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of serious radical defect is at the bottom of all particular observation respecting their course of education, it may be allowed that in general they are fairly enough taught. Yet even thus much can be said only with one decided exception, and that is with respect to classics. It is an awkward point for failure certainly; and when we regard it, there can scarcely be much hesitation to exempt their scheme from the category of the Liberal.
The pupils at Carshalton are so young that we need not trouble ourselves about the formulæ according to which their doses of knowledge are prescribed. They pass out of the school at an age which renders it unlikely that they can have absorbed any great amount of information, though not before they may have acquired general ideas on the subject of knowledge, and received a practical impulse or retardation in the way of wisdom.
It is not absolutely necessary that all candidates for the Royal Artillery service should pass through this training school. Nominations are still given directly to the Cadet Company. But there is this virtue about a nomination to Carshalton, that it at once puts beyond doubt the accessibility of the regiment. A nomination to the Cadet Company, promised, but awaiting a vacancy, may lapse through a change at the Ordnance Office; since an incoming Master-General is not bound to work off the list of his predecessor. But no such mishap can befall the nominee to Carshalton, who must, if tolerably diligent and well-behaved, proceed in due course to Woolwich.
The Royal Military Academy, or, as it is called, from the style and title of those for whose benefit it has been organised, the Cadet Company, occupies the place of prominence in their array of educational means. The cadets are a bonâ fide military body, constituting the first company of the first battalion of Royal Artillery, and in that character being under the operation of military law. The supreme authority over the institution,
and everybody therewith connected, is vested in the Master-General of Her Majesty's Ordnance. The local staff comprises
1. A Lieutenant-Governor, with jurisdiction over every person connected with the working of the establishment. Under the Lieutenant-Governor, in military charge of the company, are—
2. The captain commanding.
And in charge of the educational department are
1. An inspector of studies.
3. The professor of mathematics, with a large staff of masters.
4. The professor of fortification, with a staff of instructors.
5. The language masters (German and French).
6. The masters for landscape-drawing. 7. An instructor in geography and history, and lecturers on mechanics and chemistry.
This is the provision for the Theoretical Class, which comprises the largest division of the Cadet Company. The Practical Class is, in military phrase, a detachment from the company, commanded by a "second captain."
[N.B.-Every company of artillery has two captains-a captain commanding, and a junior].
Its professorial staff is as follows
1. An instructor in practical artillery -a regimental officer, generally a second captain.
2. An assistant-instructor
3. An instructor in field-works-and
-(all officers from one of the two
5. Language masters.
6. Lecturers on practical astronomy, the principles of mechanism, geology, and chemistry.
Subjoined is a scheme of study for the several days of the week :—
To this must be added the supplementary explanation, that on three days of the week there are classes formed for landscape-drawing; a certain number of cadets being taken, according to rotation, from each of the other class-rooms to make up the drawing classes.
No one can look this scheme of study in the face and say that it is not well devised for its purpose. For our own part, and entertaining the view of education already set forth, we have an objection or two to make to it, but not on the score of efficiency. It is undoubtedly calculated to lead young men to that knowledge which is indispensable to scientific excellence; and even to open to them the threshold of the temple of science itself. No cadet can get his commission without having passed over a considerable extent of scientific ground. Their course-books are open to public examination, and would, we suspect, rather astonish some of those who think cheaply of military mathematics. These mathematics range up to the extent of Integral Calculus, and the application of pure mathematics to natural philosophy. In the latter part of their cadetship-that is to say, during the period while they are attached to the practical class-they have to engage extensively in the pursuit of the natural sciences. The lectures, which occupy four evenings of the week, are of great excellence, as it is to be expected they should be. It is only lately that the chemical department has ceased to be under the direction of Faraday.
With respect to their scheme of study, it must be borne in mind that the case is not that of a prescription for university students, where considerable margin is needs left for industry. To the university student is indicated the direction in which his efforts ought to tend; in which a very slight effect produced will be held to be satisfactory. To the cadet is proposed only what he positively must accomplish. A youth of talent may go beyond the requisitions, but the most stupid of the number must come up to the mark, or miss his commission. At the end of the first year's residence, each individual is examined as to the progress actually made up to that
time. Should this prove to be unsatisfactory, he is abruptly brought up, and must leave the institution. Till this first test has been passed, he is considered to be only on probation as a cadet. And during his subsequent career, there is no time when he can safely surrender himself to idleness; for any one of the periodical examinations may prove condemnatory of him. If on any of these occasions his reported progress is such as to compromise the hope of his being able to pass into the practical class at the appointed time, he may be recommended for withdrawal from the academy. Withdrawn he must be, if at the end of four years he has not passed through all the four "Academies," as they are termed, into which, according to the scheme, it will be seen that the theoretical branch of the Cadet Company is divided. Thus the cadet is obliged really to engage in the studies provided for him: the officer is one who must at least be in the position of "having once known;" and we may regard the entire body of officers as being actually imbued with the odour of the sciences.
So much for the bright side of the picture: now for the shadows. Their scheme of study is characterised by one defect, which, considering the age of the pupils, is to be accounted most serious. It exhibits a disposition to preserve the idea of speciality, and so far ignores those general principles on which sound mental education must proceed. Undeniably it is calculated to place within the knowledge of the young men a considerable array of facts. But it can scarcely be said to contemplate the requirements of the mind itself-to forward the healthy expansion of those powers which must be in vigour where knowledge is to be properly useful. It cannot be said to be of a kind to assist him in the exercise of imagination, or with regard to the literary faculty, or to aid him in matters of taste. Yet these are faculties which none of us can afford to neglect. "A soldier's a man," says Iago: he may digest an enormous quantity of battery-drill, and do a deal of cut-and-thrust in his time, yet all of this sort will be but
by way of episode. He must in the main (unless he is to live as a brute) fall back on those moral and intellectual resources whence is derivable the happiness of man-field-marshal as well as pekin.
Now, these powers are largely dependent on cultivation; a cultivation, too, that must come at the right time -i.e., the time of youth. A man may be thoroughly up in mathematics, furnished to repletion with hard facts, scientific to the back-bone, and yet be miserably deficient in intellectual powers and human sympathies. Many an unfortunate wrangler will be ready to quote himself as illustrating the fact. One kind of mental power only has been cared for, and the mind itself neglected; and as a natural consequence, the one power is in a hyper-tropical state, while the rest are nearly spark-out, and the general harmony of mental action is marred.
It surely is clear that, for the proper cultivation of the powers with which man is gifted, he should be brought to sympathise with the thoughts and feelings of the family to which he belongs. He should be able to take some note of the phases of human intelligence during the bygone years of history. If he is to live and feel as a gentleman, he ought, at least to some extent, to be imbued with classical notions. If he is to appreciate the nature of the intellectual, he ought to be brought to know something of the literature and history of that people who have furnished the world with the originals of poetry, law, history, philosophy, dramatic composition, political science; who have been equally our masters in æsthetics; and whose writings are of such intrinsic permanence that the series which begins with the old Halicarnassian is found to be still going on in our own day with Tricoupi.
In this last respect the neglect is total. No one minute is given to the classics. They are examined, to be sure, in Casar's Commentaries on entrance, but, once over the threshold, are at liberty to shut up even Cæsar for ever and for aye. A few from among those who have been brought up at non-special schools, may have made fair progress for their age. But
of course the preoccupation of their time leaves them little or no opportunity for private study, and they make short work of forgetting. Thus, unless we are to make the improbable supposition that a boy of some fifteen years can have made such progress in classical studies as to be independent of assistance, and proof against the deteriorating effect of three years' neglect, it must be allowed that artillery officers have scarcely a chance of escaping ignorance in this respect.
With regard to the internal management of the institution, it must be allowed that the actual executive do their best to carry out the work proposed, according to their system. They work strictly in harness, and have no authority to devise alterations. They are therefore to be held responsible only for the full employment of the means provided, since no earnestness on their part can obviate the results of radical defects of constitution.
It is a fact well known to all those who have had opportunities of personal observation, that the executive authorities of the place have been long distinguished for their energy. Under the stringency of military rule, it is not likely that any body of men would be able to avoid doing their duty. But there is a perfunctory and a cordial mode of performance; and whether a man shall act in the one or other spirit, is frequently a question of example and ton. Now, of the Cadet Company it has become decidedly characteristic that the officers shall enter cordially into the spirit of their duties. Very great care is taken to select wisely the subalterns. They, for their parts, spare no trouble. They mix a great deal with the cadets during their hours of recreation, and endeavour to arrive at a correct estimate of the individual characters. Besides this indirect influence, they constantly exercise over the company the check of authority. They have access to the barrack-rooms at all hours of the day and night; and in the execution of their duty have to make domiciliary visits at uncertain times. In fact, zeal is with them the fashion; and we know how far the vogue will carry a man.
Much has been done to improve
the condition of the company, by affording them all desirable conveniences for social and intellectual enjoyment. They have an admirable library, and a reading-room provided with daily and other papers, and magazines, with an excellent collection of maps and charts. They have workshops furnished with numerous lathes for turning in wood and metal, and with all the apparatus delighted in by those cunning in carpentering. A good deal of this mechanical recreation is by way of being directly useful professionally for instance, their artillery modelling. These models are especially good. Great pains are taken to encourage amongst them the taste for natural history. They have a museum for objects of curiosity; but as it has been only recently established, it presents little more at present than promising conveniences. The actual collection is small, but seems likely to become the nucleus of something really valuable, since it is in the way of receiving agglomerations from all parts of the world. In its actual state it is interesting chiefly as exhibiting specimens of their skill in taxidermy, of which useful art a professor attends for the instruction of volunteers. Besides this, they are encouraged to cultivate music at leisure hours; and, in general, every assistance is given them in the difficult art of enjoying themselves; every endeavour made to bring them to that tone of contentment which is the most healthful and promising spirit of the human mind. All this is, of course, besides the ordinary resources for active enjoyment. They have a capital cricket-club, a couple of racket courts, and a good gymnasium. They have also the benefit of the services of a maître d'armes (fencing-master would be inadequate), who superintends their calisthenic exercises, and teaches them the use of weapons.
But now we have to notice a defect of most serious character. There is no chapel attached to the institution, although there is a chaplain. This is a deficiency which, to the best of our belief, distinguishes between the Royal Military Academy and every other great public educational institution of the country. It is a want, of which the daily life of the place exhi
bits a constant consciousness. It is impossible to say what must be the good effect of at once supplying this deficiency, and enabling the large body of persons connected with the institution to meet together as Christians. It is inconceivable that any financial considerations can be allowed to stand in the way of an act of mere justice. We cannot understand how wise men and fathers-taking the Board of Ordnance to be composed of such men-can bring themselves to allow the work of education to be carried on, with lack of one of its most indispensable provisions. Such, however, is the state of things; and while this continues to be the case, an Englishman has room to be ashamed of the constitution of the great military college of his country.
Such is the general picture of the means at work for the intellectual and moral improvement of the cadets. Let us glance at the CONSTITUTIONAL modus operandi, that we may judge whether it be of a kind to give effect to those means.
In the first place, let us speak of the highest things of the action of the supreme authority. The actual ruler is, as we have said, the MasterGeneral of Ordnance. He grants appointments, authorises constitutional changes, and administers punishment in the more serious cases. The Lientenant-Governor acts only as his delegate, and within strictly defined limits. Thus it comes to pass that the supreme authority is withdrawn from the sight of the cadets, and they are brought into contact only with those from whom reference may be made to another, greater than them all, residing at a distance.
An offence is noted, we will say, in the first instance, by a corporal-a designation answering to that of monitor in a public school. He reports to a subaltern. Should the offence be grave, the report is carried on to the captain of the company; from him it probably passes on to the Lieutenant-Governor; from him again to take its course to the Master-General, with whom the ultimate decision rests.
Where the appeal to the supreme power has to pass through so many stages of intermediate jurisdiction, it