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stress upon, I think nothing of them; the community will be the better for love and friendship do not spring up it. I do not quite think we use imbetween the like, but the unlike; as provement in the same sense. No for the interests of the two nations, matter! I say that war unites us, they need never clash-their spheres which you yourself allow—makes us are separate and distinct. Even as

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are countrymen, brothers, military nations they need not be friends, and neighbours, all of us (not jealous or make invidious compari- Quakers only), while peace sets us all sons. They each are incomparable in together by the ears like hounds in their own department; that is why an ill-regulated kennel. an Anglo- French army appears so

IRENEUS.-I do not feel this. As irresistible. At Alma they proved long as peace is kept abroad, I can sit this. Each army was the complement under my own vine; none makes me of the other. The British performed afraid. the service required with such an TLEPOLEMUS.-Can you? then you utter indifference to death and danger, are a happy fellow. You have a that they plucked grapes whilst wait- happy constitution. You are not pleing for the word to advance—the thoric, but you are eupeptic. Mrs I. French performed a climbing feat, is no curtain-lectarer; you pay all wonderful in itself, before their breath- your bills at Christmas; you are chary less squadrons fell irresistibly on the of your signature-in fact, never use it enemy. The sight of each other was except when it is absolutely necessary. enough to insure their victory. I You are right. I heard of a man who certainly am prepared to trust France had two sons; he left the elder a fine very far indeed, for I must say we estate, the younger a small allowance have very severely tested her, or at with this advice, “Never put your all events ber ruler's patience, before name to paper." The younger throve this war broke out, and when we and the elder died in gaol. You are were comparatively unarmed at the no merchant venturer, no railway time. I allude to the abuse of Louis stag. Your money is all safe in the Napoleon, and the contemptexpressed Funds or invested in acres; your goods for the French nation at the time of are in peace, and the strong man the coup-d'état. Whatever its moral armed has his eye on them. But qualities may have been, it is impos- what do you say to all that goes sible to deny that the French people on about you? What do you say took upon themselves the responsi- to the struggle of society to get on, bility of that act, so as to make an to get rich ? It is like the operainsult to their roler an insult to them. crush (beg your pardon, you don't Louis Napoleon knew that the Times frequent it). It is like a rush to a was not England, or in some shape bank that is stopping payment-vide he would probably have resented it. Hogarth's picture, and think of the He could well have done so by a quiet disappointed sailor with the big stick agreement with Russia to divide Tur- swearing and thuodering at the door. key in spite of us. Now the same All want to be first, for the first alone journals cannot go too far the other can get anything, and are likely way-they are even servile, and, in enough to be late. In you go. Goodappreciation of the Emperor's alliance, bye, manners! Pluck your neighbour would whitewash his political mo- in front by the coat-tail—jam your rality—a course perhaps justifiable, right-hand neighbour against the railbut at all events superfluous.

ing-punch your left-hand neighbour Irenæus.—You have said nothing in the ribs-kick out behind. This is as yet to prove that peace is not bet- the everyday life of a peaceful comter than war in its effect at home and mercial society; this is peace, if you among ourselves. War unites us, it like, but seasoned, whether you like is true, but it checks national improve it or not, with envy, hatred, malice, ment and healthy growth, and fixes and all uncharitableness. You are at our minds on an unhealthy and un- peace only because you decline to take natural source of excitement.

part in the selfish scramble. What TLEPOLEMUS.- As for improvement, say you to the mad ventures of mermen should improve themselves, and chants of straw, and their outrageous

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gambling as lately disclosed-men, not " versus ” supposed by one of the many of them, of religious profes- uninitiated to be part of the title of a sion, platform-orators, Record-readers, bishop from its frequent conjunction horror-struck at whist, and petrified at with his name in the reading of lawthe mention of a quadrille-men of suits? As for contested elections, intense respectability, yet gamesters on and bribery, and disfranchisement of a larger scale than any yet found in boroughs, all that is a trifle, and part, the Seine, and laid out at the Morgue? no doubt, of the constitution of a free These poor Parisian gamblers were country, but it is not exactly in the only their own enemies; those beggar spirit of peace. And what do you their friends, spend their wives' por- say to the whole history of strikes, and tions, and leave their children penni. the general discomfort of the relaless in a country where poverty is a tions between employer and employed? crime. Does mercantile speculation In the worst cases there have been stir up no evil passions? What do two rival camps of the worst kind, you say to the railway mania of 1817? cach striving to outstarve the other, There was greed surpassing that of capital fighting with savings and subthe Bashi-Bazouks in quest of plunder. scriptions, and the victory eventually War has made many families desolate belonging, not to the strongest battalnow, and filled them with a noble ions, but the longest purse; peace at mournfulness; but war has never, and length restored, but heart-burnings will never, afflict society with the innumerable perpetuated. Talk of the anxiety, the madness, the degradation, horrors of war!-these, and such as the want of self-respect, which that these, are the horrors of peace. But railway mania did. It made, for the why dwell on public and notorious time, the length and breadth of our instances? What is our daily life but green land a great roulette-table, pre- a struggle and a combat against sided over by avarice and meanness, swindling and deception of every stamping the faces of steady city-men kind, and a very unequal struggle on with the abstraction, the ferocity, the the part of the consumer? The seller unnatural joy, sorrow, and despair, of wages a war of selfishness against the the habitués of Homburg or Baden. buyer. The necessaries of life are That madness became most mournful not exempted, or one might avoid because most ridiculous, when it was some unpleasantness by avoiding proposed to set up an image of the luxuries. Not only your wine mergreat “ Croupier " of that gigantic chant drugs your port, but your gambling-table. Let it pass, and grocer sands your sugar; your milk may such times never return again. comes from Chalk Farm, your baker A conntry desolated by war is not a puts alum in your bread, and shortens paradise, but a country infected with your life by shortening the measure such plague-spots is a pandemonium. of its staff, so that you are almost inAnd after that reckless time, what clined to wish him the fate of Pharaoh's. a period of sorrow and abasement To so great a degree has this system came! It was a repentance like that of falsification been carried, that, on of Ajax weeping among the slaughter- the evidence of a leading medical ed flocks, though somewhat less noble. journal, we appear to eat, drink, and Unlucky speculators were baunted by smoke little else but solid, liquid, and the ghosts of extinct railway schemes gaseous lies. If we are true men with ghosts which called them again and such a diet, it tells much in favour again, and iusisted on being answered of our bringing-up. Yes, the shopat whatever expense; upsetting with a keeping spirit is far too strong amongst printed circular the hope of economy us as it is, and no wonder that Nichoyear by year, making the dying rail- las was induced to believe that John way sting like the benumbed wasp Bull would not quit his hold on his which you put your hand on unawares money-bags to go to war: he thought on the window-sill. Was that peace? of us probably as Cyrus spoke of the And has there been no religious war, Lacedemonians in Herodotus, when though not with swords ?-no feud be they wished to interfere with his taking tween High Church and Low Church, a natural guarantee from Cresus, the Free Kirk and Establishment? Was sultan of that time. “I am not afraid

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of a set of men who have a place nearly on a par; if anything, the admarked out in the middle of their city, vantage appears to me on the side of where they take oaths and deceive one war, if we except its actual operations. another ; to whom, if I am of sound I look on war as a mighty disaster, mind, vot the misfortunes of others as I look upon famine or a shipwreck, will be matter of consideration, but but one that we must sometimes actheir own." Cyrus, you see, had little cept, even seek, to avoid worse. But respect for men who higgled in a even then our efforts ought to be market-place; and Nicholas evidently mainly directed to the establishment thought the same of us. This I cannot of peace, real and not nominal. The help thinking the principal cause of his end I propose is the same as yours; aggression on Turkey, combined with we only differ as to the means. I the license of invective in which our would not sit down to dinner, as Dajournals and even Ministers indulged mocles did, with the sword-blade against the French Emperor, making hanging over my head, as you would his future friendship seem impossible; bid us do: in fact, I have not sufficient and last, not least, the extreme respect physical or moral courage to adopt with which our Government treated the your principles; but just as I have Czar's overtures. I believe, if he had bolts and bars and a great dog in the known us better-if he had been able yard to keep out thieves, so I would to judge of the feelings of our silent keep up fleets and armies to repel classes, the aristocracy, the gentry, aggressive tyranny, whether proceedthe yeomanry and peasantry of Bri- ing from the single ambition of a tain--he would never have been so despot, or the collective covetousness misled. He mistook Manchester for of a republic. If, as is much suspected Great Britain, and Messrs Pease, now, this power of Russia turns out a Sturge, and Co., for the United Ser- mere nightmare which Europe had vices. The day of the Alma has only to wake to shake off, and if we told him that, though Manchester is and France continue friends, there is large, England is larger, and that no reason why the foundations of a there is a certain people north of the solid European peace should not be Tweed wearing “ petticoats,"* with laid; for England and France together whom, not withstanding their appear- are strong enough to bind nearly all ance, his boasted Imperial Guard de- the world over to keep the peace. cline to cross bayonets. But it is not When Russia is settled, France may for the lesson it has given the Czar safely abate her army, and England that I lay so much stress on this glo- her navy: but neither must disarm; rious but dearly-bought battle; it is if they do, not only will other powers that, by mingling the hopes and fears cease to respect them, but they will of England and France, as it mingled cease to respect each other. We must the blood of their sons, it is an earnest still be able to say “No” to our lively of the lasting pacification of Europe, young brother across the Atlantic, if and, through Europe, of the world. he wants Cuba without paying for it,

IRENÆUS.-But, friend, I thought or takes any other little vagary into you were just arguing that war was his head. A war establishinent may better than peace; in fact, was no- be expensive-and I believe, if the thing but peace plus bayonets, sabres, truth were known, that is the chief artillery, wounded and slain, and that objection of the peace-mongers—but peace was the real war.

so is life insurance, which you, as the TLEPOLEMUS.-You mistake my father of a family, allow to be very meaning-I hope not wilfully. I only proper thing. A fighting establishwished to show that peace has its ment, in time of peace, is nothing horrors as well as war, and that war more than a system of insurance, by is not so black, or peace so white, as which we secure to those who como it is painted.

to their after us those vaunted liberties which effects on the human heart, they are have taken so many generations to

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A Russian officer-prisoner said that he was glad one of the Guards had struck him down, and not one of the people in petticoats.

grow up, and which we have seen, day of reconciliation with France-a from abundant experience elsewhere, reconciliation which we may now fairly are not to be invented in a night, or hope will last for ever, or at any rate conquered in a day.

as long as the old enmity! France IRENÆUS.—There is much in what and England ought to be friends ; for you say; but I cannot yet see why them to be otherwise is sheerest folly. this war, of which the battle of the They are the complement of each Alma is the beginning, is necessary to other, as the Zouaves are the compleeffect a hearty friendship with France. ment of the Foot-guards in a perfect

TLEPOLEMUS.-Because, although infantry. In war, they are both masamity might exist among civilians, culine enough. In peace, the Britisha the services of the two countries al genius is masculine; the French femiways regarded each other as possible, nine. I mean no offence. I say not even probable foes, till now when they effeminate, but feminine. I heard a have beheld each other's prowess, and friend once say that the most manly shed their blood on the same field, characters must have a feminine elelooking the same way. As the feel- ment to make them loveable. No ing of antipathy between England wonder. Such an union of nationaliand France was born of war, so in ties is a kind of union of moral strength war it was destined to die. No less and artistic beauty; or, in the lana price than that paid could have guage of the laureatebrought about this desirable consum

" Perfect music exalts noble words." mation. Many an old hatred was buried with the Allied slain on those France and England want each other; Crimean heights. On that stern day they have much to learn from one French and British fought side by another. We may borrow of France side, companions in honour, danger, symmetry and decorum; France may death, and victory. Each fought borrow from us ballast and solidity. under the eyes of the old enemy, like I am not qualified to speak of comthe knights of old under the eyes of mercial advantages resulting from their mistresses. They regarded, and such a friendship; and as to the have recorded, each other's deeds of highest influences of all, I shall conheroism with a romance of admira- tent myself with observing, that while tion enhanced tenfold by the ancient a mutual knowledge may produce feud. In fact, they have rushed into more energetic practice, it will uneach other's arms like two lovers in a doubtedly engender a larger charity. novel who have lived in mutual mis. But the train is stopping, and I get understanding and misery through out here. I feel rather ashamed of two volumes and a-half, till towards having had all the talk to myself—and the close of the third the truth is I fear that I have been rather unfairly flashed upon them at once by some aggressive on the man of peace. scene of danger or difficulty, and the IRENÆUS.—You have not given me future beholds them happy. Now

a chance. I have just got my arguthey cannot do too much, or say too ments in order, and you run away. much, to atone for the coldness and For shame! but good-bye! Often unkindness of past days. It is in this have I seen an Oxford skiff carried sense I hail the day of Alma to Eng- on a truck, oars and all; never till land as the day of Metaurus to Rome, now did I know that the arrangea clearing of the political horizon; ments of the Great Western Railway partly because it has dissipated any included accommodation for men-ofmisgivings that may have arisen as to war. That accounts for the size of the permanence of the spirit of our the Paddington terminus. Good-bye ancestors, chiefly because it was the again, Tlepolemus !


ALTHOUGH several months have truest sense, when offered in the elapsed since war with Russia was for- cause of justice, freedom, and humally declared-since our fleets were manity. Not upon us does the resent out to the Baltic and the Black sponsibility for broken peace and for seas—and since the flower of our army cruel carnage rest. Not against us left the British shores to encounter a can the charge be made that we were new and most formidable enemy, it is too hasty in assuming arms—too rash not until now that most of us have in espousing the cause of an invaded been able thoroughly to realise our European power. The error, if error position, or to appreciate to their full there has been, lay on the other side. extent the terrible responsibilities of Our Ministers, from the commenceench a struggle. Those who were ment of the Eastern embroilment, merely infants when the discharge of trusted by far too much to the efficacy cannon from our castles and forts an- of diplomatic negotiations, which after nounced the crowning victory of all were but as cobwebs when opposed Waterloo, have advanced far in life to the iron will and fixed determinawithout beholding any of the great tion of the Czar—they used words of Powers of Europe arrayed in arms compliment and of faint dissuasion, against each other. There have been, when they should have employed the indeed, from time to time, revolutions language of stern remonstrance and of and insurrections on the Continent- solemn warning—they were ambigudynasties have been overthrown, and ous and weak when they ought to provinces have risen in rebellion have been resolute and strong. The against a yoke which had become too stereotyped phrases of diplomacy are oppressive to be borne—but amidst not suited for English use. They all these convulsions Britain has been are essentially hollow and hypocritical, enabled to preserve tranquillity at and sound ill at a time when the best home, and to maintain pacific rela- interests of the nation are at stake. tions with her neighbours. With the What Britain has to say upon any casual exception of the affair of Na- great question should be conveyed in varino, it has been only in India and language brief, emphatic, and unmisthe far East that our forces were ac- takable, in language such as Cromtively engaged in contests, which no well uttered when he made the might donbt were bloody and severe, but of England felt and feared throughout which, from their remoteness, could the Continent. It is impossible now not be expected to impress us with to read such despatches as those of the same awe and excitement which Lord John Russell without feeling we have just experienced in receiving that their tone was infinitely below the account of the first great victory that which the dignity of the country achieved by the allied armies of Bri- demanded, or the emergency of the tain and France on the heights of the crisis required; and without perceivAlma. But now the messenger bas ing that they were calculated to foster arrived with tidings, glorious indeed in the mind of the Czar the impresto the nation, but such as bring sor- sion that our opposition to his designs row, and agony, and bereavement to against Turkey would rather be pasmany a hearth. A great blow has sive than active, would end in official been struck—a great victory won, but protest instead of absolute hostile reit has been dearly purchased for the sistance. In no capacity has Lord country by the blood of its bravest John Russell, unsuccessful in many, and its best!

failed so signally as in that of MinisSuch are the sacrifices of war; and ter of Foreign Affairs. He committed by a people not intoxicated with mili- the egregious mistake of addressing tary glory, with the lust of conquest, the Czar as if he were the bugbear or the passion for unbounded domi- which he affected to be, thereby acnion, they are felt, and felt deeply, knowledging as a fact what in reality even in the hour of triumph. But was a gross delusion, which it was sacrifices they are, in the highest and the policy of Russia to palm upon

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