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To each inhabitant.
Another circumstance has given a tions of personal property rateable which vast impulse to the prosperity of were previously exempted from assessboth provinces. In 1841 a legislativement. I have obtained statements which, union of Upper and Lower Canada although not strictly official, are, I believe, prepared the way for a more har- tolerably correct, of the amounts of the monious action of their population. two valuations (those, namely, for 1851 In 1847 the Imperial Government place under the Act; and I find them to
and 1852) which have already taken formally abandoned all control over
be as follows: the Canadian tariff; and in their next session the colonial legislature
Total assessable Property of Upper abolished the differential duties upon
Canada in the years imports inland, and placed the mother
£36,252,178 7 0 country in the same relative position In order to arrive at the real value, it is
37,695,931 4 as foreigners. From 1841 the devel- believed that 20 per cent at least ought opment of the upper province was to be added to these amounts." most rapid. We have given the population in 1842 at 486,055 souls. The same Report gives us the folIn 1851 it was 952,004, having in- lowing statistics as to the increase of creased nearly 100 per cent in the the wheat crop of Upper Canada :nine years. The total population of Canada—both provinces—was
In 1841, 3,221,991 6.60 In 1841, 1,156,139
7,558,773 10.45 In 1851, 1,842,265
1851, 12,692,852 13.33 Increase, 59.34 per cent.
Nearly quadrupling itself in ten years. But the increase of the wealth and productiveness of Upper Canada was
The wheat crop of Lower Canada
had also increased : it was even more striking than the increase of its population. We quote from the Report of Lord Elgin, presented In 1843,
942,835 1.36 to Parliament February 15, 1853 :
3,075,868 3.46 “ The first returns of the assessable pro- The minot is one-twelfth more than a perty of Upper Canada, as taken under bushel. the Act of 1819, which I have been enabled to procure, are those of 1825. Its
This remarkable increase of the pototal amount is estimated in that year pulation and productiveness of Upper
at £1,854,965 5 0 Canada cannot be accounted for, in
2,407,618 14 8 the ordinary way, as the result of 3,189,862 14 11 emigration direct to the province; 4,608,843 12 C
and herein consists a feature which 6,393,630 16 0
is well worth the serious consideration Another Act (13 & 14 Vict., Cap. 67) of the British public. The following was passed in 1850, requiring the muni- are the statistics of the immigration cipal authorities to assess property at its
for the last six years into both proreal value, and rendering certain descrip- vinces :Whence derived.
1848. 1849. 1850. 1851. 1852. 1853. England and Wales, 6,034 8,980 9,887 9,677 9,276 8,714 Ireland,
16,582 23,126 17,976 22,381 15,983 14,976 Scotland,
3,086 4,984 2,879 7,042 5,477 4,682 Lower ports,
1,106 1,184 435 European Continent, 1,395 436 849 870 7,256 7,278 Total,
27,839 38,494 32,292 41,076 39,176 36,085
To each inhabitant.
» 1835, » 1840, » 1845,
The gross amount of this immigra- States' ports, not because they offer tion-215,000 in six years—is cer- the cheapest route, but because they tainly large as an addition to a popu- afford constant facilities. The St Lawlation of under two millions; but it rence is only open for traffic during does not by any means represent the about seven months out of the twelve; accession of numbers which the country and the competition which the United has acquired from this source. It is States is enabled to carry on successobvious that a large amount of the fully with our shipowners, by means population of the upper province must of her efficient internal communicahave come by the Atlantic ports of tions, compels a large portion of our the United States ; for we find that tonnage to go out to British America the shipping using the ports of Quebec either circuitously, or in ballast, from and Montreal during the past few British ports. This is most strikingly years has actually diminished instead shown by the followingof increasing. The following statement of the number and tonnage of STATEMENT showing the number and tonvessels from sea, which entered in
nage of vessels entered inwards and wards and outwards at the ports of
outwards at the port of Quebec, in 1852,
with cargoes, or in ballast. Quebec and Montreal in each of the six years preceding 1852, is taken
INWARDS. from Lord Elgin's Report:
280,499 1846, 1,699 623,791
OUTWARDS. 1847, 1,444 542,505
1228 1848, 1,350 494,247
None. None. 1849,
In ballast, 1,328 502,513 1850,
1,341 485,905 No ship in ballast can afford to 1851, 1,469 573,397
carry passengers, inasmuch as she His Lordship remarks, in explanation must pay dock and light dues, &c., of this falling off,
which would sweep away the bulk of “During the earlier years of this series, her earnings from such a freight. A while the Canada Corn Act of 1843 was considerable number of our timber in operation, an impulse was given to the ships, therefore, make the outward trade of Quebec and Montreal, by the preference accorded in the markets of Great diverting the legitimate trade of Ca
voyage to a United States port, thus Britain to produce conveyed by the route nada, both with respect to goods and of the St Lawrence. Since that preference has been withdrawn, the facilities passengers, through the United States' afforded by the Government of the United territory and routes to the Far West. States for the transportation, in bond, of To show the extent of this diversion Canadian imports and exports through its
of traffic from its natural course, we territory, and the multiplication of rail- quote again from the very valuable ways connecting the southern bank of the Report of Lord Elgin :St Lawrence with different points on the coast, have diverted a portion of the trade
“ The imports, or principal articles of of that river from the Canadian seaports
British and foreign merchandise entered to those of the United States. As this is for consumption in Canada, during the however, a point of considerable impor. year ending the 5th Jan. 1852, amounted tance to the interests of the lower pro
in value to £4,404,409, 0s. 3d., on which vince especially, it may be well to look £606,114, 5s. of duty was collected ; and into it more closely, with the view of in
the goods in warehouse and in bond on quiring whether there be anything in the
that day were valued at £233,545, 158., nature of the route itself, or in the nature subject to £76,660, 2s. 3d. of duty. The of the trade, which places the route of the
corresponding figures of the year precedSt Lawrence at a disadvantage in com
ing were as follows :peting with others for the trade of the
£3,489,466 3 4 Great West."
Duty collected, 506,050 8 6 It is a well-known fact that a large
Goods warehoused, 150,709 18 7 portion of the emigrants from this
Duties payable thereon, 49,871 13 6 country, whose intended destination of the imports entered for consumption is Canada, go by way of the United there were imported from Great Britain
In 1851 to the value of £2,475,643 14 7 route for their products through the In 1850
1,979,161 16 2 United States. They had provided From the United States
very superior accommodation for the
traffic via the St Lawrence through In 1851 to the value of £1,718,992 17 2 In 1850
1,355,108 6 4"
the great lakes; but there were want
ing facilities by railway and canal for These imports from the United carrying on their growing internal States are not composed either exclu- traffic, and these bave only been in sively or mainly of produce of that course of being supplied within the country. A portion of them are fo- past few years. The capability of the reign products, such as sugar, tea, country, when perfect means of ac&e. ; and the rule is to enter them as commodating its traffic shall have belonging to the country where they been completed, may be estimated by are purchased, unless they are sent the following returns of the receipts under bond.
on the canals in connection with the The want of an independent route great lakes :to the Canadian provinces, and the
CANAL TOLLS. necessity for their imports being made
Gross receipts. Nett receipts. to pay a toll to the United States,
1848, £38,214 1 3 £30,259 1 9 have been a serious hindrance, not 1849, 46,192 8 3 39,479 13 8 only to the growth of this portion of 1850, 54,059 12 3 45,296 7 8 our colonies, but to the prosperity of 1851, 62,640 3 8 52,545 5 6 the British and North American ship
We quote again from Lord Elgin's owners. Unfortunately our colonists
Report : have been behind the citizens of the United States in laying out and per
“A still more striking result is ob
tained, if the total movement of property fectiog railways and canals, to enable
in goods, wares, and merchandise on the them to overcome the difficulties which
principal canals, viz., the Welland, St the climate offers to the navigation of Lawrence, and Chambly, in each of these the St Lawrence. They possessed a years respectively, be compared.
St Lawrence. Chambly.
399,600 288,183 109,0403 1851,
691,6273 450,2005 110,7264" With respect to these canals, which however, has prepared the way for a are so remarkably promoting the trade vastly increased prosperity for Caof Canada, we may explain that the nada, and for the western province Welland and St Lawrence complete a especially. The great grain-growing continuous inland navigation to Chi- country of this province, so far at cago on Lake Michigan, a distance of least as it is at present cultivated1587 miles from tide-water at Quebec. for it is almost without limit—extends Properly constructed vessels, convey- along the banks of the St Lawrence, ing 4000 barrels of flour, or from 350 Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie, to the to 400 tons of freight, can pass through town of Windsor, opposite Detroit, in them. They possess an advantage the State of Michigan, U.S., and within over the United States' route, by the a short distance of the confluence of Erie Canal to New York—the great lakes Erie and Huron, with a vast rival route from the West-inasmuch expanse of country to the westward. as the latter is not capable of trans- A powerful company-the Great Westporting vessels of more than 75 tons ern Railway Company of Canadaburthen. The Chambly Canal con- have formed a line from Montreal to nects Lake Champlain with the river Windsor, passing through the imporRichelieu, which enters the St Law- tant towns of Kingston, Hamilton, rence at Sorel. This canal has of late and Toronto, with a branch line to had to contend against the competi- Lakes Simcoe and Huron, and an intion of a neighbouring railway.
tended continuation to Quebec. Of The enterprise of her population, this line, 228 miles are now open, con
structed at an expense of about and to Halifax in Nova Scotia. An£10,000 per mile, with a single line other line, and what may be consiof rails—the large works, however, be- dered the main line, is being carried ing formed for a double line; and the westward to Montreal, where it will receipts since its opening show a traf- cross the St Lawrence by a tubular fic not only most remunerative to the bridge two miles in length, to be conshareholders, but promising results structed after the design of Robert calculated to promote the prosperity Stephenson, Esq., C.E., the eminent of the colony. It was first open builder of the world-famed viaduct throughout in January last; and in over the Menai Straits, on the Chester the week ending the 20th, the receipts and Holyhead Railway. This gigantic were £3000. On the 27th they were work has already been provisionally £2366; and it must be remarked that contracted for by an eminent English winter will always tell considerably firm—Messrs Peto, Brassey, Betts, upon the traffic of Canadian railways. and Jackson—who have also underIn March the receipts reached £5130 taken the construction of the line, per week, and they have fluctuated 345 miles in length, from Montreal to from about this amount to about Toronto, where it joins the Great £4500 down to May last. The Great Western scheme, and connects the Western Railway must therefore pay whole of Upper and Lower Canada an excellent per-centage upon the ca- with the great lakes and the Western pital invested in its construction, were States of the American Republic. It it even dependent upon its local traffic. is scarcely possible to estimate what It is not so, however, as it forms an must be the effect of the opening out important link in the chain of com- of this magnificent route, by which munication between the St Lawrence, goods and passengers will be transthe New England States of the Ame- ported from the Atlantic seaboard rican Republic, the great grain-pro- along a distance of upwards of 1400 ducing States of Michigan, Ohio, In- miles, the greatest portion of it diana, Illinois, and Wisconsin, south through British territory, to one of of the lakes, and the rich mineral dis- the most fertile and productive tricts of Upper Canada in the north. countries ever brought under the A still more important accession to it, hands of the cultivator. We dare not and one which must give a vast im- speculate upon the growth of the propulse to the prosperity of the whole vince of Upper Canada, when she of British America, will shortly be shall thus have been brought practifurnished by the carrying out of the cally within a fortnight's distance magnificent scheme of the Grand from Europe, and a trip to her noble Trunk Railway of Canada. This scenery becomes no longer regarded scheme, which may with complete as requiring a greater effort than a propriety be regarded as a national journey down the Rhine, or an ordione, has its eastern terminus on the nary run to the Highlands or the Atlantic at Portland, in the State of metropolis. There are circumstances Maine,—to and from which in the in the position of the province, both winter months, when the navigation social and industrial, which must exof the St Lawrence is closed, a line of ercise a powerful influence in its future powerful steamers has been establish- development. The tourist, or the ed from the port of Liverpool, with casual visitor of Upper Canada, bas no which, very shortly, Canada will have longer to report the existence there of a weekly communication. At the a state of society, of which dangerous town of Richmond, about half-way adventure and hard struggle are the between Quebec and Montreal on the prevailing features. At every step in east side of the St Lawrence, and in his progress he will witness social Canadian territory, a line is intended, comfort, order, and the palpable - although not for the present in marks of a prosperity rarely to be met course of construction—to branch off with in the old countries of Europe, to Quebec, and to run along the bank or even in Great Britain, favoured as of the river to Trois Pistoles, where it she has been in her career amongst will ultimately be joined by other lines nations. Thriving towns will be through New Brunswick to St John's, found scattered throughout every portion of the province, inhabited by com- employing the vast water-power of munities essentially British in habits the country for useful purposes and pursuits. Well-stocked farms, promptly seized. Grist-mills offer upon which the log-hut has given themselves upon every stream and place to the substantial brick or stone canal, to enable the cultivator to condwelling, diversify the landscape on vert his grain into the more marketevery side; and what may appear able commodity of flour. Fullingstrange at first to the European ob- mills assist him in the conversion of server, the occupants in almost every his wool into cloth, manufactured by case are privileged to call the soil his own spinning-wheel and loom. which they till their own. Amongst Asheries enable the woodman to prethe yeomanry of Upper Canada there pare his refuse timber into a valuable are thousands who went originally into commodity; and tanneries, founderies, the woods with little beyond their and other similar works, are readily axe and a few months' provisions, accessible throughout both provinces. and are now the comfortable possessors The religious statistics of the country of ample incomes, owners of a few are especially evidence of an advanced hundred acres of the finest land in state of society. Upper Canada has the world, and of a thousand or a 1559 churches for 952,004 adherents. couple of thousand pounds in money, Of these churches 226 belong to the wherewith to meet any emergency, Church of England, 135 are Roman or to push forward any enterprise. Catholic, 471 Methodist, and 148 This population are universally reap. Presbyterians, the remainder belonging å rich reward for their pasting to other denominations. There struggles, and temporary sacrifices of is thus in the province one place of what, in an old country, are regarded worship to every 612 inhabitants, as the comforts of life. The value of and it is estimated that there is acland is increasing rapidly, as new commodation for 470,000 persons. communications are formed with the In Lower Canada there are 610 markets for its produce. Civilisation, churches for 890,261 adherentseducational and religious institutions, 746,866 being Roman Catholics. are being brought into every district There is in the province one place of as rapidly as it is cleared for the cul. worship for every 1459 inhabitants. tivator ; and what is a most desirable Upper Canada, moreover, can now feature in a new country, every such boast of a number of thriving towns, district affords sources of profitable which are progressing in population employment for the industry of its and commerce at an unexampled rate, population of every class and sex and must increasingly progress as the by their own hearths. This is a lead- result of the completion of the railway ing feature in the condition both of facilities which are being provided. The Upper and Lower Canada, but espe- following table gives the value of the cially of the lower province. We imports from all parts of a few of these find every available opportunity of towns during a period of four years:
Kingston, 303,788 384,044 499,040 1,025,492 11,585 The smaller towns of Stanley, Pres- tions with the United States. For cott, Brockville, Oakville, and Co- example, of the total imports into bourg show a similar increase ; and it Toronto in 1851, amounting to must be borne in mind that the returns 2,601,932 dollars, 1,525,620 dollars at present furnished do not give us came from the United States. either the commerce or the population Vastly, however, as Canada and since the Great Western Railway the whole of British America must be line reached any of these places, but benefited by the enterprise at preonly at a period when they were de- sent directed towards the improvependent for most of their imports and ment of the internal communications trade upon their inland communica- of the country, important conse