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and the consequences of explaining words literally, when they are used figuratively, are exemplified in the Transubstantiation of the Church of Rome, and the Consubstantiation of Luther. We cannot pay the Church of England the compliment which she receives from Dr. Marsh, p. 71, that she has with due 'attention to that figurative style, so frequently employed by our 'Saviour on other occasions, interpreted his words "This is my "body"-"This is my blood"--by the rules of analogy, and by 'the dictates of common sense,' while the strong and unqualified expressions The Body and Blood of Christ are verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper,' remain in her formularies. The exemplification of metaphor and simile, with which the lecture concludes, might have been spared. It certainly possesses the prime excellence of exampleperspicuity; but it appeared to us undignified in the delivery, nor is it an ornament to the printed lectures.
The seventeenth and eighteenth lectures, are on Allegory; which is defined an interpretation not of words, but of the 'things signified by the words.' Examples of it are cited from the Bible, and the abuse and injudicious use of it are pointed out. The History of Allegorical Interpretation, a mode of interpretation which, it is said, originated with the Commentators on Homer in the latter ages of Greece, is given to us, as it existed among the Jews of Alexandria, the Greek Fathers, the Mystics in the twelfth century, and their followers in more modern times.
The last lecture concludes with some observations on typical Interpretation; and announces the subject of Prophecy for the next series of lectures.
Dr. Marsh informs us that the Supremacy of the Pope has been discovered in the first chapter of Genesis.
The interpreter who made this discovery, was himself a sovereign Pontiff, and one who exercised that supremacy with unlimited sway. It was Pope Innocent the Third, the same who excommunicated King John of England, and who threatened even the Emperor of Constantinople. For this purpose, he addressed to him a Latin Epistle, in which he quoted from the first chapter of Genesis, the passage relating to the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, the lesser light to rule the night. By these two lights, said he, are meant the office of Pope and the office of King; by the greater light is meant the former office, by the lesser light the latter office; so that as the light which rules the day, is superior to the light which rules the night, the dignity of Pope is superior to the dignity of King.' p. 111.
The luminaries,' says the Professor, in exposing the absurdities of this allegorical interpretation, should have been 'transposed. For spiritual dominion, whether exercised by
the Pope, or by those who resemble him, is not a power that
rules the day, but a power that rules the night. We thank him for this remark.
If the practice of spiritualizing texts of Scripture, of extracting meanings from them which they were never intended to convey, - a practice, which, Dr. Marsh justly observes, places the Bible in a very false and injurious light,- were less rare than it is, the following remarks might be less seasonable and necessary.
• If the literal or grammatical meaning of a passage may be exchanged at pleasure for an allegorical meaning, the meaning of Scripture will be involved in perfect ambiguity : it will assume as many, forms as the fancies of interpreters are multifarious. In grammatical interpretation, which is an interpretation of words, there are certain rules of interpretation from which we cannot depart. But allegorical interpretation, which is an interpretation of things, is subjected to neither rule nor limit. As soon as an interpreter has learnt what things are literally signified by the words of a passage, he has nothing else to do than to let loose his imagination for the discovery of some other things which may resemble the things literally signified, and then those other things will at once be allegorically signified. And since the same thing may to various interpreters suggest various resemblances, the same passage may have as many allegorical meanings, as there are persons, who undertake its interpretation.--No grammatical analysis, no knowledge of Hebrew or Greek, no knowledge of antiquity, no knowledge of the situation and circumstances, either of the author, or of his original readers, is necessary for this purpose. Such knowledge is wanted only for grammatical interpretation 'It is wanted only, when the words, which we interpret, are destined to perform the office, for which they were originally intended. It is wanted only, when the words which we interpret, are considered as signs
, to the reader of what was thought by the author. But the expounder, who regards them as passive instruments disposable at his own will, and who employs them, as machines for the conveyance of his own thoughts, is freed at once from the shackles which Þind the grammatical interpreter, and is exempted from all other wants than merely that of knowing what is best adapted to his own purpose.' Pp. 104, 110.
Art. X.-Select Non-conformists' Remains : being original Sermons of
Oliver Heywood, Thomas Jollie, Henry Newcome, and Henry Pendlebury, selected from Manuscripts; with Memoirs of the Authors, compiled mostly from their private Papers.. By Richard Slate. 12mo. pp. 389. Price 6s." Bury Printed. Longman,
Hurst, &c. London. 1814. THIS volume bears an appropriate title, and will not mate
rially disappoint the expectation which it excites. It is a
pleasing appendix to what has been published by these excellent men, and to the accounts hich have already been given of their lives.
The sermons are eighteen in number; several, however, are from the same text. They are of unequal length, and of various merit; selected, as the Editor informs us, either from the originals, (in the hand writing of the authors,) or from copies taken from the notes of the minister, or at the time of delivery. They exhibit, occasionally, a quaintness of phraseology, and a familiarity of illustration, repulsive to modern taste: these peculiarities, however, characterize the period in which the discourses were written ; and it is only transporting ourselves a century and a half back, and we feel perfectly reconciled, both to the style and the manner.
These men of God were “ mighty in the Scriptures," and excelled in the skill of applying them : fervent piety, deep experience in personal religion, and ardent zeal for the conversion of the ungodly, and for the edification of believers, are most obvious in these specimens of their pulpit exercises. The times in which they lived, endeared the Gospel to their hearts; and the peculiar circumstances of danger, in which they were frequently placed, contributed at once to elevate their devotion as Christians, and to aid their success as ministers. We envy not their persecution ; but who does not admire the effect it produced, and the character it formed? Who does not wish to reseinble these worthies in the enjoyment they aitained, and in the benefits they diffused ?
But the biographical parts of this volume will, we apprehend, be more generally interesting. The account of Oliver Heywood is given most in detail, and contains a variety of incidents. The scene of his early labours was Coley, a village in the parish of Halifax : there he was eminently useful; and there commenced his severer trials, He was laudably anxious to restore the order of the Gospel, and the regular observance of the Lord's Supper; but, in attempting this reform, discrimivation of chaTacter was necessary, and many were offended. Some thought the terms of communion too lax; others deemed them too strict ; and hence, the very persons who appeared to have been benefited by his ministry, maintained restless hostility against him. About the same time, a series of political events raising a ferment in his congregation, he was placed in the most difficult and trying situation. Mr. Heywood,' we are told, 'was too 's prudent, and knew the nature of his office too well, to engage much in political affairs; but his sentiments were known to be in favour of the restoration ;' and means the most artful, and sometimes outrageous, were taken to ensnare and ruin hiin. He records, with much feeling, the treatment he received even from his professed friends.
The restoration of Charles II. was attended with a welcome, but transient calm; for that monarch becoming the 'persecutor ' of those who had been most active and faithful in placing him on 'the throne,' such men as Heywood were involved in the deepest distress. After a train of vexatious occurrences, he was ejected by the Act of Uniformity; and, in a few weeks, publicly excommunicated in the church at Halifax. We forbear to indulge in the reflections which naturally arise from a proceedure so unjust and impolitic Those times are happily past; and the spirit which disgraced them is fled.
Though silenced by human authority, this man of God felt the obligation of a higher command, and continued to "preach "the word" wherever any could be convened to hear it. Pains and penalties, of course, awaited him; and the reader will participate with us in a mixed feeling on connecting the insults he received with the meekness he exemplified. The cheerful manner in which he took the spoiling of his goods, he thus expresses: 'I was lately a prisoner, and now God hath honoured me with 'the loss of part of my estate for him: 'tis welcome ;-welcome 'prisons, losses, crosses, reproaches, racks, and deathi tself, if 'the Lord call me to it, and will enable me to endure it to his 'glory.' He has left the following account of the manner in which he usually spent the day when he was a prisoner in York Castle It is curious and interesting.
After our rising we kneeled down, and I went to prayer with my wife. She in her closet, and I in the chamber, went to secret prayer alone. Then I read a chapter in the Greek Testament while I took a pipe-Then read a chapter in the Old Testament, with Poole's Annotations. Then wrote a little here, (diary) or elsewhere.-At ten o'clock, I read a chapter, and went to prayer with my wife, as family prayer; -Then wrote in some book or treatise I composed till dinner-After dinner, Mr. Whitaker and I read in turn, for an hour, in Fox's Acts and Monuments of Martyrs, Latin edition.-Then went to my chamber, if my wife were absent, I spent an hour in secret prayer,-God helped usually. After supper, we read in the book of martyrs-studied-went to prayer-read in Baxter's Paraphrase on the New Testament.' P. 42.
Twenty-one years after his ejectment, the editor informs us, he thus writes:
'I am so well satisfied with my refusing subscription and conformity to the terms enjoined by law, for the exercise of my public' ministry, that, notwithstanding all the taunts, rebukes, and affronts I have had from menthe weary travels, many thousand miles;-the hazardous meetings, plunderings, imprisonments;-the exercise of faith and patience about worldly subsistence;-the banishing from my house, coming home with fear in the night, &c. which are the
least part of my affliction under this dispensation, for banishing from my people and stopping my mouth, have occasioned many sad temptations and discouragements, lest God should be angry with me, lay me aside, and make no use of me :-notwithstanding all this, I am so fully satisfied in my conscience, that my non-conformity as a minister is the way of God, and I have so much peace in my spirit, that what I do in the main is according to the word; that if I knew of all these troubles beforehand, and were to begin again, I would persist in this course to my dying day.' p. 48, 49.
Two short extracts present an instructive view of his devotion and diligence.
"It was his custom when he had chosen a text, to seek divine help by prayer; and when he could not succeed in his studies, as he desired, he fell down upon his knees. If he met with any perplexing or afflictive circumstance, he went and told God:-" This," says he, " is my old remedy, and it never fails."
From a regular account which he kept, it appears, that from 1665 to 1700 inclusive, a term of thirty-six years, of which sixteen only were years of liberty, and most of them after he had reached the age of sixty; he preached on week days, 3004 sermons, kept 1242 fast days, 309 thanksgiving days, and travelled in his master's service 31,345 miles, besides his regular work on Lord's days.'
It would protract this article to undue length, to insert any particulars of the lives of the other excellent men who are noticed in the volume before us. Already our readers will be able to form a tolerably correct idea of its contents. The Editor closes an appropriate preface, with a quotation from the late Dr. John Taylor, of Norwich, whose testimony is the more valuable, as the Doctor's religious sentiments did not accord with the views of these men. Such were the fathers, the first formers ' of the dissenting interest; and you here in Lancashire had a large share of these burning and shining lights. Those who knew them not, might despise them, but your forefathers, wiser and less prejudiced, esteemed them highly in love for their 'work's sake. You were once happy in your Newcomes, your
Jollies, your Heywoods, &c. who left all to follow Christ; but Providence cared for them, and they had great comfort in their ministerial services. The presence and blessing of God appeared in their assemblies, and attended their labours.-Let my soul for ever be with the souls of these men!'