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rescues them from the labour to which they would be no longer equal, and he gives them the repose which age, misfortune, and honest servitude deserve on the purest principles of compassion.

A similar plan of benevolence is adopted by the Honourable Henry Erskine, leading Advocate of the Scotch Bar, as his brother is of the English.'

Many political reflections, and a number of poetical effusions, contribute to diversify these volumes :-in the former, Mr. Pratt manifests the sincere lover of his country *: in the latter department of literature, his merits have been long appreciated by the public.

After all the tours that have made their appearance, we are still in want of a most important view of the actual state of the kingdom, with respect to its manufactures. The influence of this species of employment on the customs and morals of the people is astonishing, and it would find employment for very sagacious and philosophic observers. If Mr. Pratt would mingle rather more of this nature in his tours, and somewhat abate the sentimental part, he would probably obtain the applause of a much more numerous-or at least of a more discriminating-circle of readers.


For DECEMBER, 1801.


Art. 19. A Practical Book of Customs, with Excise, upon all Foreign Articles inported; wherein is exhibited, at one View, the consolidated Customs, and Branches as levied since that Period; with the Law which imposed, Date of its Commencement, total Duty paid, and Drawback now allowed. Also Duties outwards, Bounties and Allowances on British Goods exported, those on the Fisheries, the Duties Coastwise, the Quarantine, Tonnage, and London-Dock Duties; and every Commercial Alteration and Addition, till the 5th of August, 1801 with Tables of Scavage, Baillage, Levant and Russia Duties, &c. &c. The whole intended to inform and assist Commercial Concerns in general. Large 8vo. 103. 6d. To be had of Edward Mascall, at the Custom-House. 1801.

THE first edition of Mr. Mascall's very useful Book of Customs was noticed in our Review for December, 1799.—It were needLess to repeat what we then observed, in regard to the general utility

We think that we here recognize, in one of the chapters of Vol. II. (Letter XVII.) the contents of a small pamphlet some time since circulated under the title of "Our good old Castle on the Rock." See Rev. N. S. vol. xxvii. p. 462.


of a work of this kind; we shall therefore, on the present occasion, speak only to the leading circumstances of the second edition :-in doing which, we cannot better acquit ourselves than by transcribing the author's own account of what he has performed, viz.

The rapid sale the first edition of this work met with, and the continued solicitations of many friends who were unavoidably disappointed of copies, might have been deemed a sufficient inducement for publishing a second: but the principal consideration which influenced me to undertake the task, was a sense of that duty, which, in my public capacity, I owe to the commercial interest at large; being fully aware that, in a republication, I should have an opportunity of making many useful additions, and, at the same time, render some parts more clear and perspicuous; in particular, East-India goods, under the consolidated form, was found in practice to be less universally and clearly understood than it ought to be,-owing to many articles under that arrangement, which are unrated when imported by the East-India Company, standing as rated under every other circumstance of importation.

In order to obviate that difficulty, I have, in this work, arranged all such articles into a table by themselves, with an immediate reference thereto. And in like manner the duties and drawbacks, respectively arising out of the Union Act, &c.—and every other movement of duties payable to the revenue, with reference in the Contents to the folio; conceiving it the most ready method of explanation and practice.'

We cannot but consider this book as the most complete work of the kind that has yet been offered to the public; particularly to the mercantile part of the first commercial nation in the world.


Art. 20. The Natural History of the Tea-Tree, with Observations on the Medical Qualities of Tea, and on the Effects of TeaDrinking. A New Edition. By John Coakley Lettsom, M.D. 4to. Pp. 102. With coloured Engravings. (No Price marked.) Dilly.

This splendid pamphlet contains a collection of every important circumstance relating to the Natural History of the Tea-Tree. The first edition, printed in 1772, we believe, escaped our notice :-the present is enlarged, and adorned with an additional number of prints.

We shall pass over the first part of this work, which is merely a compilation from different writers, in order to notice the Medical History of Tea; so long a subject of dispute among the Faculty. Dr. Lettsom found that the odorous water, distilled from green tea, possessed narcotic qualities. The natives of China, from their experience of these properties in tea which retains its fragrance, never use tea till it has been kept for twelve months.

The generality of healthy persons find themselves not apparently affected by the use of tea: it seems to them a grateful refreshment, both fitting them for labour and refreshing them after it. There are instances of persons who have drank it from their infancy, to old

age; have led, at the same time, active, if not laborious lives; and yet never felt any ill effects from the constant use of it.

• Where this has been the case, the subjects of both sexes were for the most part healthy, strong, active, and temperate. Amongst the less hardy and robust, we find complaints, which are ascribed to tea, by the parties themselves. Some complain that after a tea breakfast, they find themselves rather fluttered; their hands less steady in writing, or any other employment that requires an exact command of spirits. This probably soon goes off, and they feel no other injury from it. Others again bear it well in the morning, but from drinking it in the afternoon, find themselves very easily agi tated, and affected with a kind of involuntary trembling.

There are many people who cannot bear to drink a single dish of tea, without being immediately sick and disordered at the stomach to some it gives excruciating pain about that part, attended with general tremours. But in general the most tender and delicate constitutions are most affected by the free use of tea; being frequently attacked with pains in the stomach and bowels; spasmodic affections, attended with a copious discharge of limpid urine, and great agitation of spirits on the least noise, hurry, or disturbance.'

Several cases are mentioned, in support of this general statement; and Dr. Lettsom adds that spitting of blood has been occasioned by breathing in an air loaded with the fine dust of tea:

It is customary for those who deal largely in this article to mix different kinds together, so as to suit the different palates of their customers. This is generally performed in the back part of their shops, several chests perhaps being mixed together at the same time. Those who are much employed in this work are at at length very often sufferers by it; some are seized with sudden bleedings from the lungs or from the nostrils; and others attacked with violent coughs, ending in consumptions.'

In this instance, however, the action of the tea is probably mechanical, like that of flour or stone-dust.-The noxious effects of tea are probably over-rated: that it is a narcotic, we cannot doubt: buz it is not difficult to suppose that the constitution becomes so habituated to its action as to bear it without injury, when we consider how little evil arises from the use of a much stronger narcoticTobacco.


Art. 21. A Treatise on the Bath Waters. By George Smith Gibbes, M. D. 8vo. pp. 71. 3s. Robinsons. 1800.

This work contains a chemical analysis of the Bath Waters, written with neatness and perspicuity. Dr. Gibbes points out two circumstances, to which attention has not yet been paid, respecting the effects of their external use; viz. the peculiar atmosphere of the Baths, and the power of the siliceous earth contained in the waters.

From the foregoing experiments I am led to believe that the Bath Waters contain some very active principles; besides their heat, which most assuredly increases the action of their other component parts, we find that they lower the purity of the air, by the quantity of azotic gas which is poured forth into the atmosphere over the


Bath. Large quantities of this air must be inspired by those who use the open Bath; and as we know that an alteration in the proportions of the component parts of atmospheric air, will produce evident effects on the human constitution, this circumstance may I think be pointed out with propriety as a source of medical inquiry.: I have been informed by a very learned and scientific person, that siliceous earth has been found to produce, when dissolved in water, some very considerable effects on the animal economy.

As my experiments lead me to believe, that this earth forms a large proportion of the solid contents of these waters, as it appears to be very minutely divided, and as the high temperature may give it activity, I think this circumstance also may be regarded as worthy the attention of medical practitioners.'

The general result of the experiments is thus given:

1. The temperature at a medium in the King's-Bath 114°, in the Hot-Bath a little above that of the King's Bath, and in the Cross-Bath, about 96o.

2. In the water, carbonic acid gas and azotic gas in very small quantities. The carbonic acid sursaturates the carbonate of lime which is evolved by boiling. The following aeriform fluids escape from the springs through the water, and appear in bubbles on the surface:

a.-Azotic gas
b.-Carbonic acid gas
c.-Oxygen gas





3. Iron in a state of extreme division, the quantities in conse quence of its apparent volatility not to be estimated. According to some writers, the King's-Bath contains the largest portion.

4. Sulphate of lime or selenite in the proportion of,40 of the solid residuum.


5. Supersaturated carbonate of lime,20.

6. Silex,15.

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7. Alum, or sulphate of alumine ,05.

8. Common salt and sulphate of soda,20.

The solid matter forms about a 660th part of these waters.

• The sand which is thrown up by these springs is composed of silex, selenite, carbonate of lime, some sulphur, and some particles of iron which have been found to be attracted by the magnet.'

A second part of this performance is announced, which will contain an account of the medical properties of these waters.

Art, 22. A candid Inquiry into the Education, Qualifications, and Offices of a Surgeon Apothecary; the several Branches of the Profession being distinctly treated on, and suitable Methodical Forms annexed; besides, various other Topics connected with the principal Offices are also subjoined. By Mr. James Lucas, late a Surgeon of the Leeds Infirmary, &c. 12mo. PP. 340. 5S. Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. 1800.

This is a sensible tract, and contains many observations which may be advantageously perused by students and young practitioners.. The


author writes like a man of just and liberal notions; and it certainly is of great moment to the public, that the numerous body of men, whose qualifications he appreciates, should be as well educated as Mr. Lucas requires, and should act on as candid and generous principles as those which he inculcates. A weighty trust is reposed in their hands; to be responsible for which, uncommon acquirements and attention are necessary.

Art. 23.

An Essay on Phlegmatia Dolens, including an Account of the Symptoms, Causes, and Cure of Peritonitis Puerperalis & Conjunctiva, &c. &c. By John Hull, M. D. 8vo. PP. 368.

6s. 6d. Boards. Bickerstaff. 1800.

The disease termed Phlegmatia Dolens is a swelling of one or both of the lower extremities, which sometimes happens during the Puerperal State, and which has been described by many authors. The present writer supposes it to depend on an inflammatory affection of the muscles, cellular membrane, and inferior surface of the cutis ; suddenly producing an effusion of serum and coagulating lymph from the exhalents, into the cellular membrane of the limb. The method of cure, which he proposes, consists in general evacuations, sedatives, and warm bathing; and, as topical applications, leeches, poultices, and fomentations are recommended. Several cases of the disease are given; and this verbose production also abounds with very long extracts from different writers. So little of the volume consists of the author's own remarks, that it would have appeared to more advantage if it had been considerably abridged; especially when we consider that Dr. Hull's theory of the disease is unsatisfactory, and that he has thrown little light on the method of cure.

Art. 24. Medicine Praxeos Compendium, &c. Auctore E. G. Clarke, M. D. Editio Secunda, Plurimum aucta et emendata. 12mo. 58. sewed. Johnson, &c.


We have formerly noticed the first edition of Dr. Clarke's Abstract. (See Rev. vol. xxix. N. S. p. 456.) Of the present, we can only say that it is somewhat enlarged: the character of the work, in course, remains the same.

Art. 25. The Physician's Portable Library, or Compendium of the Modern Practice of Physic. In which the Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of all the Diseases incident to the Human Body are clearly and fully delivered; together with the Virtues, Doses, and proper Exhibition of all the Medicinal Simples and Compositions directed in the last London and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias. To which are added, Tables of the new Names adopted by each College, and of their Reference to those formerly in Use. By Brabazon Smith, M. D. 12mo. 5s. Boards. Matthews. 1890. This small work contains a short account of the principal diseases for which physicians are generally consulted: but we fear that it is too brief to be of much service, excepting to very young beginners. Most of the articles do not greatly exceed the length of the titlepage, and we shall follow the author's example in our criticism.

REV. DEC. 1801.



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