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ish fleet had reached Previsa, and Aali Pasha, having Selim's orders to seek and fight the Christians, resolved to pass into the neighbouring gulf of Corinth or Lepanto, a convenient position, whence he could undertake any expedition that seemed advisable. When the allied fleet sailed out of Messina, the Pope's nuncio stood upon the quay, blessing each vessel as it quitted the port. Conspicuous amongst all was the royal galley, built three years previously at Barcelona, having its poop covered with delicate carvings and ingenious allegories. Don John of Austria was on board this vessel. All the galleys and ships were well supplied with arms, artillery, and ammunition. Besides the vast number of Spanish, Venetian, Italian, and Maltese knights and nobles who served in the fleet, there were upwards of eighteen hundred adventurers, and persons pertaining to the household of Don John himself. An order of battle was published, to be constantly preserved, when in motion as well as in front of the enemy. It consisted of a vanguard, a main body and wings, and a reserve. The right wing was commanded by Doria, the centre by Don John, the left by the proveditore Agostino Barbarigo, and the reserve by the Marquis of Santa Cruz. At first, circumstances appeared little favourable to the League's formidable armada. The season was already advanced, and the allies encountered severe gales, which retarded their progress, and even compelled them to put in to shore for shelter. At last the weather improved, and on the 27th of September they cast anchor before Corfu. Here a council of war was held, and although some of its members were for half measures, for attacking Turkish forts, and suchlike unimportant operations, others,-Colonna and Barbarigo, and the Marquis of Santa Cruz, and especially Don John himself were for going instantly in search of the enemy's fleet, and assailing it, without a doubt of the victory being theirs. This generous ardour and enthusiasm communicated itself to all present, and it was resolved to follow up the Turk, though he were to take refuge in the very heart and citadel of his dominions.

On the 30th September the combined fleet was moored in the spacious Albanian harbour of Gomeniza, selected by Don John as convenient to pass a review of the whole of the armada, he himself inspecting some of the vessels, and his generals the others. It is related by some historians, (amongst others by Arroyo and Torres Aguilera, both of whom served in the fleet), that upon this occasion, it being the duty of Juan Andrea Doria to inspect the Venetian galleys, General Veniero refused to allow it, and the inspection was passed by another officer, against whom the Venetians were not prejudiced. Afterwards the republican general, either irritated by the contention he had provoked, or in consequence of his naturally irascible character, discharged his ill-humour on a captain named Mucio Tortona, who served in the Italian regiments. This officer having got into a dispute with the crew of a Candian galley, in which he and his soldiers were, the general ordered his arrest. Mucio resisted, and the affair ended by Veniero's having him forcibly seized and bung to the yard-arm of his flagship. Don John considered, as well he might, that this act was unjustifiable, and an insult to his authority, and so great was his anger that he was on the point of hanging Veniero; but the sight of his white hair and the entreaties of the other leaders appeased him, and he contented himself with forbidding the fine old soldier to appear thenceforward at his councils, where Barbarigo replaced him. The threat sufficed to awe the Venetians, and perhaps to prevent other breaches of discipline. But the time was close at hand when such jealousies and quarrels would be forgotten, and when the sole rivalry of Spaniard and Venetian would be, which should most distinguish himself against the common foe. On the 5th October the fleet received intelligence of the fall of Famagusta, and of the unhappy end of its brave defenders. The news of Mustafa's treachery and cruelty inspired all, and especially the Venetians, with an ardent desire of revenge. The wind was unfavourable to the progress of the armada, and for two days it advanced little; but at two hours before daybreak, on the morning of the 7th,

Don John," conquering," says Señor Rosell, "the opposition of the elements, and his soul moved by an irresistible power, gave, to the general astonishment, the signal to weigh anchor." The sun had not long risen when the look-out man on board the royal galley announced a sail in sight, and soon afterwards that he saw the whole Turkish fleet. This news was confirmed by others who ascended the rigging, and by Doria, from his division of the armada; whereupon Don John ordered the standard of the League to be hoisted, and a gun to be fired, in announcement of battle. The whole fleet broke out into loud acclamations.


The Turks, who had left Lepanto the night before, were not less rejoiced than the Christians at the prospect of action. Their force, increased during their stay at Lepanto, was not less than one hundred and twenty thousand men, embarked in two hundred and forty-five galleys, many of them of twenty-eight and thirty benches of rowers, seventy galliots, and a host of inferior vessels. famous corsair, named Caracush, who had been in the disguise of a fisherman, to reconnoitre the Christian fleet, reported its strength as much less than it really was either because he had not seen all the vessels, or that he had made a mistake in counting them, or, as others assert, because he did not wish to discourage his friends. Thus misinformed, it is not surprising that Aali Pasha, at the head of his numerous and well-manned galleys, made sure of victory. The two leaders, therefore, sought each other with a like eagerness, although some of their lieutenants-Doria and Ascanio de la Corna on the one hand, and Uluch Aali and Perteu Pasha on the other would have dissuaded their chiefs from risking so great a combat. Siroco, viceroy of Alexandria, an officer of much valour and wisdom, opposed the pasha's intention, because, he said, after the conquest of Cyprus, and the glorious Albanian expedition, he should remain contented with his laurels and advantages, and not risk all upon the hazard of a general action. But Aali turned a deaf ear to such counsels. As to Don John, when some of his generals, having come on board his galley to learn his final de


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cision, would have urged the propriety of retreat, "Señores," replied the heroic prince, "this is not the time for counsels, but combat;" and he continued giving his orders. As to Veniero, still crestfallen, and perhaps repentant, our historian says that he showed symptoms of apprehension, as if he feared disaster; but it is not surprising that the irritable soldier, who had incurred the disgrace of his chief, should, at such a moment, appear sad and gloomy. In the battle he set an example to the bravest, and won high praise and distinction. Before it began, however, Don John took an opportunity, when going round the fleet in a swift vessel, and encouraging the men by brief but appropriate speeches, to address to him a few kindly words. Then the prince reminded the Venetians of their injuries, and offered them revenge. His address to the Spaniards, as preserved to us by historians, was admirably appropriate to the time, circumstances, and martial and religious spirit of that age. “My children," he said, we have come here to die-to conquer, if Heaven so disposes. Give not occasion for the enemy to ask us, with impious arrogance, Where is your God?' Fight in his Holy name; dead or victorious, immortality will be yours." Joyously were the preparations for action made, under the eyes of the chief, and with the stimulus of his exhortations. But as the fleets approached and deployed, exposing their entire strength to each other's view, their respective commanders found a new cause of uneasiness. Aali, beholding the numerous galleys and admirable order of his foe, saw at once that Caracush had deceived him, and Don John at the same time perceived how false was the news he had received and credited that Uluch Aali and his squadron were detached from the Turkish armada. But it was too late for the Turk to retreat, even if such were his wish; and as to Don John, although he felt how great was the hazard of the enterprise, he thought of his father's exploits, says Señor Rosell, "and fixing his hope in God, and his eyes on a crucifix, which he always carried with him, he thanked Heaven beforehand for his triumph. And as if Heaven favoured him, the


agitation then observable in the waters suddenly ceased, and the wind, previously contrary to our armada, went about and blew against the enemy's prows a change highly favourable to the Christians." The two fleets were nearing each other, when a shot was fired by the Turks, to which Don John, understanding it as a challenge, replied by another. Soon afterwards another shot was exchanged in like manner, and then the prince, placing himself, fully armed, upon the prow of his galley, ordered his trumpets and kettle-drums to sound the combat. Then he and all the fleet, kneeling down, prayed devoutly, and received general absolution from the priests scattered through the squadrons.

The Christian fleet was formed, as it had sailed, in three divisions-a centre and two wings. That of the Turks, which was more numerous, at first presented an unbroken line, in the form of a crescent; but on beholding his enemy's order of battle, Aali adopted one similar, altering his dispositions as he advanced. He himself commanded the centre, Mehemet Siroco the right, Uluch Aali the left, and a number of light vessels formed a reserve. Before the action commenced, Aali Pasha, who was an amiable and humane man, addressed himself to the Christian slaves who rowed his galley. "If the day is to be yours," he said, "God grant it you: but be certain that if I win it, I will set you all at liberty; and therefore do your duty in the work I have intrusted to you.'

It was noon when the action began -beneath an azure sky, and with a brilliant sun gleaming on weapons and armour. As the fleets closed, the Turks, according to their practice, set up loud shouts and horrible vociferations, the Christians silently observing them. The Turkish flag-ship, with Aali on board, and some other galleys from the centre of his line, opened the action with a vigorous cannonade; but on approaching four large Venetian galleys, they received such a terrible broadside that they stopped short as though their prows had struck against a wall; and a second discharge sunk two of them, causing great confusion amongst the others. This was the first incident of the fight, and so far favourable to the League; but soon

the whole line closed, and the contest became general. Don John, recognising Aali's galley by its standard and three lanterns, made towards it. The pasha was equally eager to meet him, and they encountered each other with such fury that the prow of Aali's galley, being the highest of the two, thrust its beak as far as the fourth bench of the Spanish vessel. The shock was terrible, but yet more so was the havoc committed by the artillery and arquebusiers, whilst swords rang loud on shields and armour, and the waters foamed with the agitation of the conflict. Meanwhile Siroco, having, by a rapid movement, turned the flank of the Christians' left wing, dashing in with a few galleys between it and the land, set fiercely upon Barbarigo. Here the Venetians were stationed, as was well to be known, says Señor Rosell, by the fury with which they fought with the murderers of their brethren in Cyprus. Thinking only of attack and not of defence, they fought with uncovered faces, careless of the shower of darts poured upon them. This temerity cost Barbarigo his life; an arrow entered his left eye, he had to be taken to his cabin, and died three days afterwards. His nephew, Marino Contarini, hurrying to assist him when he saw him hard beset, was also slain, and his galley was near being taken, for scarcely any of its defenders remained alive. To Doria, who commanded the right wing, was opposed the fierce Uluch Aali, who, with the view of turning his adversary's flank and taking him in rear, stood out far to sea, compelling Doria to make a corresponding movement, until the Turks, it is said, began to think that he fled, and Don John sent him word not to extend his line so much, because by so doing he left the centre uncovered. At last the action began on this flank also, by a fierce onslaught made by Uluch upon the flag-ship of the Maltese, the corsair's old and inveterate enemies. The prior and the general, Pietro Justiniano, made a valiant defence and took four Turkish galleys, but he was unable to cope with seven others that beset him: the Turks boarded his vessel, and with implacable fury slew all its crew, the only persons who escaped being the prior himself, with five arrow-wounds,

and two other knights, a Spaniard and a Sicilian, who were so badly hurt as to be reckoned amongst the dead. Many were the valiant deeds that signalised that episode of the battle. A French knight, from Burgundy, sprang into a galley of the enemy, killed four of its defenders, and made head against the rest until succour came, and the vessel surrendered. The prior remained the prisoner of a janizary, to whom he offered a large sum as ransom, and Uluch Aali towed behind him in triumph the galley and standard of Malta. It is not our intention here minutely to follow the manoeuvres and incidents of this great battle, which Señor Rosell, in fulfilment of his duty as a historian, traces in all its details. Soon, however, he finds it as impossible to preserve exact order in his narrative as it was to maintain the strict array of the contending fleets. The mêlée became complete; right, left, and centre were mingled together; Spaniards with Turks, Africans with Candiots, the galleys of Venice with the galiots of Barbary. The most bloody and desperate fight was between the two admirals' galleys. There some of the best knights in Christendom contended against Selim's chosen warriors, and the renowned infantry of Spain against the picked men of the janizaries. Don John and Aali had each three hundred arquebusiers, and the Turk, moreover, had one hundred skilful bowmen. The Spanish commander was supported by Colonna and Veniero, the Prince of Parma, Urbino, and other distinguished leaders; Aali and Perteu by Caracush and Saiderbey with two galiots, and ten very strong galleys. Long did the contest last, with fluctuating fortune; Don John fighting, sword in hand, in the thickest of the peril, and Aali using his bow, and displaying great skill and intrepidity. Veniero fought with the impetuosity of a young soldier; Colonna worthily maintained the fame of his illustrious name. Perteu Pasha's galley was taken, and he himself disappeared or drowned, according to some accounts-a fugitive, according to several eyewitnesses of the battle. The Prince of Parma, with the Genoese flag-ship, performed prodigies of valour. Followed by a single Span

ish soldier, Alonzo Dávalos by name, he jumped upon an enemy's galley, and cleared it with his own arm. His friends, who came to his assistance, were shocked to behold him covered with blood; but it was that of the foe, and not a drop of his own had flowed. On the left, where Barbarigo's wounds and Contarini's death cast a momentary gloom over the prospects of the allies, Federigo Nani took command of the flag-ship, by Barberigo's express direction, and soon restoring, by his valour and skill, the courage of his men, took one of the Turk's best galleys, and the corsair Caurali who commanded it. The Infidels returned furiously to the charge to revenge this reverse, and the Christians met them with equal desperation.

"In the Marquesa, belonging to Doria's division, there lay in the cabin, sick of fever, a young man of twenty-four, a Spaniard, born at Alcalá de Henares, of noble but poor parents, as brave as the bravest, and, as regarded understanding, judgment, and wit, superior to all those of his time, and unequalled, at least up to our day, by any that were to come after him. When he heard that the battle was about to begin, he got up and requested his captain, Francisco San Pedro, to station him at the most dangerous post; but the captain and other friends advised him to remain quiet. Señores,' he replied, what would men say of Miguel de Cervantes? Upon all the occasions that have hitherto offered to do battle for his majesty, I have served like a good soldier, and I will not do less to-day, although I be sick and fevered.' He was appointed to command twelve soldiers in the boat, where he found himself, as he desired, in the hottest of the battle, and, fighting valiantly, he received two wounds in the breast. When his comrades wished to withdraw him from the struggle, he vehemently replied: It is better for the soldier to remain dead in battle than safe in flight. Wounds upon the face and breast are stars that guide others to the heaven of honour." And he persisted to the last in his heroic obstinacy. His captain killed and the combat at an end, he withdrew to have his wounds dressed. He was long in recovering, and all


his life he bore an honourable mark of that famous victory, since he lost the use of the left hand, for the greater glory of the right.'"*


The combat in the centre, between the two groups of galleys headed by Don John and Aali Pasha, had lasted fully two hours. The decks were heaped with dead, the sails, rigging, masts, and upper works, swept away or riddled with balls; it seemed impossible that the surviving combatants should bear up longer against the heat, thirst, and weariness they suffered from. Twice did the Christians reach the mast of Aali's galley, and twice were they driven back with heavy loss. The third time they reached the quarterdeck, the last of the janizaries fell, and Aali himself was wounded in the forehead by a shot from an arquebuss. Then rose a loud shout of victory, and the head of the pasha, cut off, some say by a Spanish soldier, others by a galleyslave, was testimony to the triumph. Historians relate that it was set upon a pike to exhibit it to the fleet, but some of the witnesses of the battle say nothing of this; and Torres of Aguilera expressly says that it fell from the galley-slave's hands into the sea, and was no more seen. The point is unimportant. After the death of the Moslem chief, who had so nobly done his duty, the issue of the battle could hardly be doubtful. Still some of the galleys bravely defended themselves, especially those opposed to Doria, whom the Marquis of Santa Cruz had already gone to support, encountering Uluch Aali, who was towing the Maltese flag-ship, and proudly displaying its standard. The renegade did not wait for the Spaniard's attack, but cut loose his prize and precipitately fled, satisfied with the flag as a trophy. Three hundred dead Turks were found in the Maltese galley. The wounded prior, Justiniano, was also there, and by this change in the fortune of the fight he recovered the crowns he had given to the janizaries, and became the captor of those whose captive he had been.

The fight over in the centre, where

the formidable squadrons of the Turks were annihilated, Don John went to succour his right wing, and on his approach the Turks fled. It was four in the afternoon, and there were signs of a storm. Uluch Aali, with what galleys he could collect, made for the coast of Santa Maura. The greater part of his division took the direction of Lepanto, pursued by the allies, who made little way, owing to the weariness and scanty numbers of their rowers, many of these having been taken from their benches to fight. Many of the Turks, however, panic-stricken, ran their vessels to the shore, and numbers were drowned owing to their too great haste in jumping overboard. So great was the terror of those who succeeded in landing, that the sight of a single enemy sufficed to make them fly by scores. No triumph could be more complete, no defeat more total.

Señor Rosell has collected various remarkable incidents of the fight, and feats of individual bravery. On the authority of Marco Antonio Arroyo, he mentions the valiant conduct of a woman, by name Maria, surnamed the Bailadora, or Dancer, who assumed male attire and slew many Turks with an arquebuss, and one, in a hand-tohand contest, with a knife, in reward for which exploits Don John allowed her to take her place as a soldier, in one of the Spanish tercios, or infantry regiments. Frederico Venusta, a captain of Spanish artillery, who served in Doria's galley, had his left hand sorely wounded by a grenade, which burst just as he was about to throw it amongst the enemy. He went to a galley-slave and desired him to cut off his hand with the knife artillerymen were wont to carry. The slave lacking courage, Venusta cut it off himself, went to the ship's cook, had a fowl opened, and thrusting in the bloody stump, had it tied, and returned to the fight. A Spanish soldier, wounded in the eye by an arrow, tore out arrow and eye together, tied a bandage over it, sprang into an enemy's galley with a single comrade, killed three Turks with his own hand,

These two last quotations occur in the prologue to the second part of Don Quixote, and in the Viaje del Parnaso, chap. i.

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