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the importance of revealed truth ; it is no longer a speculation, a notion, the mere subject of intellectual power, to be rejected or received at pleasure. It is proved to be operative and influential in guiding our actions, in regulating our habits, and in forming our character; and in that character thus formed, and thus developed, we behold the heavenly nature and holy tendency of Christian doctrines. We read this discourse with unmingled and delightful satisfaction ; we found ourselves' no longer in the turbid atmosphere of controversy, but in a pure and celestial region, breathing the air and element of heaven. We wished to forget for ever that there was such a pestilential exhalation as Socinianism, and were devoutly thankful to be without the reach of its fatal pollution. Accustomed to revere the authority of Scripture, we no longer found its tone of character relaxed, its sublime discoveries discarded, the Saviour it reveals robbed of bis deity, and the sinner deprived of his hope. In the humble and cordial reception of every Christian truth, however opposed to our preconceptions, our prejudices, or our pride; in the supreme devotion of our hearts to Him who “ gave himself for “us;" in the obedient subjection of our lives to his service; in the practical imitation of his example; and in the “ blessed “hope” of his second coming, to complete his mediatorial economy and accomplish all the purposes of his grace; we contemplate “the Christian character, and we feel an increasing attachment to those holy principles on which alone that character can be formed and supported. We are confident that no serious and candid inquirer can peruse this discourse, without perceiving that the lovely delineation it exhibits, is uniformly accordant with the sacred Scriptures ; and that all its moral beauty, and all its holy peculiarities are derived from the influence of those truths which Socinianism opposes and rejects.
Our readers can be at po loss to ascertain our opinion of the volume, of which we have given so ample and extended a notice. It is altogether one of the most able and satisfactory, on the Socinian Controversy, we have ever had an opportunity of commending to the attention of the religious world The temper of the writer is candid and dispassionate; his reaşonings are in general distinguished by their acuteness and force; and what is to us of special importance, he never loses sight of the question, as vitally connected with our dearest interests and our everlasting welfare. The notes in the appendix are highly creditable to the critical research and biblical knowledge of the Author; and had we not wished all our readers, of every class, to study the volume for themselves, we should have selected more copiously from that part of it. This, however, was in a great degree unnecessary, in consequence of several elaborate articles on these subjects that appeared in a former volume of our journal.* The style of Mr. Wardlaw is uniformly perspicuous, and, at times, distinguished by a happy felicity and elegance of expression, but it is occasionally deficient in energy,
; and capable of considerable improvement, if it had heen less diffuse and expanded in some of the illustrations. There is also, at times, too great a proportion of scriptural phraseology, the introduction of which is the principal cause of that diffuseness to which we have adverted, and the effect of which is much less impressive in a volume, than when orally delivered. But these trifles we should not have mentioned, if we did not entertain the hope of being again instructed and gratified by his publications. He has already rendered essential service to the cause of scriptural truth; and we rejoice in the consecration of his talents to the defence and explanation of its principles.
Art. V.-History and Artiquities of the Cathedral Churches of
Great Britain. Illustrated with a series of highly-finished Engra. vings, exhibiting general and particular Views, Ground Plans, and all the Architectural Features and Ornaments in the various Styles of Building used in our Ecclesiastical Edifices. By James Storer, Vol. I. 8vo. pp. iv. 126, with 64 octavo Engravings. Price demy, 31. 3s. or 75. Od. per Part; super royal 51. or 12s. per Part. Lon
don, Rivingtons, Murray, &c. 1814, EVERY one who has an eye to see and a soul to feel, must,
on entering York cathedral or chapter-house, the cathedrals of Lincoln, and Winchester, or on contemplating the inajestic front of Peterborough cathedral, experience irresistible imprese sions of mingled solemnity and delight, such as none but similar edifices are capable of producing. If he should enquire when were these extraordinary specimens of architectural skill, rivalling in their execution and surpassing in sublimity the proudest structures of Athens and Rome, erected ; wbat would be his astonishment, had he not previously ascertained the fact, on being told iu reply that “they were built during the dark ages! When but few even of the clergy could read, and scarcely any of them could write their own names; when nobles lay upon straw, and thought a fresh supply of clean straw in their chambers once a week a great luxury; when monarchs usually travelled on horseback, and when they met wrestled with each other, for the amuseinent of their courtiers; then it was that architects whose names have not reached us, and whose manners and course of instruction are merely con
* E. R. Old Series, Vol. V. pp. 24, 236, 329.
jectured, raised buildings almost to the clouds with stones most of which they might have carried under their arms. Rude men, untaught by science, applied the principles of arcuation, of thrust, and of pressure, to an extent which would have made Wren and Jones tremble. Men, ignorant of metaphysical Heories, so blended forms and magnitudes, light and shade, as to produce the artificial infinite and the real sublime. Men, who lived in times of the grossest superstition, erected temples for the worship of God, which seem as if intended to rival in durability the earth on which they stand; and which, after the lapse of several ages, are still unequalled, not only in point of magnificence of structure, but in their tendency to dilate the mind, and to leave upon the soul the most deep and solemn impressions. This is an anomaly in the history of the Fine Arts, which has never been adequately explained; the investigation of the subject, however, is worthy of the attention of the philosophic and inquisitive. It would indeed be easy to speculate on this interesting topic, and to assign a plausible account of the matter ; but as it would be equally easy to de'molish with one hand what is erected by the other, we shall reserve our more mature reflections for some subsequent occasion, contenting ourselves for the present with briefly noticing the volume before us.
It is the intention of the Editors and the Proprietors of this work to comprise the descriptions of all the cathedrals of Great Britain within the compass of four volumes. That which is now on our table is devoted to the cathedrals of Canterbury, Chichester, Lincoln, Oxford, Peterborough, and Winchester. The description of the first of these edifices, is illustrated by eighteen engravings; the second, by nine; the third by ten; and each of the remaining three by nine. It is due to the respective artists to say, that they are, in general, admirably executed. The perspective is usually correct, the points of view are happily chosen, and the light and shade judiciously thrown. Some of the plates, indeed, exhibit very striking specimens of accuracy and force of representation, especially considering the smallness of the scale which has, of necessity, been adopted. Among these we may name the interior view of Canterbury cathedral from the entrance to Becket's Crown, and the S.W. view of that cathedral, the magnificent west fronts of the cathedrals of Lincoln and Peterborough, the chapterhouse at Lincoln, the interior, and Guymond's tomb, Oxford cathedral, the rich ruins of the cloisters at Peterborough, and Winchester cathedral from the ruins of Wolvesey. Besides the several interior and exterior views of the different buildings, there is given a ground plan of each cathedral, on which, however, by a very ingenious contrivance, the graining of the roof is sketched. To have rendered the graphic illustrations complete, there should have been given vertical sections of each edifice, similar in kind, but superior in execution, to those exhibited by Mr. S. Ware, in his Treatise on Arches and their
" * Abutment Piers.' These would have been of great use in showing the mechanical science displayed in our cathedrals : and we trust they will not be omitted in the subsequent parts of Mr. Storer's work.
The engravings, however, though in the main extremely good, are by no means the most valuable portion of this undertaking. The sketches of the history and antiquities of the several cathedrals, are extremely interesting, and, with very few exceptions, correct. They not only present a connected account of the progress of each edifice from its original foundation to the present period, interspersed with scientific observations upon the successive modification in the architecture of the middle ages; but they exhibit also a comprehensive, though concise, view of the origin, progress, and actual state of the several episcopal sees, including much curious information
. relative to the introduction of Christianity into the British Isle. The numerous rites, ceremonies, and customs, introdusent from time to time, by the Romish, and rejected by the Protestant Church, are no iced as they chronologically occurred, according to the place of their first adoption. The various persecutions either experienced or practised by the clergy, are fairly recorded, and, in most instances, the real virtues and vices of ecclesiastics faithfully portrayed.
It is a novel and striking feature of this work, that it presents complete, and, as far as we have been able to ex mine, correct lists of Archbishops, Abbots, Bishops, and Deans, who have been connected with the several edifices and sees ; together with brief notices of their several characters. The only inadvertency we have noticed in this part of the work, relates to Dr. Peckard, the late dean of Peterborough, who is said "to be author of the life of Nicholas Ferrar.' That Dr Peckard wrote that memoir, is as notorious as that Blackstone wrote the Commentaries on the “ Laws of England.” Indeed the Divine, as well as the Lawyer, prelixed his name to his performance.
We shall venture upon a single quotation, but it will be a rather long one. It relates to Theodore, a Greek of Tarsus, in Cilicia, who was the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury; and one who laboured most actively to introduce learning as well as religion into England.
• Theodore was in his sixty-sixth year, and in 668, was consecrated by the pope, He was detained at Rome four months, till his hair
grew to make a crown; for being a Greek he was shaved; the pope gave him the tonsure, and consecrated him ; but so jealous was Vitalian of his principles, that it is said he sent Adrian as a monitor with him to Britain, lest he should introduce the customs of the Greek church. Hence commenced the prelacy of one of the greatest men which ever graced an episcopal throne. The monks and papists have artfully vilified his memory, some by their praises, others by their censures; but it is to the great Theodore, that Britons have to be grateful for the blessings of the Gospel. He transferred christianity from the lips to the heads and hearts of our countrymen; he introduced no works of supererogation, no idle ceremonies ; but made learning and science, as they always ought to be, and naturally are, the hand. maids of religion : he was neither the slave nor the fautor of the Greek or Roman church, but the firm adherent of the church of Christ. To diffuse knowledge and piety, to awe the wicked and cherish the good, to exalt religion by enlightening and improving its votaries, to meliorate the condition of his species, to adore and magnify the names of his Creator and Saviour, were the chief objects and glory of his advanced life. “ He chinged (says Innet, after “ Bede) the whole face of the Saxon church, and did ore towards “ enlarging the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury than all “ his predecessors." He night have added, that he did more to establish christi inity on an immutable basis in this country than any prelate since the apostolic age. Heterodox notions and lax disci. pline prevailing to a dangerous extent, he held a synod at Herutford (Hertford) in 673, where he presented the British bishops with a book of canons, which received their hearty approbation; and by the grandeur of his mind and benignity of his manner, gained the esteem and deference of every pious man in the country. In 680, he held another synod at Haethfield to investigate the Monothelites. In the disputes of Bishop Wilfred he was no less active; and when this bigot appealed to Rome, a thing then equally novel and ludicrous, the court very properly laughed at him, and Theodore treated his Roman authority with the utmost contempt, maintaining the judicious decrees of the councils, that “ all controversies should be “ settled in the provinces where they arose, and that the authority “ of the Metropolitans should be final and unappealable.”
• The bishops of Roine, indeed, had not then assumed any supe. rior power; they had never expected nor received any greater respect or authority than what necessarily attached to their reputation for learning and piety; hence the right to appeals was never conceived by them; and when appealed to, their decisions, as in the present instance, passed for nought. Theodore evidently acted and felt himself perfectly independent: he owed no obedience in spiritual matters to any power but that of heaven; loyal to his adopted sovereign, faithful to his conscience, zealous in the diffusion of Divine truth, he called synods, deposed inefficient priests, consecrated bishops, and
founded schools throughout the kingdom. In the diocese of Wilfred, he conserated bishops Bosa of York, Eata of Hexham, Edhed of Lindsey, Trumberth of Wagulstad, and Cuthbert of Lindistarn ; instituted or restored, say Florence and Dicet, the bishoprics of