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and westerly direction to the bottom of Ungava Bay. They were induced to undertake it by a statement of the Esquimaux visiters, who occasionally repaired to the establishments already formed, and reported that the main body of this nation lived near and beyond Cape Chudleigh. In addition to these accounts they received the most earnest applications to form a new settlement to the northward, applications to which they felt themselves the more inclined to listen, as the country around their present establishments was very thinly inhabited, and it appeared that the aim of the mission, to convert the Esquimaux to Christianity, would be much better obtained, if access could be had to the main body of the Indians, from which the roving inhabitants appeared to be mere stragglers
Having obtained the consent of their superiors in Europe, a company was formed for the voyage under the superintendence of Brother Kohlmeister, who was eroineutly qualified for the charge, by a residence of seventeen years in Labrador, during which time he had acquired an accurate kuowledge of the Esquinaux language, and was deservedly respected and beloved both by Christians and Heathens. Brother knock accompanied him in the voyage, and their crew consisted of four Esquimaux families belonging to Hopedale. Ilaving conuended themselves in prayer to the grace and protecting care of God, their Saviour, and to the kind remembrance of their dear fellow-missionaries, they set sail from Okkak, in a large decked boat, on the 24th of June, 1811.
In their progress they met with many interruptions from large fields of ice, which often presented a threatening appearance. They kept in general close to the shore, and had to work their way through numerous straits, formed by thesmall islands which lie scattered along the coast in great numbers, sometimes sleeping on board, and at others, pitching their tent on shore. They often met with very wild and singular exhibitions of scenery; and the Moravians, ever observant of all that is interesting in the appearances of nature, do not fail to gratify the reader by their description of them. The following is a specimen of the notice they take of these things, and the way in which they record them.
• June 25th.We rose soon after two o'clock, and rowed out of the Ikkerasak with a fair wind. The sea was perfectly calm and smooth. Brother Kmock rowed in the small boat along the foot of the moun. tains of Kanmayok, sometimes going on shore while the large boat was making buť little way, keeping out at some distance to avoid the rocks. The outline of this chain of mountains exhibits the most fanciful figures. At various points the rocks descend abruptly into the sea, presenting horrid precipices. The strand is covered with a black VOL. III. N.S.
sand. At the height of about fifty feet from the sea the rocks have veins of red, yellow, and green stone, running horizontally and parallel, and sometimes in an undulated form. Above these they present the appearance of a magnificent colonnade, or rather of buttresses, supporting a gothic building varying in height and thickness, and here and there intersected by wide and deep chasms and glens running far inland between the mountains. Loose stones above have in some places the appearance of statues, and the superior region exhibits various kinds of grotesque shapes. It is by far the most singular and picturesque chain of mountains on this coast. To the highest part of it we gave the name of St. Paul's, as it is not unlike that cathedral, when viewed at a distance, with its dome and two towers.' p. 14.
On the day following they met with some of the believing Esquimaux, who were on their summer excursion, at which time they have many opportunities of mingling with the unconverted of their own nation. It refreshes our hearts to hear, that the wilds of a savage country exhibit a scene so soothing as that which these worthy men realized upon this occasion.
'The number of the congregation, including our boat's company, amounted to about fifty. Brother Kohlmeister first addressed them by greeting them from their Brethren at Okkak, and expressing our joy at finding them well in health, and our hopes that they were all walking worthy of their christian profession, as a good example to their heathen neighbours Then the litany was read, and a spirit of true devotion pervaded the whole assembly.
Our very hearts rejoiced in this place, which had but lately been a den of murderers, dedicated, as it were, by the angekoks, or sorcerers, to the service of the devil, to hear the cheerful voices of converted heathen most melodiously sounding forth the praises of God, and giving glory to the name of Jesus, their Redeemer. Peace and cheerful countenances dwelt in the tents of the believing Esquimaux.' p. 16.
What else is it than the spreading of this moral cultivation over the vast and dreary extent of that Pagan wilderness, which is every where around us, that can lead to the accomplishment of the following prophecies?" Israel shall blossom and bud and fill the "face of the world with fruit." "The wilderness and solitary place "shall be glad for them, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom
"" as the rose. "In the wilderness shall waters break out, and "streams in the desert, and the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water. In the habitation of dragons where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and "rushes."
They were detained from the 3d to the 15th of July, in Nullatartok bay, by the quantity of drift ice which set in upon the coast. This gave them time for exploring the neighbourhood; and these observant men neglect nothing in their power that can
be turned to useful information for future travellers. They make minutes of the bays, points, and islands, with which they are made acquainted by the natives. They record the face of the country, and the appearance of its mineralogical productions. They take great interest in relating the manners and peculiar practices of the people. They make collections of plants, and are amused with the examination of them. In a word, they notice all and record all, which can give interest to the narrative of an accomplished traveller ; and the only additions which they graft upon all this, are a constant recognition of God, and an eye steadily fixed on his glory. Can it be this which has so long repelled the attention of worldly men from their labours and enterprises? which made their good be evil spoken of? and which, till within these few years, restrained them from offering to the public a mass of solid information that has now perished from the memory, and cannot be recalled?
The following is a specimen of the manner in which they mingle the business of piety, with the business of ordinary travellers.
• Perceiving that our abode in this place might be of some duration, we for the first time pitched our tents on shore. Our morning and evening devotion was attended by the whole party, and on Sundays we read the Litany and conducted the service in the usual way, which proved to us and our Esquimaux, of great comfort and encouragement in all difficulties. We were detained here by the ice from the 3d to the 15th, and our faith and patience were frequently put to the trial. Meanwhile we found much pleasure in walking up the acclivities of the hills and into the fine green and flowery vallies around us. p. 22.
• 6th. In the evening we met in Jonathan's tent. Brother Kohlo meister addressed the company, and reminded them that to day the holy communion would be celebrated in our congregations, which we could not do in this place under present circumstances. Then, kneeling clown, he offered up a fervent prayer, entreating the Lord not to forget us in this wilderness, but to give us to feel his all reviving pre.. sence, and to feed our hungry and thirsty souls out of the fulness of his grace. A comfortable sense of his love and peace, filled all our hearts on this occasion.'
On the 16th, they advanced to Nachvak, and the scene of magnificence which opened upon them here, is well described by our travellers.
16th. The view we had of the magnificent mountains of Nachyak, especially about sun rise, afforded us and our Esquimaux great gratification. Their south east extremity much resembles Saddle island, near Okkak, being high, steep, and of singular shape. These mountains in general are not unlike those of Kanmayok for picturesque outline. In one place tremendous precipices form a vast
amphitheatre surmounted by a ledge of green sod which seemed to be the resort of an immense number of sea-gulls and other fowls never interrupted by the intrusion of man. They flew with loud screams backwards and forwards over our heads, as if to warn off such unwelcome visitors. In another place a narrow chasm opens into the mountain widening into a lagoon, the surrounding rocks resembling the ruins of a large Gothic building, with the green ocean for its pavement and the sky for its dome. The weather being fine, and the sun cheering us with his bright rays, after a cold and sleepless night, we seemed to acquire new vigour by the contemplation of the grand features of nature around us. We now perceived some Esquimaux with a woman's boat in a small bay, preparing to steer for Nachvak. They fired their pieces, and called to us to join them as they had discovered a stranded whale. Going on shore to survey the remains of this huge animal, we found it by no means a pleasant sight. It lay upon the rocks, occupying a space thirty feet in diameter, but was much shattered, and in a decaying state. Our people however cut off a quantity of blubber from its lips. The greater part of the blubber of this fish was lost, as the Esquimaux had no means of conveying it to Okkak.' p. 26.
The following description of the manner in which the Esquimaux catch salmon-truut, is, we believe, a novelty.
• The Esquimaux about Okkak and Saeglek, catch them in winter ander the ice by spearing. For this purpose they make two holes in the ice about eight inches in diameter, and six feet asunder in a direction from north to south. The northern hole they screen from the sun by a bank of snow about four feet in height, raised in a semi-circle round its southern edge, and fc m another similar bank on the northside of the southern hole, sloped in such a manner as to reflect the rays of the sun into it. The Esquimaux then lies down with his face close to the northern aperture, beneath which the water is strongly illuminated by the sun beams entering at the southern. In his left hand he holds a red string with which he plays in the water to allure the fish, and in his right a spear ready to strike them as they approach. In this manner they soon take as many as they want.' p. 28.
At Nachvak they had frequent opportunities of converse with the natives, and we know of no question more interesting than that which proposes the consideration of the best method of addressing Christianity to the minds of men totally unfurnished with any preparatory conceptions upon the subject. On other subjects of inquiry, the rashness of the theorizing spirit is exploded, and all speculation is made to vanish before the evidence of experiment. To the evidence on this question the Moravians are making daily additions ; and the whole history of their proceedings, bears testimony to the fact, that the Gospel is never preached in power but when it is preached in simplicity; that the refinements of men do but enseeble the impression of it; and that the word of truth, as it came pure from the mouth of Christ, and
of his Apostles, may be addressed to Savages at the very lowest degree in the scale of civilization. When taken in connexion with this principle, we look upon the first meeting of a Christian missionary with Savages, as a circumstance possessing a higher interest than any other thing that can be recorded of the intercourse of man with man; and the interest is considerably heightened, when, instead of the accomplished missionary, it is the Christianized Heathen, who has himself lately experienced the love of the truth, and is become subject to its power, that addresses the words of salvation to the unawakened among his own countrymen. The following is a specimen.
· They (the natives) received the discourses and exhortations of the missionary with reverential attention, but those of their own countrymen with still greater eagerness, and, we hope, not without benefit. Jonas once addressed them thus. « We were but lately as
ignorant as you are now: we were long unable to understand the “ comfortable words of the Gospel: we had neither ears to hear, nor “ hearts to receive them, till Jesus by his power opened our hearts and
Now we know what Jesus has done for us, and how great “ the happiness of those souls is, who come unto Him, who love him
as their Saviour, and know that they shall not be lost when this life “ is past. Without this we live in constant fear of death. You will
enjoy the same happiness if you turn to and believe in Jesus. We are not surprised that you do not yet understand us.
We were once “ like you, but now thank Jesus, our Redeemer, with tears of joy, “ that He has revealed Himself unto us." Thus, with cheerful countenances and great energy, did these Christian Esquimaux praise and glorify the name of Christ our Saviour, and declare what he had done for their souls exhorting the Heathen likewise to believe.
• The above address seemed to make a deep impression on the minds of all present. One of their leaders or captains exclaimed with great eagerness in presence of them all," I am determined to be converted « to Jesus " His name is Onalik. He afterwards called upon Brother Kohlmeister, and inquired whether it was the same to which of the three settlements he removed, as it was his firm determination to become a true believer. Brother Kohlmeister answered, That it was indifferent where he lived, if he were only converted and became a child of God and an heir of life eternal. Another named Fullugak. soak made the same declaration, and added that he would no longer live among the Heathen.
• Though the very fickle disposition of the heathen Esquimaux might cause some doubts to arise in our minds as to their putting these good resolutions into practice, yet we hope that the seed of the word of God sown in this place, may not have altogether fallen upon barren ground.' p. 30.
In their progress northward to Cape Chudleigh, they fall in with other parties of the natives; and on the 22d of July we have the following description of an Esquimaux feast, at which the missionary himself addressed the Heathen.