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1654. We quote the following pas- worship) yet can they not keepe so sage of the conclusion of the treatise much mony from the dice, as to make of “ coot armuris," as a sufficient spe. worshipfull obsequies for their said cimen of the meaning of the Princess fathers with any point of armory : but in the work she had undertaken. despise the same, because (say they)
“ Now certainly of all the signys those his armes were purchased for the wich are founde in armys, as of slips. Most of these desire the title of flouris, leafs, and other maruellys to worship, but none do work the deed kenys, I can not declare here: ther be · that appertaineth thereunto. Aud of so mony. Bot ye shall knaw gener. these that runne so far as will not ally that for all harmys the wich lyght. turne, old women will say, such youth ly any man has seen in his days ye will have their swing, and it be but in have rules sufficient, as I believe, to an halter. The third sort, and worst dyscerne and blese any of theym; and of all, are neither gentle, ungentle, or it be so that ye be not in youre mynde ungentle gentle, but very stubble curs, to hesty or to swyfte in the dyscerning. and be neither doers, sufferers, or well Nor ye may not overryn swiftly the speekers of honors tokens. As of foresayd rules, bot diligently have them late, one of them that was called to in youre mynde, and be not too full worship* in a citie within the province of consaitis. For he that will hunt ij of Middlesex ; unto whom the Herelaris, i von owre; or von while von, haught came, and him saluted with an other while an other, lightly belongs joy of his new office, requesting of him both. Therefore take heede to the to see his cote : who called unto him rules. If so be that they be not a his maid, commanding her to fetch his generall doctrine: yet shall thai pro- cote. So, quoth the man to the Herefute for this sciens gretly.” Here, then, haught, here it is; if ye will buy it, ye was a full disclosure of all the “ mys- shall have time of payment, as first to teries of the gentle craft," of " coat pay halfe in hande, and the rest by armuris,” but made, it must be ob. and by. The Herehaught being someserved, by a lady of high temporal what moved, said, I neither asked rank, of the noble blood of the Barons you for this cote, sheeps-cote or hogsBerners, and of high spiritual rank as cote, but my meaning was to have Prioress : so that we may be sure seene your cote of armes. Armes, nothing was intended by the disclosure quoth he, I would have good legs, for to injure the existing estimation of my armes are indifferent,” &c. But rank.
the popular familiarity with the subGerard Leigh, who followed the jects of heraldry and genealogy, had Prioress at an interval of nearly a begun to have, as we see by this very century, with his “ Accedence of Ar- preface of Gerard Leigh, its effect in morie," retains the same high tone diminishing the esteem in which an. which she employed in speaking of the cestral distinctions were held. The birth and the bearers of arms. As nextimportant work on heraldry which the work is very scarce, a quotation we will mention, shows an essential may not be unacceptable ; it is from transition in popular feeling. In his Preface, addressed “ to the honour. Guillim's “ Display of Heraldry" — able assemblie of gentlemen in the composed, as Anthony-a-Wood asInnes of Court and Chancerie." He serts, by Dr Berkham, Dean of Bosays to them, “ most humblie I be- ching we find that the class of perseech your honors to daine to be patrons sons who, in Gerard Leigh's time, of this my worke, against the middle made light of bearing " cotes," and finger pointings of the ungentiles, dis. were, in his opinion, “ very stubble severed into three unequal parts. The curs," had become admirers of coat arfirst whereof are gentile ungentile. mour, and obtained grants from the Such be they as will rather shewe College of Heralds. Gerard Leigh's armes then beare armes. Who of first edition was in 1562, Guillim's in negligence stop mustard-pots with 1610; and in this interval, which we their father's pedegrees, or otherwise may call the Elizabethan era, we abuse them. The second sort are would place the change from the an. ungentle gentlemen, who being en- cient to the modern sentiment of arishaunced to honour, by their fathers, tocracy. That new order of things on whom (though it were to their owne then began, which has since raised the
* It is almost unnecessary to notice, that “ called to worship,” means “ appoir to a worshipful office.”
national prosperity to so high a pitch, or even the Sovereign ; and it seems in opening to aspiring adventurers of almost demonstrable, that a priori such parts and spirit the avenues which lead a circumstance would give honest inon to fame and fortune. But with dustry an additional impulse, just as this change did undoubtedly fall to it is certainly proved by experience pieces the system which the Prioress, that in fact it does so. It seems, inand Gerard Leigh, and Sir John deed, very happily ordered, that such Ferne, and Bossewell, wished to sup- a source of honour should exist, atport, in giving to the world their heral. tainable without injury to any one, dic and genealogical lore. Their without even diminishing in any way books were read to the full as much the value of the honour to former and as they desired; but their readers were ancient possessors, yet nevertheless not content to sit down with the know- serving very sufficiently to ascertain ledge that this “ Worshipful Dame,” and mark a degree of social rank. or that Ryght Nobull Prince, bore such Genuine antiquaries, too, among whom and such “ cote-armoris,” and came we consider ourselves, are apt to be of such and such gentle houses. The mortified at the change of the cha. sight and the history of the fesses, cross- racter of coats as now granted, as we es, bends, and tressures, the lions ram- hinted above. But when we can get pant, couchant, and saliant, the fleurs. rid of this most natural feeling, and de-lys, the roses, the cinquefoils, of bring our sympathies down to reason, ancient houses, made the blood glow we shall find plenty of ground on in many a plebeian cheek, and many which to build many pleasant thoughts a plebeian heart resolved to win and of even this slipshod heraldry. The wear them. From this time forward, complaint against the modern grants as the succeeding editions of Guillim, of arms made by the kings of arms, up to the last and best in 1724, show, may be summed up in a few wordsheraldic bearings became multiplied, they lack simplicity and unity. A and lost in their multiplication that person who has been engaged in a chaste simplicity which the earlier particular business, chooses to have coats possess. If the subject were suf. some ensigns of his occupation preficiently popular, we could easily served in the shield which he is going prove by quotation how radical the to obtain from Mr Garter or Mr alteration was ; but we fear the lan- Clarencieux or Mr Norroy, to be transguage of the gentle craft is too unin- mitted to his heirs. Garter bows, and telligible to most readers to make a devises the insertion of a butt or an blazon of coats an acceptable topic to Angola goat:—then, his lady wife likes them.
blue, and the College receive an inti. But although the alteration of the mation that Sir John wishes azure to developement of this sentiment is un- be the field :-the knight's son, who is doubtedly mortifying to genuine an- martially inclined, desires that a catiquaries, yet we cannot help thinking valry sword and a pair of holsters may that, as it exists at present, it is of be introduced ; and the daughter will very high utility to society. The bear- have some favourite flower perpetuat. ing of arms now is one of those re- ed. So (if we may venture upon a sin. wards open to honest industry, which gle blazon) there offers a full' Patent of honest industry covets and values. And Arms, granting and exemplifying to it values it, because the noble houses Sir John and all his issue, azure, three of England have lost, and can lose, Angola goats, browzing on as many none of their attachment to their own mounts, semes of flowers proper, beheraldic ensigns; which no multipli. tween as many falchions erect, pom. cation of modern bearings, no intru- melled and hilted or ; and on a chief sion upon the privileges of arms, can of the third two holster-pistols encounblemish or render less valuable; and tering each other, tlammant and futherefore continue to use and to dis- mant of the second. play them, with as much satisfaction, Now a Howard, a Seymour, or a and as profusely as formerly, though Talbot, may smile at such a coat ; but at other times and on other trappings. the same feeling which clothed their The wealthy commoner who has risen illustrious ancestors with the bend and from the mass of the people, knows, cross-crosslets, the wings in lure, and that with his rise, he will be enabled the rampant lion, clothes Sir John to use an hereditary distinction, of the with his quaintly imagined coat. The same kind with that used by a Peer, old barons fought for their country,
for they loved it; the new knight was who think it worth their while to use honest, patient, industrious, for he them, should certainly be at the pains loved his country too; and both own of coming by them honestly. It ought the common principle of our nature in to be understood, that the circumseeking and claiming a reward, the stance of bearing the name of a family, same in kind.
of which the arms are known and may And further, beyond the stimulus be found, does not in any manner enwhich the desire of heraldic distinc- title a person who wants a coat of arms, tion gives to those who are rising in to take the coat of the family whose the world, there is a benefit arising name he bears. Nothing but descent from it of very high consequence; from a house lawfully bearing arms, namely, the tendency which it has to or a grant from the College, or the unite and hold together the mass of special gift of the Sovereign, can authose who have a stake in the country, thorize their use. Those engravers, for their mutual preservation. No therefore, who advertise in their shopsooner do men distinctly perceive windows “ arms found," are leading themselves to belong to a certain class persons into very serious mistakes; -say that of the armigeri of the and it were very much to be wished three kingdoms—than they feel a com- that the College would interfere, as it mon interest with all their class in all still has the power to prevent the that they think belongs to its safety abuses arising from the practice. and respectability. No matter how But even this delinquency gives wide the chasms between the grades evidence of the estimation in which the of armigeri--and we know they are thing is held. People are unscrupuvery wide-yet, as such, they all are lous as to the means of obtaining what concerned to keep up the hereditary they want ; but they must have felt tenure of respectability, and of the the want strongly before they became property which maintains it. Per so. We have been induced to give haps it may be said that many of those this short notice on a topic which sel-members of the Legislature, for ex. dom comes in our way, because wo ample-who are unscrupulously en- think the times in which we live give gaged in the demolition of our most a value to all which is connected with venerable institutions, are armigeri, the preservation of hereditary rights. nay, men of ancestry. True; but Time was, when heraldic and genea. while they are thus employed in pub- logical pursuits ranked higher than lic, let us enquire what is their con- now; when Peachum did not think duct at home, and what are their sen his “ Compleat Gentleman" to be “ fatiments with regard to their own fa shioned absolute," without a chapter mily and personal consequence ; on heraldry,-when blazoning must whether their own private arrange have been a staple of courtly talk. ments are democratical--and whether And further back still, when belted the levelling system is carried on in earls went into the battle-field with the regime of their domestic establish their arms embroidered on their surments. We shall find, most likely, coats, and their ladies welcomed them that they, too, are bound up by the home to their halls in kirtles adorned strong common tie of standing in so in like manner-it seems hard to unciety, one of the marks of which, as derstand into what situations in life we see, is the bearing of arms; and the ideas of heraldry must not have that with every wish to see their su- entered unbidden. These days are gone periors brought down to them, they -the Earls lie on their altar-tombs have no sympathies with their no less in their surcoats, with their kirtled consistent fellow-democrats, who bear Ladies beside them—the stately ruffled no arms, and think the whole theory and trunk-hosed gentleman of King of gentility useless and burdensome. James I.'s court kneels on his monuWe cannot but protest, without any ment with his sons, and his lady with qualification, against those who assume their daughters, in gradually diminisharms without either hereditary right ing lines behind them and their meor grant from the College. There is a mories only find a resting-place in the regular and simple way in all the three collection of the curious and somewhat kingdoms by which any person who despised antiquary. But if we are as thinks himself competent to bear arms, wise here as they were, we shall take and is able to meet the expenses of a what we have, and use it as we best patent, may obtain them; and those may.
THE ALCESTIS OF EURIPIDES.
TRANSLATED BY MR CHAPMAN
APOLLO. DEATH. HERCULES. ADMETUS. PHERES.
Scene.-Before the Palace of Admetus. Apollo, with his bow and quiver, appears on the stage. Apol. Ah, hospitable roof! where, tho' a god, I condescended to the hireling's board : Zeus was the cause, who, with the lightning's flame, Transfixed my dear son Esculapius; Whereon I slew the Cyclops, in my rage, The one-eyed forgers of his fiery bolts ; In punishment whereof the Sire ordained I should for wages serve a mortal man. Here was my service done, and in this land I tended for my host his flocks and herds, And up to this day have preserved his house, The holy dwelling of a holy man, Admetus; for whose sake I tricked the Fates, And won their promise he should 'scape the death, Then near his door, if he could substitute One willing, in his stead, to satisfy Expectant Hades. But not one he found, Although he went the round of all his friends, Father nor mother, none except his wife, That willing was to encounter death for him, And look upon the pleasant light no more. E'en now, within there, in his arms sustained, She heaves her breath, fast drawing to her end; For on this day she must depart from life. But I have left the dear and friendly roof, To avoid pollution. Lo! here cometh Death, Priest of the dead, at his appointed time, To lead her downward to the shades below.
Apol. Fear not: I hold to justice, and just pleas.
It is my wont
Death. And to aid this house unjustly.
Apol. I'm touched at the distress of one I love.
Take her, then, and go :
Death. To slay the victim due ? it is my task.
Apol. Is't possible Alcestis may survive,
Death. It is not; consider,
Apol. Thy business here is only with one life.
I will not ;
Apol. Hostile to mortals, hateful to the gods.
Apol. Though fierce, yet shalt thou stop in this proceeding;
Death. For all thy words thy gain is nothing more ;
[Apollo quits the scene. Death enters the Palace.
The Chorus then enter in two divisions.
2d Semich. Why is there none to let us know
Ist Semich. Does any hear a lamentation
2d Semich. No! nor is a servant near :-
Ist Semich. The silence, of itself alone, Is token plain she is not gone.
2d Semich. We have not this hope of yours : Whence is it? Speak, and make it ours.
1st Semich. How could Admetus, hid from all, Have made his consort's funeral ?