo, being the one of the Sandwich with the intelligent manner and the 1slands now chosen by Tamaahmaah for interesting nature of the incidents he his residence. Campbell's appearance related, was induced to become the having excited the compassion of the editor of his narration, and to publish it queen, he was invited to reside in her for his benefit. “Few" (says Mr. louse, and being recommended by the Smith) "in the same situations of life, Russian captain to the king, was em- are posgessed of more intelligence or ployed as sail-maker in the royal information, and with the advantages arsenal. After remaining in the king's common to his countrymen, he seems establishment for several months, he to have neglected no means of improveremoved to the house of Isanc Davis, a ment." The greater portion of this Welchman, who had been on the island book is occupied in a narrative of what about 20 years. Soon afterwards a tract occurred during Campbell's stay at the of land of about 60 acres, on which 15 Sandwich islands, and a description of families resided, was granted to him by them and of the manners of the inhabithe king After having overhauled all tants. This is by far the most interestthe sails of the fleet, he managed to con- ing, and we shall conclude by a few struct a loom, and began to weave sail extracts from that part of it. cloth, and being by trade a weaver, he succeeded in making some before he “ The king's residence is built close quitted the island. But in July 1810, on the shore, and is distinguished by the a South Sea Whaler, bound for England, British colours, and a battery of 16 guns having touched there, the desire of re- belonging to his ship, the " Lilly Bird," visiting his native country, and the then unrigged in the harbour ; tbera hopes that his wounds, (which had was also a guard-house and powder ma


Campbell's Account of the Sandwich Islands.


gazine, and two extensive store-bouses, chiefs pay a rent and other subsidies to built of stone, for the reception of the sovereign. There were at Wahoo European goods. His mode of life is at one tiine during Campbell's stay, very simple, breakfasting at eight, din- about 60 whites, chiefly English, left ing at noon, and supping at sun-set. His by American vessels ; several amongst principal chiefs are always about his them were convicts who had escaped person. On concluding his meal he from New South Wales. Many inducedrinks half a glass of rum, but the bot- ments are held out to sailors to remain ; tle is immediately taken away, the liquor if they conduct themselves with probeing interdicted to the guests. At one priety, they rank as chiefs, and are at all period, it is said, he was much addicted events certain of being maintained, as to the use of spirits

, but foreseeing the the chiefs are always anxious to have baneful effects arising from indulging in white men about them. Many artificers their use, he made a resolution to ab- are in the king's employ; all that are stain from them, and wbich he has since industrious are well rewarded by him; religiously maintained. The greatest many, however, are idle and dissolute, respect is paid to his person by all ; even particularly the convicts; the latter have when his meat and drink passes by, his introduced distillation into the island, and subjects uncover themselves, and stoop give themselves up to drinking. Davis, down by way of reverence. The wbite a Welchman, who was very industrious, people, however, on the island, are not so puzzled the natives that they could required to pay these honours. Davis only account for his singularity, by and Young, the two persons. before supposing him

one of their own counnoticed, are much favoured by the king, trymen, who had gone to Cabiete, or and are raised to the rank of chiefs, and England, and after his death bad rehave extensive grants of land. The lands turned to his native land. Most of the are in the highest state of cultivation, whites have married native women, by The island of Wahoo, though only whom they have families, but no attensecondary in size, is one of the most im- tion is paid by them to their education portant on account of its fertility, and or religious instruction. The chiefs because it possesses the only secure about the king have each a separate harbour to be met with in the group. office assigned to them, as treasurer, &c. During the thirteen months Campbell The king is entirely absolute. was at Wahoo, about 12 ships touched “Though the people are under the there. The navy in 1809, was about dominion of some chief, for whom they 60 vessels; these were then all hauled on work or cultivate the ground, and by shore, and preserved with great care, it whom they are supported in old age, being time of peace; they were chiefly they are by no means to be considered sloops and schooners under 40 tons, as slaves attached to the soil, but are built by native carpenters under the di- at liberty to change masters when they rection of Boyd. The “ Lilly Bird," think fit. The principal duty of the is however about 200 tons; but this executive is entrusted to the priests, and vessel was bought from the Americans. by them the revenue is collected and Indian corn and many garden vegetables the laws enforced. They believe in a are cultivated with success; and in a future state, when they will be rewarded short time the breed of cattle, horses, and or punished for their conduct in this sheep, left there by Captain Vancouver, world. There were no missionaries on will be abundant. The king has several the islands. horses, and is fond of riding. Many in

“ The use of ava is now giving way dividuals have large flocks of sheep; to that of ardent spirits; they are very and in some of the large islands there fond of smoking tobacco, which grows are considerable herds of wild cattle, in great abundance. Many of the naThe chiefs are proprietors of the soil, tives who are employed as carpenters, and let the land in small farms to the coopers, blacksmiths, and tailors, do lower orders, who pay rent in kind; the their work as skilfully as Europeans: S Eng. Mag. Vol. I:


Neele's Odes, and other Poems.


and at the king's forge none but natives Campbell, the king seemed about 50, were employed. All dealings are con- stout and well made; the expression of ducted by barter ; they know, however, his countenance agreeable ; mild and the value of dollars, and take them in affable in his manners, and appeared to exchange; but these are rarely brought possess great warmth of feeling, and, out again into circulation : vessels are though a conqueror, is very popular supplied with fresh provisions, live stock, amongst his subjects; he has amassed salt, and other articles of outfit

, giving by trade a considerable store of goods, in return, fire arms and all other Euro- and treasure in dollars. He encourages pean articles. Sandal wood, pearls and his subjects to make voyages in the mother of pearl, the produce of these ships which touch at the island, and islands, are frequently purchased for the many have been to China, and even to China market. It is probable that the the United States, and has amongst the Russians will, in future, derive from natives many good sailors. His resihence the principal supplies for their dence was built in the European style, settlements on the Fox islands and He had two wives, and was about to north-west coast of America, and even take a third." Kamschatka, Whilst the author was We shall conclude our extracts from with the Russians, it seems it was in this book, with the following descripcontemplation to establish a settlement at tion of the author's journey to take one of these islands, though this project possession of his farm : “We passed by was afterwards abandoned, and it is foot-paths winding through an extenobvious that at no ver distant period, sive and fertile plain, the whole of which these islands must become objects of is in the highest state of cultivation ; great importance to America. Provis- every stream was carefully embanked to ions, from the frequent arrival of ships, supply water for the taro beds; where are not cheap

there was no water, the land was under “ There is no regular armed force, crops of yams and sweet potatoes ; the except about fifty men of the guard, roads and numerous houses are shaded who constantly do duty about the king's by cocoa nut trees, and the sides of the residence: twenty mounting guard each mountains covered with woods to a day, armed with muskets and bayonets ; great height; we halted two or three in their exercises, rapidity is more re- times, and were treated by the natives garded than precision. All the natives with the utmost hospitality, are trained to arms, and are bound to persons with their families resided op my attend the king's person in his wars. farm, and they cultivated the ground as Although he is anxious to induce white my servants ; there were three houses on people to remain, no encouragement is the property, but I found it inore agreeagiven to deserters ; nor are those who ble to live with one of my neighbours, & wish to depart detained. In 1809, says get what I wanted from iny own land.”


Jrom the Panorama.

NHAT our young men should amuse the sailor, the bard fare, and difficull

their vacant hours with poetry none operations of the soldier. He never can refuse ; but, from the subjects on knew sickness; but if the plague of which they display the powers of their Marseilles or of Athens strikes him as imagination, it might be thought that the a pathetic subject he turns to a few present was a day of mere melancholy, or authors, makes himself master of the of absolute dismals. Fashion leads them; principal facts, and his harp is immeand of this we complain. Many a young diately tuned to woe. gentleman who never knew what it was We do not mean to deny the symto sleep out of his own bed, indulges pathetic power of the poetical mind. his fancy in depicting the distresses of Genius is not confined to one view of a

Neele's Odes, and other Poems.

[222 subject, nor to the description of that With arrow keen he pierces all, only which has passed under observation. Nor stays to see the sufferer fall, Genius personates as well as personifies, Oft too he questions fierce and high, at pleasure ; and feels as well as person

And while we pause to make reply,

The visitor is flown : ates, sometimes powerfully. But this We only mark the change he brings, requires caution; lor it may be strongly And bear the rushing of his wings. suspected, that over-exertion of the

III. mental faculties, sympathy among them, Ob! he has many borac away, may occasionally induce disease. It is who might have hop'd for closing day, well known, that, after the conclusion of

But fell before th' approach of poon. his Clarissa, Richardson could hardly Scarce had their fame been whisper'd round. stand without the assistance of his cane,

Before its shrill and mournful sound

Was whistling o'er their tomb : which he concealed with one hand under Scarce did the laurel 'gin to grow hiscoat. His sympathy with imaginary Around each early honoured brow, distress had affected his nervous system, was changed to cypress sear and brown, which realized it to strongly.

Whose garlands mock the head they crown. We are unwilling to allude to Kirk

IV. White, as an instance of the same power, Some linger on forlorn, till life but are not unwilling to caution the

Becomes a load they long to leave;

The aged finds its folly rife, poetical youth of our day, generally That flatters only to deceive. against following the fashion too far. If The tree beneath whose cooling shade they will not take advice from experi- His youthful limbs were blithely laid,

: enced but confessedly, in this respect The friends he lov'd, the tales he told, unfashionable critics, they must take The very fields are growing old, the consequences, we have discharged while he himself

is fading fast, our duty.

And death (deliverer !) comes at last. Mr. Neele, who is a young gentleman

V. of great promise, has comprized in his A few more lays be sung and o’er, first book, an Ode to Time,-to Hope, the hand that swept shall sweep no more, to Memory;-10 Horror,-to Despair, The harp that rang no more be rung. --to the Moon. What possible scenes The sun that warm'd the minstrel's heart, of horror can float before his eyes, ex- And kindred fervour would impart, ceeds our surmise ;-and as to Despair The breeze that us'd around him wave, --leave that to worn-out age, and

Shakes the lorn thistle o'er his grave, per

But cannot wake the clod : ishing inability: here it must be the Tir’d nature nestles in the shroud, work of imagination alone.

Tho' requiem winds are piping loud. With Time a young man has as much to do as an elder one; with Hope much From among the minor poems, we inore. We insert as a specimen of Mr. select one, the turn of which is pretty N's.poetical powers the first of these Odes. enough. It speaks, at once, to the heart, and is

LOVE OF FAME. creditable to his abilities.

Why do we love thee, Fame ? thou art not

sweet, ODE TO TIME.

If sweetness dwell with softness and repose; Inexorable King ! thy sway.

Thou art not fair, if beauty be replete Is fx'd on tirm but cruel might ;

With peace and tenderness, and ease from

woes; It rolls indeed the radiant day, But sinks it soon in deepest night ;

Thou art not faithful, for thy power and fame

To fierce extremes the maddening votary It bids the little flow'ret spring, But while it waves its elfio wing,


and oft the winds that should bis bliss proIts Beeting glories go ;

claim, It suffers hope to dance a while,

Swell but the chorus of his funeral dirge : Nursing the fondling's fatal smile, That tears may faster flow:

Yet we do love thee---love thee till the blood And only bids fair beauty bloom,

Wasted for thee, forsakes the beart, thy

shrine ; At last to blast it in the tomb.

Till happiness is past, and toil withstood, JI.

And life itself pour d idly forth---for thine Tyrant! be changes every scene,

Is that mysterious witchery that beguiles 'While he himself remains the same;

The soul it stabs, and murders while it smiles. Old grow the young, and grey the green,

[ Feb. 1817.] And cold and cheeriless the flame.


Literary Criticism.

[ 294


From the New Monthly Magazine. IN considering this subject

, I shall not ment. Some men of deep learning and designedly introduce any remarks on fine taste bave strong passions, which the fine arts, nor yet on what is termed often are so much indulged, that they do “philosophical criticism,” but confine not see, or will not acknowledge, the myself solely to that which respects liter- real merits of an author. But a just ature, and shall first mention the neces- and candid critic will deliberately examsary mental qualifications of a literary ine the whole contents of the publication critic, then very briefly show how the be reviews, and readily point out excelworks of an author ought to be reviewed, lencies as well as defects. and, lastly, point out some of the prin With respect to the proper manner of cipal uses of literary criticism.

reviewing books in order to do justice to To be a proper critic on new publica. authors and the public, their contents tions in modern times, requires, 1. An should be considered, 1st, In an imparextensive knowledge of books. Besides tial and explicit manner. Only truth being well acquainted with the standard and justice should guide a periodical old books, a critical censor ought to be critic, and not the least partiality ought well read in those which have been pub- to be shown to a writer on account of lished within the last thirty years, and his rank, his riches, or former productions, especially such of them as are on the sub- nor yet for his honorary title. No work ject which he is reviewing. For this ought to be condemned by wholesale ; purpose his memory must be good, and and literary censors when they disapeither his own library should be large, or prove of any part of a publication, should he should have access to some library explicitly assign their reasons for so doing. which is so.—2. Skill in languages

. Many have thought that every important Such as are appointed to review books article ought to have the reviewer's written either wholly or in part, in the name affixed. I have considered this living or dead languages, must have a subject for many years, and, notwithgrammatical knowledge of them. Much standing all the outcry of disappointed skill in mathematics is also necessary in authors against anonymous critics, I think those who take that department in a lit- it is best to be so ; because, if the name erary journal, as well as an acquaintance appeared, then authors, whose works with medicine, in such as have that part were censured, or not praised, might assigned them; and in every department have a grudge against the reviewer, and a critical knowledge of the English lan- perhaps would injure or put him to trouguage is indispensable.-3. Å habit of ble. 'On the other hand, a needy or covclose and correct thinking. Without etous critic might be tempted to praise this, even recondite learning and exten- the works of a rich author in hopes of sive reading will not be sufficient; but some reward. In short, I am apprehenwhen the subject, passing under review, sive that if the review of no important is surveyed in all points of view, and the publications appeared witbout the critic's thinking upon it close, correct, and dis- name, we might after a time bave no recriminative, it is not always necessary view at all.-2. In a concise and satisthat the reviewer should be a profound factory way. Whatever may be pleaded scholar. As to new theological publica- for the present long and circumlocutory tions, a critical censor of that department mander of reviewing books, I humbly should not only be well acquainted with conceive it is a bad one, as it respects the the Bible and ecclesiastical history, but readers. They ought to be speedily know all the peculiarities of doctrinal brought acquainted with what the new and experimental divinity, and be of a publication contains, in as few words as candid disposition, without any sectarian may be proper, according to the size of bias.-4. A cool and discriminate judg- the work. But instead of this, very fre

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