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formed by many hands, and necessarily very subordinate ones in the painting art, and often made a veil and protection to bad engraving, as it obviously discourages the care indispensa ble to the excellence of that primary operation. The mode we have thus presumed to suggest to our Author and artist, would allow him the additional very important advantage of a mucha larger size than the ordinary quarto.
We take our leave of him for the present, with most sincere good wishes for the success of every graphical work which may be the result of his interesting and indefatigable pe-regrinations.
Art. III. The Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall and Spurzhein,
founded on an Anatomical and Physiological Examination of the Nervous System in general, and on the Brain in particular; and indicating the Dispositions and Manifestations of the Mind. By J. G Spurzheim, M. D, 8vo. pp. 556. price 1l. 10s. London, Baldwin and Co. 1815.
Concluded from Page 335.) THE fourth chapter of the treatise under review, presents to
us the principal physiological arguments in defence of the doctrine of plurality in organs.' That which stands first in the list, is the circumstance of the faculty of attention becoming fatiguel by one species of study, and renovated by changing the object.
• If the brain (says our Author) were a single organ performing all the functions of the mind, why should not the organ be more fatigued by this new form of study?'
This statement, however, seems to us to be a mere assumption of the question ; for as we have already asserted the possibility and reasonableness of one set of nerves being endowed with two kinds of susceptibility, the one of which may be worn out, while the other preserves its original freshness, so may it be in reference to the brain,--the excitability may be exhausted by one species of stimulus, but open to, and ready for, another. For this principle we have indeed a sufficient number of facts to vouch ; one which just now occurs to our recollection may suffice. A person engaged in a literary undertaking, the circumstances of which were such as to render it necessary for his attention to be preserved in uninterrupted exercise for thirty successive hours, adopted the expedient of taking tea, coffee, brandy, and opiam, at regulated intervals, and by so doing, he effected much more than would haye been accomplislied by an equal quantity of only one of the above exciting powers. It could not be that these different stimuli acted upon different organs, because the object to be effected, was, the preservation in exercise of only one faculty, and, on the theory of Spurzheim, of only one organ.
Further; An individual fatigued, and exhausted by one species of study, shall transfer his attention with comparative alertness and vigour to another, although this second object shall, even by the admission of our theorist himself, be an exercise of the same organ. Suppose a person to be occupied in the study of two languages at the same time, after being wearied by a long application to one, he will gladly go off to his exercises in the other, although his organ of language' must be necessarily occupied in either case, and that too in the same degree, provided the languages are equally difficult to acquire.
The second argument our Author adduces in this division of his subject, is founded upon an appeal to the phenomena observed in sleep, and somnambulism ; but we apprehend that the whole series of affections and peculiarities observed in the states in question, are traceable to the varied states of the sentient and perceptive faculties. Let the dreamer, or the somnambulist, be subjected to some sudden impulse which shall be of sufficient force to recall the departed idea of perception, and the fairy wand, by the aid of which he has been roving through the fields of fancy, is instantly shivered into a thousand pieces. It is the same in some kinds of madness. Only let the perceptive faculty be brought into due exercise, and all the chimeras of imagination instantaneously disappear, and the insanity is for the time cured.* Now nothing of this momentary effect could ever be occasioned, were all the organs acting in that disproportional measure, and partial manner, which the theory of Gall supposes. The act of waking from sleep, must always be a long and tedious
process ; indeed by the time it was accomplished, the hour for repose would again return, and sleep, as a German theorist once suggested, would be the natural state of
* Explanations of the insane state, in general, we think commence, so to speak, at the wrong end. It is rather a deficiency, than an augmentation of faculties,
which gives rise to the appearances of madness. A poet, in his moments of inspiration, has his imagination often raised to a much higher pitch of intensity, than a raving maniac; but the poet is not mad, because he retains his judgement in his pos. session. His imagination, indeed, takes bold and daring excursions, but he all the time knows that he is merely imagining. In other words, his ideas of perception prevent his conceptions from becoming false,
mau. ' To be fully awake, according to his doctrine, was to be in a state of disease,-a doctrine which admirably falls in with the notions of craniology.
The appearances in somnambulism are so remarkably illustrative of that intensity of idea, that concentration of faculty, and that apparent irregularity in the exercise of functions, which all arise out of the different states of the perceptive organs, without the necessity of supposing an irregular, disproportionate, and partial exercise of internal organs, that we shall detain the reader with a few further remarks on this interesting topic of investigation. And in the first place, we shall transcribe the narrative of a case, taken from the Encyclopedie, under the article somnambule.
« The Archbishop of Bourdeaux was at college with a student subject to walking in his sleep. On planting himself, from
curiosity, in the student's chamber, so as to ascertain his mo- tions, he observed the young man sit down to compose ser
mons, which he read page by page as he committed them to paper, if it can be called reading when no use was made of the eyes. On being dissatisfied with any passage during the recitation, he crossed it out, and wrote the correction with much accuracy over it. The writer of the article saw the beginning of a sermon, in which was the following amendment. It stood at first ce divin enfant. On revisal it struck the student to substitute adorable for divin. So he struck out the first word, and set the second exactly above it. But remarking that the article ce could not stand before adorable, he very nicely set a t after ce, and it stood then cet adorable enfant. • To satisfy himself that the somnambulist, in all these operations, made no use of his eyes, the Archbishop held something under bis chin, sufficient to intercept the view of the paper on which he wrote. But he wrote on without being interrupted by this obstacle in the way of his sight. To discover how the night-walker knew the presence of objects, the Archbishop took away the paper on which he wrote, and pushed other papers under his hand. Whenever they were of unequal size, the student was aroare of the change ; but when they were equal, he wrote on, and made corrections on the spots corresponding with his own paper. • One night having dreamed that he was beside a river, into which a child had fallen, he went through all the actions tending to its rescue, and with teeth chattering, as from cold, asked for brandy. None being at hand, a glass of water was given him instead. But he immediately remarked the difference, and with greater impatience demanded brandy, saying he should die if none were given him. Brandy was
therefore now brought. He took it with pleasure, and said, ? as he smelled to it, that he found himself already better. All
this time he did not awake, but as soon as the paroxysm was ! over, lay down on his bed and slept very composedly.
The above narration furnishes a remarkable instance of the consequences resulting from one series of perceptive faculties being open to external impression, while the others are locked up in sleep. All the manifestations of the intellectual powers, , however, were, in this case, consistent with what would a-priori be supposed to be exhibited under such circumstances of the sentient organization, and there is no more necessity for having recourse to the theory of partial brainular operation, than there is to explain the phenomena of complete wakefulness. Had the somnambulist been subjected to any impression which might have proved sufficient to rouse the susceptibility of those senses which were still dormant, the partial operation of faculties would have immediately been changed into the accustomed series of wakeful actions. Were it not, indeed, that the ideas of perception are constantly correcting those of imagination, our ordinary trains of thought would combine to constitute existence one continued dream, and we should be no more sensible of the lapse of time, or the due connexion of events and circumstances, than we are when actually dreaming. The somnambulist is alive to one kind of external impression, and the insensibility of the other parts of the frame, seems to occasion a concentration, as it were, of all the other senses into this one. Hence the accuracy and superior adroitness with which those actions are performed, which require the exercise of this particular sense, as was the case of our student, who, by a nicety of touch, or some other perceptive power, discovered immediately, without seeing them, the different sizes of the papers that were put before him.
It is partly upon the same principle, that the blind man has notions of magnitude and other properties of matter and space, which appear inconceivable to those who are in the enjoyment of all their senses. The deprivation of one order of perceptions, proving thus an augmentation in the remainder, in, perhaps, ar exact ratio. Conceive an individual open to no external impression but that of sound, and it may at the same time be conceived, that to such an individual the dropping of a feather on the floor night be heard as a clap of thunder.
Tbis condition of the perceptive faculties is not indeed quite so fanciful as it might be supposed. We have a distinct recollection of having seen a young temale, who frequen, ly, for days together, lay in that state of apparently su pended animation, which constitutes what is called a trance, destitute of all voluntary power, and seemingly a sort of breathing corpse. Upon being restored to animation, the account she gave of herself
was, that she had a remarkably acute perception of some kinds of sounds; she could, for example, although she lay up two pairs of stairs, distinguish the first footstep that the physician, who was in the practice of calling on her, made upon the lowest stair when he entered the house, although persons, who were in the room with her at the time, so far from recognising his particular step, were often not aware of any one being in the house. To such remarkable varieties are the organs of perception and consciousness frequently subject; and from this source alone spring so many varieties in the manifestations of animal functions, without the necessity of inferring any primary or partial irregularity in the actions of the brain itself. We conceive, then, that whatever obscurities may still surround the theoretical exposition of sleep, and all its multiplied phenomena, that such phenomena present nothing favourable to the peculiar theory of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim.*
The remaining arguments in this chapter we have in some measure anticipated, and attempted to reply to, in our previous investigation ; they consist, indeed, principally of attempts to refute the objections founded on the unity of consciousness, the mutual dependence of all organs one upon another, and the homogeneous appearance of the brain, and the nervous system in general. The following specimen of the manner in which Dr. S. answers his opponents, we shall leave to the reader's own comments.
Plattnet made the following objection :- A musician plays with his fingers upon all instruments, why should not the soul manifest all its operations by means of one and the same organ? This observation is rather for, than against, the plurality of organs. First, there are ten fingers which play ; moreover, the instruments present different chords, or holes. We admit only one organ for music ; and all kinds of music are produced by this organ. Hence, this assertion of Plattner does not invalidate our principle.' p. 230.
Want of room prevents us from expanding the notes we had made, while perusing the three chapters which immediately succeed that under consideration, and we the more readily waive the consideration of these chapters, as they consist principally of some further remarks on sabjects already dis
* When we talk of perception, like our Author, we do not mean to consider the five external senses in any other light, than as interme. • dia.' It is the consciousness resulting from their being acted on by external agents, that is properly the exercise of the perceptive faculty, and this consciousness necessarily supposes an action of the brain; but then, there is no particular part of the brain, to which general consciousness can be referred.