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Sermons, by Christopher Wordsworth, D. D. Dean of Bocking. 2 vols. 8vo. 18s. boards.

Sermons on Practical Subjects. By John Vincent, A.B. Chaplain in the Establishment at Fort William in Bengal, in the Service of the Hon. FastIndia Company. 8vo. 9s. boards.

It is All True; or, the Grace and Truth of the Gospel made plain to Common Sense, in the first Conversion, and consequent, Humble, Holy Lfe, and singularly blessed Death of Miss Martha James, of Chelwood, in Somersetshire. price 1s. 6d.

Female Scripture Characters, exemplifying Female Virtues. By Mrs. Kiug. 12mo. price 8 boards Lardner's Works, Vol. I. 4t. to be completed in 5 volumes.

Dr. Gill's Body of Divinity. 1 vol. 4to. price 11. 15s. boards.

An Essay on the Character and Practical Writings of St. Paul. By Hannah More, 2 vols. 12mo. price 14s.

Facts and Evidences, on the subject of Baptism, in a Letter to a Deacon of a Baptist Church, by the editor of Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible, with 2 plates, price 15s.


Among the articles, which our limits compel us to defer to our next Number, the following are comprised: Principles of Christian Philosophy; De L'Ambre's Astronomy; Spurzheim's Craneology; Southey's Don Roderick ; Storer's British Cathedrals; Robinson's Prophecies; &c.



FOR APRIL, 1815.

Art. I.-The Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, founded on an Anatomical and Physiological Examination of the Nervous System in general, and on the Brain in particular; and indicating the Dispositions and Manifestations of the Mind. By J. G. Spurzheim, M.D. Baldwin and Co. 1815. 8vo. pp. 556. price 17. 10s. London.


THE public, that many headed Proteus, assuming in turn every modification of character, is in no small degree ambitious of the proud honours of Athenian Philosophy. by turns, and nothing long-it continues, under every changing Every thing aspect, its restless pursuit of "some new thing;" transferring with equal ease and celerity its attention from one species of excitement to another, perhaps of the most opposite description; embracing in succession all subjects, whether of temporary or of infinite interest, with short-lived intensity of ardour; and preserving with respect to all, the tone and jurisdiction of a final arbiter.

In the homage which is paid by all classes to this mysterious personage, it seems that the worship of the goddess Multitude is still perpetuated. We know not what were the rites of that ancient idolatry: possibly it consisted of the same intellectual offerings with which the same indefinite entity is still propitiated. A battle or a pageant, a hero or an actor, a fanatical impostor or a philosophical lecturer, might, in those days, perhaps, have furnished in succession the amusement of the fickle goddess. The sorcery of chemistry would not then have attracted less attention, than the discoveries of modern science did a few years since among our literary VOL. III.-N. S.

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fashionables; and Dr. Spurzheim would most assuredly have been led in triumph to Areopagus, to furnish his contingent novelty.

It has always been among the schemes to which the policy of statesmen has had recourse, to engage the prying restlesness of the public mind, by some kind of splendid diversions. C'est dans les salles de spectacle qu'une autorité pervoyante & sage réunit les oisifs, & impose silence à leurs 'murmures.' Literature may furnish a more salutary and equally effective means of accomplishing their purpose.

Craniology, it is said, has become the rage of the present day, and what subject is more calculated to be so? How comfortable to those, who, till now, had only the evidence of their own consciousness for the possession of any one faculty, must be the reflection that their skulls are filled to the very brim with them, as the paradise of the heathens was crowded with gods of various powers and opposite propensities. It is not a little amusing to think of the numbers of individuals that may at this moment be feeling their skulls, and finding the organs of goodness of heart and greatness of mind, stamped on them, with evident marks, at least to their own feelings, and according to the testimony of their looking-glasses. Self examination in regard to the inward state, will now become a superfluous task, for where is the necessity of looking within, when there are indubitable tokens without? What evidence can be superior to that of the senses? And if conduct happen to be a little at variance with theory, no matter; look at the forehead, and appeal to Dr. Spurzheim! We must, however, forbear. Our latitude of criticism is not far enough north for the doctrine that ridicule is the touchstone of truth: we shall therefore set about the business before us in sober earnest, blow up the organ of attention to its utmost limit of expansion, and commence a candid and serious examination of a confessedly ingenious and able treatise.

In our endeavour to execute this purpose, we shall first sketch an outline of the doctrine in question; we shall then present to our readers a few remarks on its principles and bearings; and afterwards proceed to a more minute analysis of the book before us.

As the brain, say Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, is the organ of consciousness, and the medium of the animal and intellectual faculties in general, it follows, that more faculties, both in their latent condition and their manifested states, are traceable to the separate and several parts of the encephalon. Courage, for example, dwells in one corner of the brain, and the exercise of the faculty is the development and exertion of that particular portion of this organ (the brain) which

is especially destined for its evolution. Thus a man who, in his conduct, gives proof of cowardice, does not do it from a weakness of nerves, but in consequence of the absence or comparative smallness of the organ of courage, which has a distinct residence. A man is not a sensualist from fulness of blood and exuberance of animal health, but in consequence of possessing the organ of amativeness' or physical love, in a more than ordinary degree. This doctrine informs us further, that an external examination of the head during life, and an internal inspection of the skull after death, will indicate what were its faculties, and the several proportions and degrees of their development. In a word, the science of Craniology, is the science of separate and discoverable organization, for the several faculties, propensities, and feelings.

Having thus delineated the prominent features of the theory, we shall now offer a few very general suggestions on the subject, previously to a more detailed investigation of Dr. Sparzheim's book. Our remarks, here, will be purposely very cursory, as we wish to avoid unnecessary repetition in the prosecution of our proposed analysis.

First, We observe that the notion of plurality in organs, is at variance both with the usual simplicity, and oneness of nature's laws, and the known structure and physiology of the brain. In the brain there are several cavities, depressions, processes, and eminences, all doubtless destined by the wisdom. of the Creator, to contribute in some way, at present to us inexplicable, to the general purposes for which the organ was formed, but still equally unexplained by any theory of intellectual functions. The several ventricles, for instance, are unquestionably necessary to the due production of brainular phenomena, but the hypothesis under consideration would certainly be better without, than with them.

Secondly, Dr. Gall's opinions, are inconsistent with that proportionate uniformity which the brain, together with the cranium, preserves during the whole of a long life. Through every period of existence, this proportion is kept up as it regards both exterior indexes, and internal arrangements of parts, whatever may have been the circumstances of the individual subject. Thus, for example, an infant who exhibits in his organization a predestiny to thievish propensities, but whose organ of theft is kept under by opposing faculties and counteracting influences, ought, were the theory true, to have a different exterior formation from what would have been the case, had the vicious propensities been permitted to expand, and grow up into actual exercise. But in favour of this result we believe the most confirmed Craniologist would not be disposed to argue.

Thirdly, That as all the organs, it may be urged, cannot be equally superficial, the expansion of one which is deeply seated, could not be characterized by corresponding indexes in the cranium. If the organ of charity lie under that of self-love, the marks in the cranium occasioned by the development of the former, should be marks, not of love for others, but of love for ourselves.

Fourthly, The indisputable fact of total and oftentimes sudden conversion of character, from bad to good, is not only inexplicable by the doctrine under discussion, but is actually inconsistent with it. The whole man is sometimes transformed. Vicious habits are laid aside, and virtuous conduct occupies their place. He who was formerly a practical and daring infidel, whose thoughts and failings never wandered beyond the things of time and sense, is now a penitent and consistent Christian, anticipating a retributive and eternal state; and surely all this change takes place without any corresponding or discoverable change in the organization. Where is the advocate of Craniology who would be hardy enough to assert, that the marks of the change would be found on the skull. The physiognomical expression of the features might indeed be altered, as those muscles which are subservient to the expression of present sentiments, are different from those which indicated former feelings; but the shape and general organization of the head, would remain unchanged. Even in intellectual character and mental tastes, so to speak, a change is not seldom effected, which ought, upon craneological principles, to bring with it a corresponding alteration in the exterior organization. The skull of Pascal, for example, during the time that he was devoting his great mind to the development and exposition of mathematical truth, was a different skull from that of the same Pascal, while occupied with investigating the solemn mysteries and sublime truths of the religion of Christ. Lastly, We shall object against this doctrine its tendency to assimilate with the doctrine of necessity. If Craniology has been suspected and accused unjustly of absolute materialism, on the ground that the materialism is the same which admits the brain, in any way, to be the organ by which animal life and intellectual faculty are manifested; yet, that its conclusions approximate, to say the least, to the inferences of necessity, cannot we think be denied. Thus, as a fatalist would say of one addicted to the most common form of sensuality, that it was as much his nature so to be, as for the dog to bark and the bear to growl; so would a Craniologist affirm, that his organ of amativeness,' was more than usually large, and that the exercise of the propensity was the consequence of the organization. A father, who should find in his son the organ

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