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uncouth dialect, and wearing a singular dress. The race up to Derby struck them with more dread than admiration. But it was difficult to say what the effect might have been, had either the battle of Preston or Falkirk been fought and won during the advance into England.
Note FF, p. 266. Tuk CARVALIER'S ARMY. Divisions early showed themselves in the Chevalier's little army, not only amongst the independent chieftains, who were far too proud to brook subjection to each other, but betwixt the Scots, and Charles's governor O'Sullivan, an Irishman by birth, who, with some of his countrymen bred in the Irish Brigade in the service of the King of France, had an influence with the Adventurer, much resented by the Highlanders, who were sensible that their own clans made the chief or ratber the only strength of his enterprise. There was a seud, also, between Lord George Murray, and James Murray of Broughton, the Prince's secretary, whose disunion greatly embarrassed the affairs of the Adventurer. In general, a thousand different pretensions divided their lillle army, and finally contributed in no small degree to its overthrow.
Note GG, p. 292. FIELD-PIECE IN THR HIGHLAND ARMY. This circumstance, which is historical, as well as the description that precedes it, will remind the reader of the war of La Vendée, in which the royalists, consisting chiefly of insurgent peasantry, attached a prodigious and even superstitious interest to the possession of a piece of brass ordnance, wbich they called Marie Jeane.
The Higblanders of an early period were afraid of cannon, with the noise and effect of which they were totally unacquainted. It was by means of three or four small pieces of artillery, that the Earls of Huntly and Errol, in James VI.'s time, gained a great victory at Glenlivat, over a numerous Highland army, commanded by the Earl of Argyle. At the ballle of the Bridge of Dee, General Middleton obtained by bis artillery a similar success, the Highlanders not being able to stand the discharge of Musket's-Mother, which was the name they bestowed on great-guns. In an old ballad on the battle of the Bridge of Dee, these verses occur:
The Higlandmen are pretty men
For handling sword and shield,
To stand a stricken field.
For target and claymore,
To face ihe cannon's roar.
Like thunder in the air;
Would face the cannon fair.
But the Highlanders of 1745 bad got far beyond the simplicity of their forefathers, and showed throughout the whole war how little they dreaded artillery, although the common people still attached some consequence to the possession of the field-piece, which led to this disquisition
Note HH, p. 304. ANDERSON OF WHITBURGA. The faithful friend who pointed out the pass by which the Highlanders moved from Tranent to Sealon, was Robert Anderson, junior, of Whitburgh, a gentleman of property in East Lothian. He had been interrogated by the Lord George Murray concerning the possibility of crossing the uncouth and marshy piece of ground which divided the armies, and which he described as impracticable. When dismissed, be recollected that there was a circuitous path leading eastward through the marsh into the plain, by which the Highlanders might turn the flank of Sir John Cope's position, without being exposed to the enemy's fire. Having mentioned his opinion to Mr. Hepburn of Keith, who instantly saw its importance, he was encouraged by that gentleman to awake Lord George Murray, and communicate the idea to him. Lord George received the information with grateful thanks, and instantly awakened Prince Charles, who was sleeping in the field with a bunch of pease under his head. The Adventurer received with alacrity the news that here was a possibility of bringing an excellently provided army to a decisive battle with his own irregular forces. His joy on the occasion was not very consistent with the charge of cowardice brought against him by Chevalier Johnstone, a discontented follower, whose Memoirs possess at least as much of a romantic as a historical character. Even by the account of the Chevalier bimself, the Prince was at the bead of the second line of the Highland army during the battle, of which he says, “It was gained with such rapidity, that in the second line, where I was still by the side of the Prince, we saw no other enemy than those wbo were lying on the ground killed and wounded, though we were not more than fifty paces behind our first line, running always as fast as we could to overtake them."
This passage in the Chevalier's Memoirs places the Prince within fifty paces of the heat of the battle, a position which would never have been the choice of one unwilling to take a sbare of its dangers. Indeed, unless the chiefs bad complied with the young Adventurer's proposal to lead the van in person, it does not appear that he could bave been deeper in the action.
Note II, p. 308. DRATH OF COLONEL GARDINER. The death of this good Christian and gallant man is thus given by his affectionate biographer, Dr. Dodaridge, from the evidence of eyewitnesses:
“He continued all night under arms, wrapped up in his cloak, and generally sheltered under a rick of barley, which happened to be in the field. About three in the morning he called his domestic servants to him,
of which there were four in waiting. He dismissed three of them with most affectionate Christian advice, and such solemn cbarges relating to the performance of their duty, and the care of their souls, as seemed plainly to intimate that he apprehended it was at least very probable he was taking his last farewell of ibem. There is great reason to believe that he spent the little remainder of the time, which could not be much above an hour, in those devout exercises of soul which bad been so long babitual to him, and to which so many circumstances did then concur to call him. The army was alarmed by break of day, by the noise of the rebels' approach, and the attack was made before sunrise, yet when it was light enough to discern what passed. As soon as the enemy came within gunshot they made a furious fire; and it is said that the dragoons which conslituted ihe left wing immediately fled. The Colonel at the beginning of the onset, which in the whole lasted but a few minutes, received a wound by a bullet in bis left breast, which made him give a sudden spring in bis saddle; upon which bis servant, who led the horse, would have persuaded' him to retreat, but he said it was only a wound in the flesh, and fought on, though he presently after received a shot in his right thigh. In the meantime, it was discerned that some of the enemy fell by him, and particularly one man, who had made him a treacherous visit but a few days before, with great profession of zeal for the present establishment.
“Events of this kind pass in less time than the description of them can be written, or than it can be read. The Colonel was for a few moments supported by bis men, and particularly by that worthy person Lieutenant-Colonel Whitney, who was shot through the arm here, and a few months after fell nobly at the battle of Falkirk, and by Lieutenant West, a man of distinguished bravery, as also by about fifteen dragoons, who stood by him to the last. But after a faint fire, the regiment in general was seized with a panic; and though their Colonel and some other gallant officers did what they could to rally them once or twice, they ai last took a precipitate flight. And just in the moment when Colonel Gardiner seemed to be making a pause to deliberate what duty required him to do in such circumstances, an accident happened, which must, I think, in the judgment of every worthy and generous man, be allowed a sufficient apology for exposing his life to so great bazard, when bis regiment had left him. He saw a party of the foot, who were then bravely fighting near him, and whom he was ordered lo support, bad no officer to bead them; upon which he said eagerly', in the hearing of the person from whom I bad this account, 'These brave fellows will be cut to pieces for want of a commander,' or words to that effect; which while he was speaking, he rode up to them and cried out, 'Fire on, my lads, and fear nothing. But just as the words were out of bis mouth, a Highlander advanced towards him with a scythe fastened to a long pole, with which he gave bim so dreadful a wound on his right arm, that his sword dropped out of his hand; and at the same time several others coming about him while he was thus dreadfully entangled
with that cruel weapon, he was dragged off from his horse. The moment he fell, another Highlander, who, if the king's evidence at Carlisle may be credited, (as I know not why they should not, though the unbappy creature died donying it,) was one Mac-Naught, who was executed about a year after, gave him a stroke either with a broadsword or a Lochaberaxe (for my informant could not exactly distinguish) on the binder part of his head, which was the mortal blow. All that his faithful attendant saw farther at this time was, that as bis hat was falling off, he took it in his left hand and waved it as a signal to him to retreat, and added what were the last words be ever heard bim speak, “Take care of yourself;' upon which the servant retired."
Some remarkable Passages in the Life of Colonel James Gardiner, by P. Doddridge, DD. London, 1747, p. 187.
I may remark on this extract, that it confirms the account given in the text of the resistance offered by some of the English infantry. Surprised by a force of a peculiar and unusual description, their opposition could not be long or formidable, especially as they were deserted by the cavalry, and those who undertook to manage the artillery. But although the affair was soon decided, I have always understood that many of the infantry showed an inclination to do their duty.
Note KK, p. 308. Tak LAIRD OF BALMAWHAPPLE. It is scarcely necessary to say that the character of this brutal young Laird is entirely imaginary. A gentleman, however, who resembled Balmawbapple in the article of courage only, fell at Preston in the manner described. A Perthshire gentleman of high honour and respectability, one of the handful of cavalry who followed the fortunes of Charles Edward, pursued the fugitive dragoons almost alone till near Saint Clement's Wells, where the efforts of some of the officers had prevailed on a few of them to make a momentary stand. Perceiving at this moment that they were pursued by only one man and a couple of servants, they turned upon him and cut him down with their swords. I remember, when a child, sitting on his grave, where the grass long grew rank and green, distinguishing it from the rest of the field. A female of the family then residing at Saint Clement's Wells used to tell me the tragedy of which she bad been an eye-witness, and showed me in evidence one of the silver clasps of the unfortunate gentleman's waistcoat.
Note LL, p. 320. ANDRBA DE FERRARA. The name of Andrea de Ferrara is inscribed on all the Scottish broadswords which are accounted of peculiar excellence. Who this artist was, wbat were bis fortunes, and when he flourished, have bitherto defied the research of antiquaries; only it is in general believed that Andrea de Ferrara was a Spanish or Italian artificer, brought over by James the IV. or v. to instruct the Scots in the manufacture of sword blades. Most barbarous nations excel in the fabrication of arms; and the Scots bad
altained great proficiency in forging swords, so early as the field of Pinkie; at which period the historian Palten describes them as “all nolably broad and thin, universally made to slice, and of such exceeding good temper, that as I never saw any so good, so I think it hard to devise better." - (Account of Somerset's Expedition.)
It may be observed, that the best and most genuine Andrea Ferraras have a crown marked on the blades.
Note MM, p. 325. Miss NAIRNR. The incident here said to have happened to Flora Mac-Ivor, aclually befell Miss Nairne, a lady with whom the author bad the pleasure of being acquainted. As the Highland army rushed into Edinburgh, Miss Nairne, like other ladies who approved of their cause, stood waving her bandkerchief from a balcony, when a ball from a Highlander's musket, which was discharged by accident, grazed her forehead. “Thank God," said she, the instant she recovered, "that the accident happened to me, whose principles are known. Had it befallen a Whig, they would have said it was done on purpose."
Note NN, p. 369. PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD. The Author of Waverley has been charged with painting the young Adventurer in colours more amiable than bis character deserved. But baving known many individuals who were near his person, he has been described according to the light in which those eye-witnesses saw bis temper and qualifications. Something must be allowed, no doubt, to the natural exaggerations of those who remembered him as the bold and adventurous Prince, in whose cause they had braved death and ruin; but is their evidence to give place entirely to that of a single malcontent?
I have already noticed the imputations thrown by the Chevalier Johnstone on the Prince's courage. But some part at least of that gentleman's tale is purely romantic. It would not, for instance, be supposed, that at ibe time he is favouring us with the highly wrought account of his amour with the adorable Peggie, the Chevalier Jobnstone was a married man, whose grandchild is now alive, or that the whole circumstantial story concerning the outrageous vengeance taken by Gordon of Abbachie on a Presbyterian clergyman, is entirely apocryphal. At the same time it may be admitted, that the Prince, like others of his family, did not esteem the services done him by his adherents so bigbly as he ought. Educated in high ideas of his bereditary right, he has been supposed to have held every exertion and sacrifice made in his cause as too much the duly of the person making it, to merit extravagant gratitude on his part. Dr. King's evidence (which his leaving the Jacobite interest renders somewhat doubtful) goes to strengthen this opinion.
The ingenious editor of Johnstone's Memoirs has quoted a story said to be told by Helvetius, stating that Prince Charles Edward, far from voluntarily embarking on his daring expedition, was literally bound hand and foot, and to which he seems disposed to yield credit. Now, it being