An Introduction to the Science of Phonetics
The book is designed as an introduction to the scientific study of speech. No prior knowledge of phonetics is assumed. As far as mathematical knowlege is concerned, all that is assumed is a knowledge of simple arithmetic and as far as possible concepts are dealt with on an intuitive rather than mathematical level. The anatomical material is all fully explained and illustrated. The book is arranged in four parts. Part 1, Basic Principles, provides an introduction to established phonetic theory and to the principles of phonetic analysis and description, including phonetic transcription. Part 2, Acoustic Phonetics, considers the physical nature of speech sounds as they pass through the air between speaker and hearer. It includes sections on temporal measurement, fundamental frequency, spectra and spectrograms. Part 3, Auditory Phonetics, covers the anatomy of the ear and the perception of loudness, pitch and quality. The final part, Part 4, covers the articulatory production of speech, and shows how experimental techniques and tools can enhance our understanding of the complexities of speech production.
Though the audience for this book is mainly students and professors in the Speech Sciences, it will also be valuable to any students studying hearing science and acoustics. The book is well supported with figures, tables, and practice boxes with experiments.
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The Mechanism of Hearing
Spectra of Speech Sounds
Pitch and Quality
The Vocal Tract As a Resonator
Extending the Set of Speech Sounds
Further Exploration of Speech Complexity
Waveforms and Time Management
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accents acoustic airflow airstream alveolar ridge analysis approximant articulatory closure audible basilar membrane bilabial Cardinal Vowel cartilage chapter close complex wave consonant constriction dB HL dB SPL decibel decibel value described diphthong English example fon/vard formant formant frequencies fricative front fundamental frequency glottis graph harmonics hearing involved labial language larynx Laver lip position listener logarithm loudness lower measurement movement muscles nasal stop normal occur oral cavity peak perception periodic person’s pharynx phonation types phonetic pitch place of articulation plosive Practice produce pure tone range release resonance scale Scottish English segments semitones sequence shape shows signal sine wave sine wave component sound magnitude sound pressure amplitude sound pressure level sound wave speakers spectra spectrogram speech production speech sounds structure syllable symbol threshold tongue position transcription transfer function tube utterance velar velum vocal fold vibration vocal folds vocal tract waveform wavelength word