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and roughness of gesture are generally the place of personal and national considered lawful; and no place seems hatred between combatants, and in more fit for an Englishman to let off some degree between the parties at the steam of his predilection and pre- home that back them. War is judices in. A friend of ours laboured doubtless one of the most awful facts under a most disagreeable sense of of our condition ; but we know that obstruction, when he was reminded the soldier may admire, even love, by a gentleman on the Boulogne line, the public enemy, and this partly just after the "coup d'etal"_"Il ne from self-love; for his enemy draws faut pas parler politique." That “il out bis own virtues and puts them bene faut pas parler" being, by the way, fore his eyes : he shows him his own the beginning of the history of all the manhood. Thus war becomes to the explosions which have taken place on combatants a sublime dispensation of the State line of our allies across the the Almighty, to overlive which is Channel. They will persist, in spite life-loug glory, rather than merely the of all experience, in working steam- most emphatic expression of the evil power without safety-valves, and all passions of man. And modern war is their engines are high-pressure. It more favourable to this feeling than would be hard to say whether my ancient war. The modern soldier's conversation with Irenæus is to be courage is tested by having to face a brought under the head of politics or rain of shot and shell rather than by polemics-perhaps polemics, using the the hand-to-hand encounter. In old word in its derivative signification; times, every battle was more like a for the subject was war in general, thousand duels in one field, and when and the war with Russia in particular. shield pressed shield, and sword I may mention that Irenæus, like a bickered with sword, and lance sensible man, does not affect the sin- clashed with lance, men's faces looked gularities, though he supports the prin- far more ugly to each other in the ciples, of his sect, addressing you in crisis of battle than now; for it was, the second person plural, like a gen- I must confess, rather hard to love tleman and a Christian.

the man whose point was within a IRENÆUS (folding up the Times and yard of your heart ;-yet even then, tossing the advertisements out of win- as we know from numberless indow.)—A sad affair this battle on the stances, a high-minded soldier could Alma! several thousand men butcher- look upon the business with a purely ed like beasts by those who had no professional eye; and perbaps this personal dislike to them, and who, if feeling was strongest in that most they had known them, would more maligned of professional men, the probably have loved than hated them. mercenary soldier. Victor or vanSurely an awful responsibility rests on quisbed, he liked a man all the better the head of bim who gives the first that he had felt the weight of his hand. signal for the shedding of blood-sball I have no doubt that Hector and Ajax we not rather say, an infinite weight had risen many inches in each other's of guilt ?

esteem at the end of their famous TLEPOLEMUS.-I quite agree with duel, and that they exchanged preyou as to the responsibility of him sents, the sword and the sword-belt, who lets slip the dogs of war; as to his in the schoolboy overflowing of their guilt, that depends on circumstances: hearts. It always struck me tbat it may be a frightful crime or a stern Sophocles entirely mistook the heroic duty. But that men who have no feeling when he makes Ajax speak of personal dislike kill each other in Hector's sword, when he chooses it war is to my mind the redeeming for his suicide, as "the gift of one point of it. The feeling evoked in most hostile, most hateful to my the battle-struggle is that of a race sight.” Homer knew far better the for victory, in which the winners spirit of knightly warriors. I need live and the losers die, and there is scarcely cite the times of chivalry, as admiration in the breast of every the very name tells its own story. competitor of proper feeling for all The true knight always loved a brave who win or lose nobly. This feel- foe, even in that bitterest war of wars ing, when the sword is drawn, takes a religious war. Richard loved “ In his eyes

and respected Saladin, and Saladin I cannot see what difference declaring Richard. How well Scott understands war against him can make. It surely this feeling! Roderick Dhu and Fitz- does not fit him to associate with James, though mortal foes, began to honest men on equal terms. love each other as soon as they were TLEPOLEMUS.- Pardon me, public fairly placed in a position to measure opinion may prejudge a question of their swords.

this kind as much as it likes; but

when we appeal to arms, we appeal to Respect was mingled with surprise,

the Power that rules defeat and victory. And the stern joy that warriors feel

We must treat the foe with the same In foemen worthy of their steel.” courtesy with which our law treats an

untried man. If he conquers us, it is In fact, this respect for foes was the best that we should be civil to him very essence of chivalry, and the mo- now; if we conquer him, we can well ment that a private enemy became an afford it. Let us fight him, but not antagonist in arms, he became in a abuse him. We blame him for his certain sense a friend, quite as much appeals to Heaven in support of his so as in the sense of your sect, Ire- pretensions, and call such appeals næus. But to come to times nearer blasphemous -- that depends on the our own. We know what was the feeling with which they are made. feeling of the hostile soldiers in the The traditional ambition of his family Peninsular War towards each other, may possibly be mixed up with when not engaged in action. The enough of fanaticism to make them English liked the French who fought sincere. As for his sly offer to divide them far better than the Spaniards with us the "sick man's " patrimony, who starved them and cheated them. the less we say about that the better ; They associated in the most friendly for our Government certainly did listen manner, sometimes fraternising on a to him, and at first expressed its moral large scale, but oftener in small indignation so mildly that he might parties. They even trusted this be excused for not attaching much friendly feeling so far as to buy and weight to it. Look to numbers of sell from and to each other; though the Times of that date. How ably this, I must confess, was more dan- its leading articles show that Turgerous to the feelings of mutual re- key was in the last stage of a decline. spect than fighting. I have heard an The Turks do not write leading old officer say that he was often articles, but they have written Silobliged to warn small bodies of the istria, Oltenitza, Citale, Giurgevo, enemy off the ground occupied by the with pens of steel, not the goose-quills British outposts, the penalty of diso- of our able editors; and it would be bedience being to be taken prisoners hard for all the phalanx of journalism in a quarter of an hour by his watch. to bear down those four words now. The appeal to the sword, in fact, has The worst of our popular press is, that generally been found to extinguish by it the country or Government thinks personal hatred between public ene- aloud ; and even though it adopts the mies, in all cases where war was carried better counsel, and does the right on in the spirit of a soldier rather thing at last, it gets little credit, bethan in that of a cannibal. The gen- cause it is so inconveniently communieral separation prevents petty quar- cative of passing thoughts of meanness rels, such as occur in friendly ranks; or wickedness. "Ifindividuals thought the occasional intercourse, when such aloud in the same way, the most is permitted, creates the kindliest feel- strait-laced gentlemen-dare we say ings.

gentlewomen too? — would appear IRENÆUS.-But with regard to our guilty of most of the sins of the Decafeelings at present towards the Em- logue. I do not think we are morally peror of Russia, I cannot see how immaculate enough to throw stones being openly at war with him can at the foe. Have we not the opium make any difference: if you regard war with China on our consciences ? him as a sort of highwayman on a

IRENÆUS.--I hate war, and I do not large scale, making the Danubian mean to defend the opium war; but Principalities his Hounslow Heath, surely a war of ambition is much

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more wicked than one undertaken to tions of war. He will probably be deeply farther enlightenment, civilisation, and bumbled before he has suffered all he commercial intercourse between na. has to suffer, and is destined to feel tions.

the hollowness of the supports of irreTLEPOLEMUS.- I cannot say I think sponsible power. But let us treat him so. I think it, of all reasons for war, with respect (I do not say with adathe one involving the greatest moral lation, like the emissaries of the Peace guilt. A war of aggression is always Society), but with the respect due to bad, as bad as you please. Religious fa- an enemy, who is playing with us the naticism will not excuse it, political game of war with power, reputation, aggrandisement will not excuse it, but it may be his crown and empire, at least of all will Mammon-worship ex. stake. Whatever he may be, he has cuse it, for this is the only religion in appealed to the Lord of Hosts, who which devotion to its god is the same will judge between us. Let us fight thing as the meanest and most unmi- him, and not burn bim in effigy. The tigated selfishness.

experience of the last great war ought IRENEUS.—Then you do not believe to teach us respect for enemies. Let in the blessings of free trade. us not brag of our superiority, but use

TLEPOLEMUS.- I believe that free it. Tņv Aspártelay oébw. The abuse of trade produces certain mutual conve- Napoleon I. in the journals of the time niences, that it diffuses in the world did us no good; if he had been sucthe enjoyment of the world's unneces- cessful, they would have followed the sary good things,-if these, without a example of the Moniteur : “The Corspice of profaneness, are to be called sican monster has escaped ;” “ The blessings. I will grant this much, usurper bas landed in France; " "Ge. though I am not a so-called free-trader; neral Buonaparte is at Grenoble;" but none but the wildest fanatics of “ Napoleon is at Lyons ; " " The Emthe free-trade religion could justify the peror is at Paris;" "Vive l'Empereur!" forcing of the commerce in a poison Above all, let us eschew cant in giving which a government, as despised as our reasons for the war. We go to war barbarous, was enlightened enough to because Russia is becoming too powerprohibit. If you are so fond of free ful for the peace of Europe, and betrade, why do you like the Maine Liquor cause, not satisfied with being the third Law, and, while you keep your own kil- great power, she aims, to use Mr derkin of XXX., wish to deny the Grote's expression, at the Hegemony thirsty ploughman his glass of beer? of the world. This is a simple and a At home you stigmatise as poison sufficient ground. As forespousing the the wine that maketh glad the heart cause of the weak against the strong, of man,” yet you would rehabilitate this is a right thing to do ; and a opium in the Celestial Empire. strong nation, like a strong individual,

Irenæus (blushing a little).--I has its duties as well as its privileges. don't defend the opium war, or any But if we pretend to knight-errantry, other war in fact, as you knew before. we ought to be consistent throughout, You quite misunderstood me.

and be as ready to take up the cudgels TLEPOLEMU8.—I am glad I did. I for an annexation of Texas, an inthought you thought it more justifiable road into Mexico, or an outrage on a than the Czar's attack on Turkey. Black British subject in America. If

IRENÆU8.-I'll give that up for the this is our “casus belli” now, it ought sake of peace, between us, at all to have been at first, and a declaration events. But as to the Czar?

of war ought to have followed the pasTLEPOLEMUS.–Well, as to the Czar, sage of the Pruth by the first Russian I believe bim, in spite of his awful do- soldier. It is all very well for us to ings, to be a gentleman in the com- abjure conquest for ourselves hencemonly understood sense of the term forth, and to join France in putting -one of the few in his dominions. I down conquerors, as an antiquated believe that this war will show him to nuisance. But France and England be the victim of a gigantic system of must make all due allowances for Rasthieving and adulteration-adultera- sia; we were not always of this mind. tion, not of tea and sugar, likeours, but France, even more than England, it is of fortifications, army-lists, and muni. to be hoped, before she took up arms


on this just ground, has repented in Juggernaut of gain, and with the free sackcloth and ashes of former mis- consent of men who would shrink deeds.

from sacrificing them to the assertion IRENÆUS.—The gist of your argu- of world-wide justice, and the honour ment seems to be, that war between and independence of their country. rival nations is more productive of the IRENÆUS.—But the great principles generous feelings than peace.

of national justice may be better setTLEPOLEMU8.-It is, than a hollow tled by arbitration than by the sword. and hating peace. I do not say that TLEPOLEMUS.- So you may travel Bations or men cannot love one an- by coach, post-carriage, on horseback, other except their fingers are at each or on foot--the latter plan sain, but other's throats. It is better to fight, slow and sure. But arbitration will admire, and hope to love afterwards, settle nothing where there is injustice than it is to abstain from fighting, and on one side, which presupposes an hate perpetually. Malice and hatred unwillingness to submit to arbitrain human hearts are far more odious tion. You might as well arbitrate in the eyes of Heaven than wounds with a pickpocket as to the amount and death. These are part of natural of treadmill he is to receive for robevil, while those are part of moral biog you. I wonder how long the evil. I am sceptical as to natural Society of Friends would exist if it evil being evil at all, except to us. were left to the protection of its own We think it so, because it interferes principles. It would have served with our conveniences and enjoy- you right if, as you refuse to pay ments. War is only the greatest of taxes on principle, and, like good evils, if life is the greatest good—if Christian men, to serve in the war at life, wealth, luxury, and comfort are the command of the magistrate, to be set above liberty, honour, jus- you had been outlawed every man tice, and religion. To set peace above of you, and exempted from the right is to set the seen above the un- guardianship of the police. Why, by seen,-the present life of man above this time you would not have existed his more glorious destiny. It is hard at all, and some of the thirty thouto prove war an evil in the economy sand thieves of London would have of the universe, as it is hard to prove been converted, if not to honesty, at the convulsions of nature-the hurri- least to commercial respectability, by cane, the earthquake, and the pesti- the possession of your spoils. Society lence-to be absolute evil. All the is far too indulgent to you ; you live arguments of the Peace Society tend at peace, and your goods are in peace, to establish the reign of materialism because a certain strong man armed and atheism ; the preservation of keeps your home for you. man's life for a few short years being IRENÆUS.— I thank society for its assumed as the greatest good. Yet I inconsistent indulgence. Meanwhile doubt your consistency. What do we will preach and practise peace you say of railway travelling? We till all the world adopts our principles. are going very fast now.

TLEPOLEMUS.-That is a consumIRENÆUS.—Railway travelling kills mation devoutly to be wished, but we its tens, but it is an enormous advan- must bide God's time for it: we cantage to the million : war kills its mil- not anticipate a higher will as long lions, and is an advantage to the ten. as one unjust or ambitious spirit re

TLEPOLEMUS.- Proportion can make mains, -as long as the human heart, no difference in a moral question. in fact, is what it is. You might as My respect for human life is such well say that we are not to wear that I say, put down railway travel- fannel-waistcoats, because it would ling, unless it is to proceed consist- be very desirable that the air about ently with almost perfect safety to us should be always temperate. life. Public convenience cannot jus- IRENÆUS.- We do not ignore the tify the taking of one life. At pre- possibility of having to suffer by resent the minimum bonum of railway fusing to defend ; is no courage shown companies appears to be the minimum in the brave endurance of wrong? of slaughter with the maximum of TLEPOLEMUS.- No: pot when it dividends. Men are sacrificed to the deteriorates the wrong-doer, stuci

encourages him to do more wrong. jealousy, what arming and disarming, Magnanimity and a higher creed would offending and apologising, watching teach us to overlook our little selfish and being watched, did not that grievances, but it is mere selfishness peace include, during the reign of the and cowardice to overlook wrong in- Bourbons, the Citizen King, and the flicted on others. If you, for instance, Republic ! What diplomacy was newith your sinews, were to see a big cessary to avoid an outbreak! There drunken bully cruelly beating a child? were Turko-Egyptian embroilments,

IRENEUS. -I would remonstrate Affaires Pritchard,” Spanish marwith him.

riages, and many other such, fanning TLEPOLEMUS.—But, my dear man, the flame of national hatred : now we he would be too drunk to appreciate are at war in earnest with Franceremonstrance.

IRENÆUS.— With France ? IRENÆUS.—I would stand in the TLEPOLEMUS.-On our side, that is way of the blows.

far better ; but at war with France TLEPOLEMUS.-But the blows might in some sense it was necessary to knock you down, and then the in- be, to have done with the old grudge. justice would begin anew, with As it is, the two nations have been freesher zest from the abortive op- glad enough to rush into each other's position.

arms, and rejoice to substitute a disIrenæus.- I am almost afraid tant war for such a fight in a saw-pit then I should be tempted to knock as another war in the Channel would him down.

have been. It was necessary that TLEPOLEMUS.—Why not at first, their blood should in some sense be and so have saved your own skin ? shed together to make them lasting The late armed interference would be friends, that confederate war should quite as inconsistent with your prin- extinguish the animosities which were ciples as the early.

the remains of hostile war, by coverIREN ÆUS.-Well, suppose I con- ing the old scars with new wounds, cede that a sharp decisive war is and thus inducing forgetfulness of the sometimes necessary to secure

hand which made them. solid peace; but while it lasts it is IRENÆUS.-Do you think we can surely the greatest of evils, and rouses quite trust the French even now? I the worst passions of the human wish to trust everybody, and hope heart.

everybody will repay it; but France TLEPOLEMUS.- I dare to join issue is so unlike us in every habit of with you even on that ground. What thought, so unlike us in manners and is called peace is too often a misno- customs—even in physical peculiarimer: only another name for intestine ties. and most uncivil war. It is war at TLEPOLEMUS.-I donot talk of trust. home, civil or uncivil, I especially ing France so far as to cast aside our deprecate

armour even when Russia is subdued. θυραίος έστω πόλεμος, ου μόλις παρών, 1y, but I would not tempt her on her

I would trust her fully and generousεν ώ τις έσται δεινός ευκλείας έρως, ενοικίον δ' όρνιθος ου λέγω μάχην. .

weak point. Now, her military

strength is her weakness—she conNow what do you define peace to fesses it herself – and though she be ?

seems to be growing out of that, it IRENÆUS.—The absence of war, wonld be kind to her, as well as pruand its accompanying evil passions. dent towards ourselves, to keep temp

TLEPOLEMUS. - If I can prove that tation out of her way. We do not you may be without war, yet have know what may happen in the interall its bad passions, and many other course of nations : besides, what is your peace worth?

Και ταϊσι θήβαις εί τανύν ευημερει IRENÆUS.—I doubt if you can

καλώς ταπρός σε, μοριάς και μυρίος prove your point. TLEPOLEMUS.3.- What was the peace

χρονις τεκνούται νυκτάς ημέρας τ'ίων, ,

έν αίς τα νύν σύμφωνα δεξιώματα which lasted from 1815 till now worth with our next-door neighbour France ?

δορει διασκεδωσι έκ σμικρού λόγου. What an amount of suspicion, what As for the differences which you lay

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