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to the present time, it was necessary ated by the presence of steam. The for an invading army, on first entering fleet, moving as the army moved, an enemy's territory, to secure one or within sight of, and in constant commore defensible posts as depôts, from munication with it, carried the sup. whence to draw supplies, to form hos- plies and received the sick and woundpitals, and as points to retreat upon ed; and bad the Russians, advancing in case of disaster. As the army from the interior in overwhelming advanced from these points, the lines numbers, attacked the left, or threatof communication grew more assail- ened the rear, the army, falling back able, and it became necessary either parallel to the coast, might have fought, to leave a moveable force to keep the and, if necessary, re-embarked, with the road open, or to secure and garrison advantage of an immeasurably more some other strong points on the line powerful artillery—that of the fleetof march, from whence to oppose any than the enemy could possibly have attempt the enemy might make to brought into the field. Thus the calthrow himself on the line of communi- culations and provisions which so cation. In advancing, it was also largely contributed to the difficulties impossible to disregard any fortress of warfare, and its chances of mishap, or body of troops of the enemy sta- resolved themselves into the simple tioned on the flank. The former must measures necessary to keep the army be besieged and taken, the latter at- in readiness for battle while marching tacked and routed; or a strong force on the point in view. must be detached to hold either in The French, as stated, disembarked check, before the advance could be at a point about two miles lower down continued in safety ;—and each of these the coast. From thence they exnecessary operations, of course, called tended their front across the plain till for a certain expense of time or of their left touched the right of the material.

English light division, wbile the first According to the old conditions of division filled up the interval between war, in the invasion of the Crimea the light and second divisions and near Eupatoria, and the advance on the head of the lake. On the ground Sebastopol, the right flank of the army thus enclosed by the front of the would be secure by resting on the sea, army, the lake, and the sea, the other but the left would be totally unpro- divisions were encamped at intervals tected. In the first place, the army, down to the point where the disemafter landing its stores, must have barkation of the stores went on. In strongly intrenched and garrisoned the plain, about two miles in front, the depôt on the coast selected for might be seen a Russian villa, with them. As it advanced, the communi- its outbuildings and clumps of trees. cation with this depôt must have been Here was an outpost of English rendered secure, by detaching a force rifles and French light infantry, with sufficient to repel any Russian army some artillery ; and close to this appearing on the flank of the line of place the light cavalry bivouacked march, and strong escorts must have and made daily reconnoissances of accompanied all convoys between the the surrounding country. In a vilarmy and its depôt. In order to leave, lage beyond the lake, on the left of after these deductions, a sufficient the army, was another outpost of force to carry on the siege, the in- riflemen. The inhabitants remained vading army must have been far in this village, and, being paid for larger than that which the Allies pos- any poultry, forage, and vegetables sessed. It would also have been they might possess, freely parted necessary to attack the fortress on with them; and they also brought that side on which the landing of their camels, bullocks, and arabas the army was effected ; because, a on hire. The camels were especially complete investment being impracti. fine animals—large, well-fed, sagacable, to have passed round the place cious - looking, and covered with would have been to leave the com- smooth brown hair-very different munications at the mercy of sallies from the gaunt, mangy dromedaries from the garrison.

of Barbary. The indefatigable foragAll these considerations were obvi. ing of officers and men, who returned from the village at all hours laden Cossacks, and, retiring in skirmishing with poultry and vegetables, very order, were fired upon; but the enemy soon exhausted the scanty supply kept too far aloof to do mischief. At the village contained, though at midnight, on the 18th, the order was first it was easy to get fowls, given for the army to advance on turkeys, geese, melons, and pump- the following morning, the neceskins. On the third morning, taking sary supplies and reserves being all with me a Turkish interpreter of the landed. division, I rode to the village to try Accordingly, on the 19th, at about my fortune. Successful foragers, with seven in the morning, the army com. strings of poultry hanging to their menced its march. The order of saddles, passed me, and assured me advance was by double column of there was nothing eatable left. The companies, from the centre of divihouses were of mud, thatched, and sions, the artillery on the right of standing within small stone-walled their respective divisions. The day enclosures. The inquiries of the inter was cloudless, and the spectacle preter at the doors only elicited the splendid. From any one of the assurance that the inhabitants had numerous grassy heights produced by already parted with all they had, the undulations of the plain, the and that there was not a single whole army might be seen advancing goose, hen, or turkey left in the as if at a great review: the Turks place. However, I got some melons, close to the beach; then the French pumpkins, and a jar of butter. On columns; next to them our second repeating the visit next day, even division, followed by the third ; and these were scarcely to be obtained ; on their left the light division, foland almost the only result of the lowed by the first and fourth. On expedition was a small lump of fresh the left of all marched the cavalry, butter, which a woman brought me parties of which, as well as of the in a gourd. Looking round for some- rifles and French light infantry, were thing to cover it with, I saw a in front, in skirmishing order. Close peasant in a long gown and fur cap in rear of the columns came the trains standing beside his araba, eating à of horses carrying the reserve ammuwater-melon, and made signs to him nition, the baggage animals, the that I wanted a piece of the rind. arabas with sick men and commisHe courteously choked bimself in his sariat stores, and the droves of oxen haste to finish the eatable portion of and sheep. There was a road along the section he was occupied with the plain, but none was necessary; gave me what I wanted, and then, everywhere the ground was smooth, scooping out the heart of the melon, grassy, and totally unenclosed. Perpresented it to me on the point of his fect silence reigned in the vast soliknife. I had not thought it possible tudes around; 10 inhabitants, nor that water-melons could be so deli- any signs of habitation, were visible; cious as this juicy mouthful proved -only, sometimes a Cossack might then; certainly those of the Crimea be seen perched on a distant hillock, may challenge the world.

who presently vanished like a ghost. In the mean time, the commissariat In this way the army continued to officers, indefatigable in their efforts, march, halting occasionally, till, early had purchased, or, where the presence in the afternoon, the Baganak was of Cossacks or the absence of the reached. This stream, dignified in owners rendered purchase impossible, these ill-watered regions by the name had “ lifted” large droves of sheep of a river, is a sluggish rivulet, creepand oxen, so that the army bad ing between oozy, maddy banks, along daily fresh meat of good quality. the scarcely indented surface of the Water was scarce, and not good. A plain. Though fordable everywhere, muddy well in the village afforded the army commenced filing across it the principal supply, and over it a by a bridge, the light division leadguard was placed.

ing. Before reaching it, we had seen On the 18th, about eighty of the our cavalry gallop up to and over 11th hussars, reconnoitring in front, the ridge beyond, in pursuit of some were pursued by seven troops of Cossacks who showed themselves,


and a troop of horse-artillery follow- suppose that the enemy meditated ed. Just as the first division began a flank movement to attack our left, to follow the light across the bridge, they having been seen extending in we heard the guns open.

that direction at dusk, the divisions on I obtained leave to go to the front the left had to abandon their scarce-lit and see what was going on. Arriving fires, till the wing of the army, falling at the ridge, I found it lived with the back until it rested on the Baganak, troops of the light division, looking showed a front in the required direction. on at a skirmish of cavalry and artil- The night passed quietly, though lery in the plain. All our cavalry, the change of front had caused some about 1000, and twelve guns, were confusion, and men who had straggled drawn up opposite about 2000 Cos- on the march were wandering about sacks, whose artillery was just ceas- everywhere, unable to find their regiing to fire; while our continued to

The English Jay without practise at them at a long range, cover, the tents having been left beprobably 1200 yards. I rode down hind, with sone few exceptions, for to the troop of horse artillery, and generals, hospitals, and staff. The saw them throw some shot and shell, knapsacks, too, remained on board which appeared to fall short; but at ship; and the articles judged most the beginning of the skirmish the necessary, having been selected from combatants had been much nearer. them, were carried, packed in the Three or four dragoon horses, killed great coats and blankets. by the Russian artillery, were lying The next morning we were under about, and we had seven men of the arms early, but did not move for cavalry wounded. After a time, the some time. Marshal St Arnaud, ridCossacks slowly retired up the next ing along the front from an interview ridge, behind which more of the with Lord Raglan, was loudly cheerenemy slowed themselves, and Lord ed. A report went about that a Raglan forbade any further advance. general action was to be fought that We found afterwards that the Rus. day, which was shortly verified ; and sians lost in the skirmish twenty-five between nine and ten o'clock the men and thirty-five horses. The army advanced, in the same order as army, withdrawing bebind the ridge the day before, and over plains exsouth of the Baganak, prepared to actly similar in character to those we bivouac; but there being reason to had been traversing.


Under a bright sun we marched The plain, level for about a mile, onward for about two hours, sur- then sloped gently down to a village, mounting the grassy ridges which beyond which was a valley sprinkled successively formed our horizon, only with trees, and watered by the river to see others equally solitary rising Alma, a narrow stream, deep in beyond. The front of the Allies was parts, and its banks very steep, but oblique, the Turks on the right being in many places fordable and easy of about two miles in advance of the passage. Between the village and British left.

the river were flat meadows and vineAbout noon a steamer, coasting yards. On the opposite side of the along beyond the Turks, began to stream the banks rose abruptly into fire on the land just where a sharp high steep knolls, terminating in plasteep cliff terminated the shore. None teaus, behind which rose another and of the enemy's troops were within higher range of heights. Both these range from the sea. The firing was ranges were occupied by masses of precautionary, to insure an unmolest- Russian troops; the

igher by the ed passage to the troops on the right reserves, the tops of the knolls below who were already passing the river by heavy guns, supported by cavalry Alma at its mouth. When the British and infantry on the plateaus behind. surmounted the next ridge, the scene Such was the position in front of the of the coming struggle disclosed itself. British. In front of the French the first range of knolls grew more and slopes beyond, which were held by more abrupt, so that guns could not the Russian battalions. be placed there, and, indeed, seemed The battery now in front of them, unnecessary from the natural strength where the great struggle of the Britof the position. These were defended ish took place, was, unlike the guns by infantry, and field artillery were of the Russian centre, covered with posted, with more infantry, on the an epaulment—that is, a thick low plains at the top of the heights. Fol. bank of earth, obtained in this inlowing the course of the river to the stance from trenches dug between the sea, the lower range of heights, grow. spaces occupied by the guns. This ing more and more precipitous, gra- battery swept the whole front of the dually merged in the upper, till all British throughout its depth and became one steep perpendicular cliff, length, and distributed its fire, sometraversed by one or two narrow times on the regiments advancing to paths, where the Turks passed in attack it, sometimes on the second single file. This clitf, had it been division, while in and behind the vilheld by the enemy, could have been lage, sometimes on the first division, shelled by the fleet; but the Rus- drawn up on the plain behind the sians, as already stated, trusting, light. Its fire was crossed by that of probably, to the natural inaccessibi- the guns from the knolls, which lity of this part of the position, did searched the village, and ploughed up not occupy it, and our Oitoman allies the plain behind it. Between the saw no evemy that day.

first and second divisions was a wide The progress of the French against road, bounded by low stone-walls, the heights in their own front was leading to a bridge and ford; and marked by the puff's of musketry as this point, being nearly intermediate they swarmed up. Their advance between the principal lines of fire, was steady and incessant. On the was probably the hottest of the canplain at the top, a small building, pro- ponade. Many of the 55th fell there, bably intended as a signal-station, before advancing into the village ; had been left unfinished, with the and Captain Dew, of Frauklin's batscaffolding still round it; and this tery, was killed by a round shot early, was the point most hotly contested in the action, near a large painted against the French. During the at- post beside the road. Many corpses, tack on it, the right of the British marked with ghastly wounds, were had, in the oblique order of advance, sprinkled on that part of the slopegradually come under the fire of the two I noticed, while riding into action heavy artillery on the knolls, which with Wodehouse's battery, as killed now began to open, and our skirmish- by especially horrible injuries; a corers in advance exchanged shots with poral of the 55th, whose brain, scoop the Russians in the village, who re- ed out along with the back of his tired after setting the houses on fire, skull, was lying in a mass beside bim, the smoke from which, rolling up the leaving his face perfect; and a solvalley, rendered the view in front dier with only a profile left, half his obscure for some time. Pennefather's head being carried away. Shot and brigade of the second division, ad- shells of various calibres whistled vancing in line along the slope of the and bounded incessantly along this plain, lay down near the walls of the spot, so that it seemed a marvel how village for shelter from the fire of the anybody escaped; but the circumenemy's guns, which was now inces. stance of the ground there sloping sant and destructive, and then moved upward, in an opposite direction to onward to the river; while the light the line of fire, considerably diminishdivision, passing into the valley on ed the actual peril: for the shot, the left of the second, continued to bounding high after striking, hit only advance slowly, -sometimes lying those who were in their live within a down for shelter against the terrible few feet of where they touched the fire of an 18-gun battery directly in ground. their front, sometimes pressing on, To oppose, however inadequately, till, passing the river nearly up to this fire, Franklin's and Tarner's battheir necks, they began to ascend the teries of the second division had come

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into action behind the village, the and 95th came to the support of the
former suffering more severely during 7th ; the 19th and 47th also advanc-
the day than any other. Turner's ed; and after a terrible slaughter the
battery, while moving to the right, Russians were driven back. The 55th
was ordered by Lord Raglan, who had and 30th regiments, coming up on the
crossed the river on the left of the right of the 95th, drove back the ene-
French, to send two guns to the spot my in their own front; and the three
where he had stationed himself, from brigades, viz., Pennefather's of the
whence the Russian batteries were second division, Codrington's of the
seen in reverse. Some delay was light division, and the Guards, formed
caused by a horse being shot, crossing line on the ground they had won.
the narrow ford ; but the guns were At this time Wodehouse's battery,
at length brought successively into which had been limbered up, and led
action on the opposite bank, and their across the river by Lieut.-Colonel
fire took the Russian centre and guns Dacres when the Russian guns ceased
in reverse; while the French, pressing firing, came up on the right of the
up the heights, had driven back the 30th regiment. The slopes in front
left. Anderson's battery of the light, were still covered with the enemy's
and Wodehouse's of the first division, skirmishers, obstinately contesting the
being unable to come into action ad- ground with our own, and giving way,
vantageously so far on the left, had if at all, very slowly. Over the heights
joined the second division, and, un- behind the contested battery the hel-
limbering on the right of the road, mets of a Russian column "might be
directed a fire on the knolls in front seen ; and presently the solid mass,
of them. The Russian artillery on apparently about 2000 strong, march-
these knolls, attacked in front, and ed over the bill, and began to descend
having their flank and rear threatened towards the British line. A shell
by the French and by the field battery from a gun, laid by Colonel Dacres
which bad crossed the river, now be himself before the gun detachment
gan to retire in succession from the came up, dropt among the Russian
left, and the covering masses of infan- skirmisbers ; the other guns, coming
try soon followed ; and a few minutes up in succession, opened their fire on
afterwards the 18.gun battery also the column, and struck it every time.
limbered up, and began to retreat. Franklin's and Anderson's batteries,
It was at this moment that a brigade crossing the river, came up and open-
of the light division, consisting of the ed on the left, and Paynter's followed;
7th, 23d, and 33d regiments, very and the column, after marching about
gallantly led by General Codrington, fifty yards down the hill, halted, turn-
advancing up the slope under a ter- ed about, and, disappearing over the
rible fire of musketry, pressed into the crest, was seen no more. At this
epaulment before the guns were with time some gups were brought to bear
drawn, and Captain Bell of the 23d upon another column which halted in
running up to a driver who was urging a ravine on the right, quite close to
his horses out of the fight, the man where the French skirmishers were
dismounted and ran away, and the pressing along the heights, and, appa-
gun was taken. But the Russian rently at a loss what to do, presented
battalions were as yet too numerous, a somewhat puzzling aspect ; inso-
and their fire from the breastwork much that Sir De Lacy Evans twice
and the slope behind it too close and stopt our fire, under the impression
heavy for the regiments assailing them, that the column was French, and sent
and the brigade, with a loss of six a staff-officer to the nearest French
hundred killed and wounded, was regiment to inquire. But, it being
compelled to retire down the slope, presently apparent that a French co-
and re-form under cover of the attack iumn would not be in front of their
of the first division, which had been own skirmishers, and some bullets
led across the river by the Duke of from the troops in question beginning
Cambridge to support them. The to drop into the battery, where they
Fusilier Guards, going up to the wounded a sergeant, the guns reopen-
breastwork with a cheer, retook and ed and dispersed them; and there
kept possession of the gun; the 33d being none but fugitives now within


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