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nate with human reason, which it Cabinet. It is needless, however, to show leaves not to its own devices, but will the hollowness of all M. Guizot's coaxeither control or reprove its acts and ing and flattering arguments in favour speculations. This is an awkward pe- of Romanism; they carry their own reculiarity both of the reformed and of futation with them to every one who the primitive faith, which are one. It has the smallest instruction in the contravenes and baffles very effectively gospel or in history. the projects and hopes of those who, But we must take notice of another in their career of movement and pro. assertion which that gentleman makes. gress, as they imagine, are impatient Heaffirms that Catholicism is acquiring of impediments and restraints, especi. a revived influence in France. We ally of a religious description. Popery doubt the fact. We have ourselves lately seems to them much more convenient. travelled through many of the French Its anti-rationality is its great recom- provinces for the purpose of ascertain. mendation, for, thereby, it is at the ing their religious state; we possess, actual epoch, and for all future time, also, means of obtaining the most auincapacitated from influencing as a thentic information on the subject, and directing moral power the political all that we have seen and all that we affairs and the secular temper and as have learnt on this matter leads us to pirations of the world. It comports, in conclude that Popery has lost its hold this particular, well with the wilful upon the French populace, never effec. spirit of the age, which would not be tually to recover it. Yet, granting that without spiritual blandishments and we may be under a mistake in this pardelusions, without a nominal religion, ticular, to what does the revival of Cabut only free from allegiance to any tholicism, of which M. Guizot speaks, superior authority over the mind amount ? He has himself described, a species of allegiance which the in the little work before us, that superChurch of Rome can never again ob. stition, when thinking to do it honour, tain, but which the reformed Church as the Cloaque, the common sewer of enforces pertinaciously, and extorts human infirmities, as a fit receptacle even from the rebellious, frustrating, only for the discased and the rickety or moderating, or leavening with her in understanding, for those who can own will all their schemes.
only think and feel passively by reFrom whatever cause it may have ceiving impressions from others, for arisen, it is certain, at least, that M. those who love, in abandoning themGuizot, in his Essay, shows a strong selves to an external guidance, to sti. partiality towards Popery. He says mulate and becalm their imagination that that superstition has been asso. with opiates, and who are not shocked ciated with all the advances of European but editied, as they deem, by seeing the civilisation, whilst he knows very well most degrading and disgusting mumthat modern civilisation dates from the meries married to pomps and splen. Reformation, and has ever met in dours the most imposing. And at the Catholicism its main antagonist. He same time that he was giving this desays that the Church of Rome first scription of Romanism, a ceremony, proclaimed the distinction between the which affords a choice illustration of spiritual and temporal power, and is the truth of this description under its thus the mother of civil liberty all most striking aspect, took place in over the world, whilst he knows what. Paris. There, in one of the first ever contrary doctrine, at a particular churches, the one where the royal famoment, for a subdolous purpose, may mily and the chief nobility are to be have been announced by that church, seen most frequently, three church she has ever been the direst foe of bells have lately been christened. freedom of all kinds; and that, far The Duke de Berwick and the Count from renouncing her claims to supre. de Lobau were the godfathers, and macy over kings and governments, two noble dames, whose names we have despite the distinction she is asserted forgotten, the godmothers. The bells to have made, she has ever, when she were covered with white linen,-the has had the power, held fast by them; sign of the cross was traced upon and that no later than eight years ago, them, they were sprinkled with holy Charles X. of France was hurled from water, and solemnly baptized in the his throne, in consequence of yielding to name of the Father, the Son, and the her pretensions to direct his councils, Holy Ghost. And this, and such ceand mould to her will the policy of his remonials as this, constitute the revi. val of Catholicism, in which M. Guizot extensive establishment in France, and rejoices. By such abominable exte- from the encouragement it is meeting rior rites, and by an internal supersti- with from the French Government, tiousness so forcibly depicted by his has no severity from that quarter to eloquent pen, the Romish, as distinct fear, but, on the contrary, much profrom the Protestant faith, is alone to motive kindness to trust in, it is clear be discriminated. When one, there that the emphatic reiterated must of fore, who is not a Catholic, and who M. Guizot is to fall upon Protestantprofesses not to be an infidel, congra. ism. tulates his country upon the reascen. The French Protestants form a dency of these abominations, as exhi. weak party, and the few of that denobiting a genuine expression of Chris. mination, who are zealous for the protianity, he is guilty of the most blasphe. pagation of their creed, are a compact mous outrage upon Christ and his g03. little body, peculiarly exposed to aspel it is possible to conceive. Popery is sault and oppression from the tempoa delusion, infidelity is a denial of reve- ral authorities. They, too, have been lation altogether ; but when an indivi- of late years, and are likely to condual, who is neither Papist nor unbe- tinue to be, the only disturbers of the liever, sets forth a crapulous tawdry pacification scheme. It is evident, mockery, which his judgment must therefore, at whom the thunder of M. abhor, and which he has himself con. Guizot's MUST is pointed. He has fessed to be adapted only to mental been put forward to prepare the way feebleness, as the Christian religion, for some tyrannic policy, of which the he pours a scalding ignominy upon evangelical Protestants of France are that religion such as it has never be. . to be the victims. Whenever any fore received. Neither the corruption atrocious act of public injustice is to nor the renunciation of Christianity be perpetrated in that country, it is are so dishonouring and deadly to it as sure to be preceded by a pompous its identification with imbecility, or a display of set phrases, in which the fantastic indolence and enthusiasm of liberality and enlightenments of ty. the fancy, which is equivalent to a re- ranny are sought to be demonstrated ; linquishment of the reasoning faculties, and as words usually stand for things
But it is time now to lift the veil with Frenchmen, this verbal logic, in from M. Guizot's real motive in pub- the face of contradictory facts, suffices lishing the Essay on which we are generally to persuade them that they commenting. The pacification be- possess the freedom and superlative tween powers essentially antagonistic, wisdom of which so loud a boast is however dogmatically and impiously made. insisted on, is evidently proposed We do not mean, nevertheless, to merely as a mask to conceal his real be understood that the French Go. object. M. Guizot is not a man se- vernment is bigoted, or bas any disriously to recommend an impractica. position to enter on a course of relibility, or to waste his time on abstruse, gious persecution. On the contrary, flimsy germanisms. The purpose of we are thoroughly convinced that nohis production before us is, no doubt, thing can be more distasteful or aba specific one; and it is not difficult horrent to the incliuations of that to discover what that is. He an- government than conduct of this nounces emphatically, at the begin- character. The desire of Louis ning, in the middle, and at the close Philippe, of his Ministers, and of the of his article, that the pacification of whole Legislature of France, is, I am which he speaks must take place; and persuaded, to be largely tolerant in all this triple reiteration of the word must, which relates to religion. But this in the same sense, printed in italics, tolerating spirit has its origin in an opened our eyes at once to the mean. impartial indifference towards all ing and jet of his whole argument. creeds, or rather perhaps in the lati. The must proclaims, most assuredly, tudinarian sentiment respecting Chrissome premeditated physical restraint tian faiths, which M. Guizot's Essay to be imposed upon one, at least, of 80 vividly exhibits. Proselytism, the three powers on which he des- therefore, appears to them to be a cants.
very malignant species of supersti. Now, as it is manifest that infidelity tion; and they would consequently is not liable to constraint of this kind, check the zeal of Protestants to make and that Catholicism, both from its converts in the same degree as they would keep down the dominating ex. sublime to the ridiculous, so also there clusive pretensions of Popery, or pro- is only one step from the ridiculous to bably with much greater severity. the sublime. M. Guizot himself has Should Protestantism remain quiet said with brilliant and profound conwithin its present bounds in France, ciseness :-" Quand on a raison, on a it would assuredly receive their pro. souvent beaucoup plus raison qu'on ne tection, and be guarded scrupulously croit," - which may be thus parafrom all molestation. But all efforts phrased :-“ a right principle, vigorthat may be made to extend its in- ously asserted, may stretch in its confluence in an aggressive direction up. sequences infinitely beyond the most on the pagan irreligiousness which sanguine anticipations." There are, overspreads that land, brought about besides, many considerations which by the Church of Rome, by exposing should elevate the hope of zealous the errors of that church, will certain. Protestants to take a wide view of the ly be met by the utmost repressive work which Providence has entrusted rigour from the French judicial tri.. to them in France; and the principal bunals. Instances of this have already of these is, that the place which reli. several times occurred, in which jus. gion should hold in the heart of man tice and law, the Charte and the most is there unoccupied, whether by infi. indisputable principles of religious delity, or philosophy, or superstition, freedom, have been set aside, in order or any strong popular interest in pubto obstruct the progress of the Gospel. lic affairs, or revolutionary passion, all And we perceive a very clear intima- of which have fallen into a febrile tion in the pages under our review,, atrophy, whilst the void which is left that proceedings of this kind are to in the bosoms of Frenchmen is so be systematically persevered in, when- painfuily felt, that there is a cry for ever occasion may offer, for the same spiritual aliment from one end of the purpose.
land to the other. " Who will show It behoves, then, French Protest. us any good ?" is the question with ants to understand well their position, which every production that issues and they cannot do this without under- from the French press teems-the standing their own importance. If burden of the intellect and of the they consider themselves as what they affections of the whole nation. To numerically are, a mere fraction of that nation then, at large, Protestantthe French population ; if they regard ism should address itself; and if the themselves as nationally an insignifie Evangelical party of that kingdom cant body of men ; if they believe were thorougly convinced of this_if that the action of their zeal should be they comprehended the grandeur of confined to narrow circles; that indi. their mission, they would derive in. vidual conversions, however numer. spiration from the large perspective it ous, should form the limit of their opens before them; and every effort hope, they misconceive, we appre- to discourage or restrain their zeal hend, the peculiar nature of their would only afford them proof of situation. Its peculiarity and its ex- their past success, and, instead of distreme momentousness consists in this, heartening, would bring with it a fresh viz., that the great mass of their supply of courage to speed them on countrymen, Popish and Infidel, must their philanthropic career. It is the receive the light of the Gospel from genius of the Gospel to produce by them, or they will, according to all small despised means great effects. human appearances, never be visited These great effects should, conseby it at all. In Popery for the intellect, quently, never be lost sight of. To and beyond Protestantism, there is no entertain petty prospects as the result Christianity. If Frenchmen, there. of the proclamation and energetic fore, cannot be brought over to the enforcement of divine truth, is to adoption of the reformed faith, they betray a sentiment strongly akin to must for ever remain destitute of reliincredulity ; and this very pettiness gion. The thought that this great of prospect, which springs from a change among them may be to any shrunken timid soul, delivers over considerable extent effected, may, we those who aspire not beyond it an know, strike our readers as preposter- easy prey into the hands of the opously absurd ; yet they should reflect, pressor. that as there is but one step from the
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
The question of Liberty and Neces- this deprivation actually takes place, sity has been more perplexed and im- and let us ask, What difference would peded in its solution by the confound. it make in the general aspect and coning of a peculiar and very important dition of things ? As far as the objects distinction, than by all the other mis- of the external universe, animals and takes and oversights burdened upon. so forth, are concerned, it would conit besides. The distinction to which fessedly make none; for all these are we allude is one which ought to be without consciousness at any rate, and constantly kept in mind, and followed therefore cannot be affected by its about as a clue throughout the whole sence. The stupendous machinery of philosophy of man— the distinction, nature would move round precisely as namely, between one's existence for heretofore. But what difference would others, and one's existence for one's. the absence of consciousness make in self, or, in other words, the distinction the condition of man? Little or none, between unconscious and conscious we reply, in the eyes of a spectator ab existence. This distinction, we re. extra. In the eyes of a Being differmark, is very commonly confounded; ent from man, and who regards him, that is to say, the separate species of we shall suppose, from some other existence specified, instead of being sphere, man's ongoings without conregarded as tuo, are generally regard. sciousness would be the same, or neared as only one ; and the consequence ly the same, as they were with conis, that all the subsequent conclusions sciousness. Such a Being would ocof psychology are more or less per- cupy precisely the same position toplexed and vitiated by this radical wards the unconscious man as the entanglement, and more particularly conscious man at present holds tois the great question just mentioned wards the unconscious objects of creainvolved in obscurity thereby, and, to tion; that is to say, man would still all appearance, doomed to revolve in exist for this Being, and for him would the weary rounds of endless and barren evolve all his varied phenomena. We speculation. We have already, in are not to suppose that man in this various parts of this discussion, endean case would be cut off from any of those voured to establish a complete distinc. sources of inspiration which make him tion between these two kinds of being; a rational, a passionate, a sentient, and now, with a view of throwing and an imaginative creature. On the some light on the intricate question of contrary, by reason of the very abLiberty and Necessity, not derived sence of consciousness, the flood-gates from reasoning, but from immediate of his being would stand wider than fact, we proceed to illustrate and en before, and let in upon him stronger force this discrimination more strenu and deeper currents of inspiration. ously than ever.
He would still be visited by all his What, then, is our existence for manifold sensations, and by all the others; and in what respect is it to be effects they bring along with them ; taken into account in a scientific esti- he would still be the creature of pleamate of ourselves ? A little reflection sure and of pain ; his emotions and will explain to us what it is, together desires would be the same as ever, or with all its actual or possible accom- even more overwhelming ; be would paniments.
still be the inspired slave of all his soft It will be admitted that except in and all his sanguinary passions, for, man there is no consciousness any observe, we are not supposing him de. where throughout the universe. If, prived of any of these states of being, therefore, man were deprived of con. but only of the consciousness, or resciousness, the whole universe, and all ference to self, of them-only of that that dwell therein, would be destitute notion and reality of self which geneof that act, Let us suppose, then, that rally accompanies them-a partial curtailment perfectly conceivable, and one out any consciousness of them on the which sometimes actually takes place; part of the apparent and immediate for instance, in that abnormal condi- agent. Suppose man to be actuated tion of humanity denominated some throughout his whole nature by the nambulism. In the case we are sup- might of some foreign agency; and he posing, then, man's reason or intelli. may realize the most stupendous opegence would still be left to him. He rations, and yet remain in darkness, would still be a mathematician like the and incognizant of them all the while. bee, and like the beaver a builder of A cognizance of these operations cercities. He might still, too, have a tainly does not necessarily go hand in language and a literature of a certain hand with their performance. What kind, though destitute, of course, of is there in the workings of human all allusions and expressions of a con- passion that consciousness should ne. scious or personal character. But the cessarily accompany it, any more than “ Goddess" or the “ Muse" might it does the tossings of the stormy sea ? and would still infuse into his heart What is there in the radiant emotions the gift of song ; and then an uncon- which issue forth in song, that conscious Homer, blind in soul as well as sciousness should naturally and necesblind in sight, filled by the transmitted sarily accompany them, any more power of some foreign afflatus, might than it does the warblings and the have sung the wrath of an unconscious dazzling verdure of the sun-lit woods? Achilles, and the war waged against What is there in the exercise of reaTroy by heroic somnambulists from son, that consciousness should inevi. Greece. For poetry represents the tably go along with it, any more than derivative and unconscious, just as it accompanies the mechanic skill with philosophy represents the free and which the spider spreads his claggy conscious, elements of humanity; and snares? There is obviously nothing. is itself, according to every notion of The divorce, then, between conscious. it entertained and expressed from the ness, and all these powers and operaearliest times down to the present, an tions, may be conceived as perfectly inspired or fatalistic developement, as complete; and this conception is all is evident from the fact, that all great that is here necessary for thepurposes poets, in the exercise of their art, have of our coming argument. ever referred away their power from Existence, then, together with all themselves to the " God," the “ God. the powers and operations just indi. dess," the “ Muse," or some similar cated, might be truly predicated of source of inspiration always foreign to man, even in his unconscious state. themselves.* “ Est Deus," says the And even more than this might be poet,
affirmed of him. We could not, in. “Est Deus in nobis, agitante calescimus
deed, with propriety, say (the reason illo."
of which will appear by and by) that
man, without consciousness, would be Listen, also, to the testimony of our invested in any degree with a moral own Milton, who, in one of his elegies, character. Yet even here, according gives voice to the belief that he owed to the moral philosophy of Paley and his genius to the spring, and, like his school, in which morality is exa tree in the budding woods, was
the pudding Woods, was pounded as the mere adaptation of wont to blossom into song beneath the means to ends in the production of the vivifying spirit of that genial time.
social welfare_which adaptation might “ Fallor?" he asks,
be perfectly well effected without any “ Fallor ? an et nobis redeunt in carmina
consciousness on the part of man, just vires,
as bees and other animals adapt means Ingeniumque mihi munere veris adest ?”ť.
to ends without being aware of what
they are about_according to this The sublimest works of intelligence, view, man, although unconscious, then, are quite possible; and may be would still be a moral creature. Nei. easily conceived to be executed with ther, without consciousness, would
Hence the truth of the common saying-Poeta nascitur non fit ; an adage which is directly reversed in the case of the philosopher-Philosophus fit non nascitur,
† Miltoni Poemata. Elegia quinta. In adventum Veris.