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being involved in a desperate struggle or military operations, we shall not with these two Powers, he would say anything further in respect to the have persisted in his aggressions upon movements of the fleet in the Black Turkey, commenced under the flim. Sea, beyond one remark with regard siest pretexts that were ever offered to the partial bombardment of Odessa. since the wolf challenged the lamb It is a favourite expression of Lord for disturbing the stream above him. Aberdeen, and he has repeated it more

Therefore, it was of paramount im- than once, that war should be conportance that, from the very first, ducted with humanity. We agree with Britain should have shown herself, him. If our troops land upon the both by word and deed, to be in Russian territory, our soldiers ought earnest. She did neither through the to (and we are prond to say that we medium of those in power. Her first know they do) respect the lives and words, through the ministers of her the property of non-combatants, and sovereign, when the nefarious project not to make these answerable for the was broached, were weak and expos- sins of their nominal ruler. But we tulatory – her first deeds bore the cannot for the life of us understand semblance of a formal observation. the policy, or even the humanity, of Meantime the war went on, as did half-bombarding a city like Odessa, also diplomatic protocoling. Turkey, and leaving it to be repaired before it so far from proving the effete and has actually surrendered. Surely there wretched valetudinarian that she was are some considerations of humanity represented, displayed an energy and due to our own forces. Recent aca courage which excited the admira- counts tell us that Odessa is as strong tion of the people of Western Europe, as ever, and that, if it be considered whose warmest sympathy was already necessary again to approach the place, enlisted in her cause; and, at last, the we shall find new batteries erected Aberdeen Ministry, yielding rather, as since we demolished the old ones, so we believe, to the torrent of public that the work will have to be done opinion, than influenced by a strong twice instead of once and effectively. and irresistible sense of duty, gave Odessa ought to bave been taken orders for the fleet to move. It moved, and garrisoned, or reduced to a ruin. but it did nothing more for a time. Pseudo- philanthropy in matters of What instructions were issued we this kind is not only absurd, but danknow not, but the fact is patent to gerous. The object of war is to cripple Europe, that our ships were lying the opponent, and that object must be anchored off Constantinople when à attained by every possible means. It Russian squadron destroyed that of is, we own, heart-rending to consider the Turks at Sinope. It was a bad the condition of a beleaguered town move for the Russians. Not all the or fortress, from which the supplies of paper that ever was manufactured water or provisions have been cut off, from pulp, if covered with protocols until the population or garrison are and notes, could have averted the suffering the last extremities of faretribution due for that one day of mine; but is it the part of the investslaughter. From the affair of Sinope ing general, under such circumstances, the real commencement of the war, in from considerations of humanity, to so far as the Western Powers are relieve the besieged, and to allow concerned, may be dated. Every man them, by the free admission of conin Britain and France, who was not voys, to protract a defence which he an inveterate Russian at heart, felt otherwise might shorten ? As well that after that there could be no might he send them in ammunition withdrawal. Sinope was to be aveng- if theirs were exhausted, or tell off ed; for, though it was the Turkish a certain number of his men to act ships that suffered, the insult was as defenders in case the numbers of equally offered to the fleets of Britain the garrison were materially reduced. and France, lying at anchor so near, There is but one rule in war-carry and, alas! unable on the instant to on so long as there is resistance ; inflict the proper retribution.

when resistance ceases, require surFaithful to the rule we bave adopt. render. Anything short of this is ed, of not attempting to criticise naval positive injustice to our own men, and VOL. LXXVI.-NO. CCCCLXIX.

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& wanton sacrifice of their lives. the inper barbour of Sebastopol, under Every chance given to the enemy, cover of the countless guns of its batweakly involves the future expendi- teries, it would have been a very rash ture of our own blood, and that surely and hazardous experiment to have ought to be more precious in our eyes attempted an attack by sea, unsupthan consideration for the property of ported by a land force. Military men our foes. This is not a carpet contest; of experience say, that it would have it is one for life or death; and we are been madness; at all events, it was bound to see that no false notions of such a risk as no prudent admiral humanity, which never will be reci- would have undertaken. That the procated, are allowed to impede a place was most minutely reconnoitred, struggle, upon the result of which the under circumstances of peculiar darfuture destiny of Europe, and of civi- ing, we know ; and it also appears lisation, may depend. It is the gen- that a most searching examination eral opinion of the country, and we was made all along the shores of the share in it, that Lord Aberdeen's timid Black Sea. The detention of our apprehension of war has been the di- troops at Gallipoli and Varna, where rect cause of its outbreak. Let him so many brave men fell victims to the beware, now that war has begun, lestraging pestilence, has been also made he prolongs it through the same timi- the subject of comment. We cannot dity. Let him, before he again at- see the force of the criticism. In order tempts to give vent to his somewhat to secure the occupation of the Crimea, too extended sympathies, peruse the it was necessary, in the first place, to following extract from the writings concentrate the requisite number of of Macaulay, and at least have the men at some convenient spot for emgrace to remain silent if he cannot barkation'; and, in the second place, to acquiesce in the truth of the sentiment provide unusual means of transport. which it conveys : -" If there be any Some considerable time must elapse truth established by the universal ex- before all these arrangements can be perience of nations, it is this—that to perfected, and the successful conduct carry the spirit of peace into war is a of the expedition is the best proof of weak and cruel policy. The time for the manner in which the arrangements negotiation is the time for deliberation were made. Furthermore, it might and delay; but when an extreme case bave been highly perilous to remove calls for that remedy, which is in its our troops from Gallipoli or Varna to own nature most violent, and which the Crimea, until the retrograde movein such cases is a remedy only because ment of the Russians from the Danuit is violent, it is idle to think of miti- bian provinces had begun, and until gating and diluting. Languid war can the Austrian army of occupation had do nothing which negotiation or sub advanced. The scourge of the pestimission will not do better; and to act lence was terrible ; but in the time of on any other principle is not to save war the soldier dies not always on the blood and money, but to squander field of battle. Death comes from them."

other causes ; and however deeply we It is natural enough, perhaps, that may mourn the fate of those gallant people at home should have felt some men who lie beneath the foreign turf, disappointment at the apparent inac- without having been permitted to strike tion of our fleets after they had enter- one blow under their country's colours, ed the Black Sea, and even after the we must remember they are not less affair of Sinope. This is a subject entitled to the meed of heroism, or less upon which we are hardly competent martyrs in their country's cause, than to offer an opinion; and it would be their more fortunate brethren who fell, very unfair towards those in com- sword in hand, the day when the Rusmand, to tax them, upon the strength sian standards were driven in utter of rumour, with having neglected op- rout from the intrenched heights of portunities which possibly may never the Alma. At the moment we are have occurred. The service upon which writing, no intelligence has reached they were engaged imperiously re- this country of the issue of the invesquired forethought, coolness, and cau- titure of Šebastopol. Whether the tion. With the Russian fleet lying in defence may be a short or a prolonged

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one, we know not — we can only ebarged with neglect in the perform-
wait, and hope, and pray, that our apce of those manifold and perplexing
anticipations may be realised, and duties which an exigency like the
that the fall of Russia's greatest and present demands; and wė, at least,
most vaunted fortress may show that hare anything but a desire to find
so much gallant blood, and so many fault, when we have reason to believe
tears for those who have perished that such duties are conscientiously
before their time, by disease and oy and anxiously discharged.
the sword, have not been sbed in But the struggle has been maintain-
vain.

ed by Britain and France in another Therefore, while we feel ourselves and nearer locality than the Black compelled to censure the course which Sea. Powerful fleets have been sent Ministers pursued, both at that Fery to the Baltic, and we believe we are early stage when the designs of the jostified in saying that, for a considerCzar, as detected in the East, were able period, the operations of these communicated to tbem in so extraordi- excited more interest and expectation nary and unreserved a mander, and among as than the movements of the afterwards when the conduct of Jens- ober division. This may be attrichikoff, at Constantinople, showed box buted in some degree to the unfortuthoroughly determined his imperial Date convivial speech delivered by master was in the prosecution of his Sir James Graham, the first Lord of aim-while we declare our conviction the Admiralty, on the occasion of the that they showed themselves deficient banquet giren at the Reform Club, in in moral courage and determination, honour of Admiral Sir Charles Napier, and did not, on the symptoms of age before he sailed, in which that most gression, take such active measures as indiscreet Minister rehearsed the part must have convinced the Czar that be of the boaster, who sold the bide of had to deal with more powerful oppo- the bear before he bad encountered nents than the Sultan—while wecharge the animal. It is to be hoped that the them with evident lukewarmness at a exhibition made on that occasion will time when they should bare streagth- convince the Committees of Clabs of the ened the hands of Turkey by every absolute necessity of excluding remeans in their power-we are bound porters when such patriotic festiv. to say that we can discern no lack, ities recar. We are all jastly proud either of spirit, promptitude, or ability, of Sir Charles Sapier. Kis gallantry in the more recent operations in the and fearless intrepidity have won him East. That our Ministers were tardy a very bigh name and repatation, but, - very tardy indeed-is not only our like almost all men who bave performopinion, but that of the great majority ed feats of extraordinary daring, bow. of our countrymen. That they might ever successful, he has been suspected have been tardy still, but for the un- of rashness. The banquet at the Remistakable voice of the Dation, is form Club was an unfelicitous inaupossible ; but not on tbat accoont let guration for the enterprise wbich was us withhold from them the credit to

intrusted to him. Convivial Miniswhich they are entitled. So soon as ters and Ministerialists, with a kind they set to work in earnest, they ap- of jealous regard for the honour of the pear to have done their work well, in roof-tree under which the champagne so far as the Eastern contest is con- was rendering op its corks, boasted cerned; and if there have been some tbat the admirals, both in the Eaxine omissions, some things that might, and Baltic, were members of that reand perhaps ought, to have been pro- spectable establishment. Then, after vided for with greater literality and the cordials and claret had done their foresight, let it be remembered, that daty, there were shouts of, " Go it, where so very much has to be done, Charley," and various other exhortaand at such a distance, it is inevitable tions to conquest which we decline to that deficiencies must occur. The particularize. Now, we by no means length of time which has ela; sed since object to patriotic meetings of this we have been seriousis engaged in kind, so long as they are kept private, War, must also be taken into consi- and so long as the memory of the prederation before officials can be justly ceding niglit's bacchanalian eloquence

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can only call forth a slight blush upon knowledge of the Russian strength in the morrow for a very pardonable the Baltic, and will in all probability folly. But it is different when non- lead to most important results herssense of this kind receives the impri- after. The intricate passages of those matur of the press, and when the shallow seas have been sounded, and orgies of public men are printed as se- such observations taken as may enable rious realities. The effect of the report an expedition next year to perfore, of this unlucky symposium upon the with comparative safety, exploits minds of many was, that Sir Charles which this year would have been atNapier was sent forth not only at tended with the extremest bazard. liberty but pledged to conquer--that It would appear also that this service he was expected to knock down Cron- requires extraordinary preparation; stadt like a castle of cards, and even and that without gun-boats and float. to take St Petersburg. Nothing could ing-batteries, the reduction of Cron. have been more unfair to, or more stadt or Helsingfors would be diffiunfortunate for, a man of bis high cult. If this really is the case, the reputation. He was expected to do nation can have no ground for comsomething tremendous, notwithstand- plaint, more especially as the Russian ing any amount of obstacles; and now, fleet is confined in the Baltic, and when the sum of his achievements in must sooner or later fall into our the Baltic for the season is found to hands. be the demolition of Bomarsund, of But, constituted as the world now the existence of which fortress few is, success in war does not depend people were previously aware, there merely upon feats of arms. If it did is a murmur of dissatisfaction in cer- so depend, we might very well be extain quarters, as if he ought to have cused if we felt much apprehension accomplished more. We have said as to the final issue of the contest, already that we cannot presume to ex- seeing that Russia, however often depress decided opinions upon matters of feated in the field, can find no diffinaval or military tactics, but so far as culty in filling up the gaps in her we are able to judge, it appears to us armies, more especially since the batthat Sir Charles Napier has acted tle fields lie within or near the dominwith prudence and discretion. With ions of the Czar. Our men may be the absurd shouts of the Reform Club better soldiers, but war and pestilence revellers ringing in his ears, and bear. may thin our ranks faster than the ing within him a heart which pants deficiency can be supplied; whereas for still further opportunities of dis- Russia, with a population greater than tinction, he has contented himself with one-fourth of Europe, can never be in attempting nothing more than appear- want of levies. But military operaed practicable, and thereby may have tions cannot be conducted withodt done better service to his country than money, and in order to strike an if he had rashly attacked the strong- effectual blow at Russia, her finance holds of the Russians at the imminent must be crippled, and her commerce risk of defeat, and with the certainty utterly destroyed. Too much stress of serious loss. He has established, as cannot be laid upon this point, for we much as lay in his power, an efficient greatly fear that up to the present blockade of the Russian mercantile moment Lord Aberdeen and some of his marine in the Baltic ;-for it is of the colleagues do not perceive the absolute utmost consequence that Russia should necessity of enforcing, not merely a be made to feel internally the effects nominal, but an entire blockade against of war, and by crippling her trade ef- the issue of the Russian exports. We fectually, more can be done than by have heard much in Parliament and the reduction of her commercial ports. elsewhere of war being conducted so We shall immediately have occasion as to interfere as little as possible with to review the conduct of Ministers the mercantile intercourse of the nawith regard to this important matter, tions. Men who can hold such lanand to inquire whether they have guage as this are absolutely unfitted equally done their duty, by preventing to conduct public affairs in a crisis the issue of Russian exports. Besides, like the present. They are squanthis campaign has given us a full derers of British blood and British

money, and bitterly indeed will the etary and commercial transactions, nation hereafter regret its sapineness, and the courses of exchange, will if it permits these purblind and prag- be able to draw their own conclumatic men to persist in their course sions from this astounding intelliof folly. For what reason a block- gence, and we recommend it espeade was declared against Russia ex- cially to the notice of those who, cept to interrupt her commerce, we before the war commenced, maintaincannot conceive; and yet it appears, ed so strenuously that Russia was a on incontestible evidence, that we are beggared and a bankrupt state. But still receiving in this country as much as there are many general readers Russian produce as before! Instead who are not familiar with the mysteries of Russia being crippled by, she is of exchange, some explanation may prospering in spite of the war-pros- be required, and perhaps we cannot pering so much, that notwithstanding do better than allow the Economist, in the immense additional issue of paper which paper the Secretary of the Trearoubles, their value has materially sury is popularly believed to have risen. Lest we should be suspected some interest, to be the expositor. of exaggeration in so serious a matter, let us refer our readers to the follow

"Let us first understand the real causes ing extract from the leading article of of this phenomenon. They may be stated the Economist of 30th September last

in a few words. Russia inports of Brit

ish products only to about the amount of a paper which is not likely to entreat

£1,200,000 a year.

But we import of the attention of the public to facts, Russian produce to an annual value of most alarming in themselves, and da

not less than six or seven millions sterling. maging to the reputation of the gov- This large balance in favour of Russia has ernment which, in the time of war, hitherto been settled by the indirect trade has neglected its duty by not enforc- of the country.

The shipments of Briting a strict and a thorough blockade. ish manufactures to the United States, to

the foreign West India Islands, and to “ There is a fact in connection with the South America, have in reality been war with Russia, as affecting the com- partly paid for by cotton shipped from mercial interests of that country, and New Orleans to St Petersburg, by sugar through them, the internal prosperity of from Havana, and by coffee from Rio the people, so staggering that it requires Janeiro. Bilis drawn in these various peculiar notice, and the more so in the markets upon St Petersburg, for shipparticular conjuncture in which we now ments of their produce, have been remitstand, or are likely very soon to stand, in ted to this country in payment for Manthe arduous contest in which we are en- chester, Leeds, and Sheffield goods, negogaged. That the exchange at St Peters- tiated upon the Royal Exchange, and burg upon London should have risen have formed the medium by which renearly to par, from the discount of about mittances for the tallow, hemp, grain, 20 per cent at which it stood some and copper of Russia have been made. time since, is a fact which points to im. “ So far, all was simple and plain. But portant conclusions, and which indicates let us now examine the course which we à state of internal affairs in Russia by no have pursued, not without good reasons, means likely to aid the efforts of our armies and we will eten say upon the whole, (!!!) and our naries. The exchange at St the best for our interests up to this point. Petersburg had, under the first influences When war was declared, a strict blockade of the war, fallen to 32d. per rouble. was no doubt established on the coast of Latterly it has gradually risen, and is Russia. Direct exports and imports were now exactly at par, or 38d. the rouble, equally prevented. But by the policy notwithstanding that in the mean time an which we adopted, an indirect route for enormous forced issue of paper money has the export of Russian produce througlı been made. A further rise of a single Germany was still left open. Memel be. penny, or even less, will so far turn the came the port of shipment in place of St exchange in favour of St Petersburg, Petersburg, Riga, and Revel; and the rethat, spite of all effort or all law, gold sult has been, as we ventured to predict will be drained from the caults of Thread- many months since, that, although the needle Street to replenish the bullion re- trade of Russia has been carried on at a sertes in the fortresses of St Peter's and Sc great cost, and although that must have Paul's in the Russian capital.

been deeply injurious to the actual pro

ducer, yet the actual quantities of RusThose who are familiar with mon- sian produce exported in 1854 hace fallen

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