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empire of Porcelain. Her picture is in the opposite direction. Profligacy proof of her once existence, as a was a fashion. The writer is here undiscovered coin of a reign; and who sparing, yet justifies his severity by knows if, in the wonders that muta- authorities given in the notes. bility is working, she may not again " The light poets, the players, and rise a revivified civilisation in that the gay men and women on town, led strange land-a new Aphrodite out of crowds of votaries into the extreme the sea of its turbulence, when the opposite to Puritanism. Young peoTartar dynasty shall have quietly ple of both sexes were brought from withdrawn itself; for it is better be the country to Whitehall, where, inshould escape than she should " catch stead of hard lessons of elevated a Tartar." My letter concluded with thought and patriotism-such as Lady the best of conclusions, that civilisa. Jane Grey and her coutemporaries tion is, was, and ever will be, Femi- learnt from Plato-they masqued, they nine Influence. You may not like my ogled,' sang, and danced, under the Chinese model; but you, who would eye of the • Mother of the Maids,' and rather fight for the honour and repu- the higher auspices of the Queen, the tation of your great-grandmother, than Queen-Dowager, and the Duchess of like a Bounderby deny a mother, will York, until, wounded or terrified, they scan the mystery, and see its perfec- flew into concealment, or as it was tion.
everywhere deemed, ridiculously marI was vexed to find nothing of this ried, and ingloriously discharged the in Census No. 1. There all was of the duties of English wives and mothers. penmanship of Big Busy body, prime The sisters, daughters, and wives of secretary of Prince Humbug, and I the loyalest subjects, the greatest genfelt some pleasure in rolling about my erals, the wisest statesmen, and the tub in contempt. But whether it was gravest judges, figured in the Paphian tliat the Prince Humbug and his se. train, glittering and smiling as the cretary were weary or bungry, and troop of Boccaccio in the pages of retired, or were shoved for a wbile Grammont, and on the walls of Hampfrom their seats of authority by a more ton Court; but with advancing years masterly hand, I find quite another shattered, patched, degraded, fading spirit in about the middle of Report -as they are seen in the authentic No. 2, wherein, in coincidence with our memoirs of the age, and life-like por--that is, your and my view—the femi- traits of Hogarth." nine element is justly brought out and As Hogarth was not born till 1698, duly weighed-its value and impor- the tenth year of the reign of Wiltance established. The writer of this liam and Mary, it is surely straining portion of the Census, wisely dissatis- a point for the picturesque effect of fied with the assumed causes of our portraiture, to introduce him as deprogressive population-namely, the picting, in the dramatis persone of his mechanical inventions, which have scenic works, the profligacies of the apparently found employment for the reign or the Beauties of the Court of people--ascribes it to the influence of Charles II. In the frigid Court of the changes in the conjugal state of the William and Mary, “vice lost its people. He passes in review the period graces and charms; " but profligacy of our history extending from 1651 to is not at once eradicated; and it 1751. “The population increased very would be strange indeed if there was slowly; and we find that, after the re. not enough of it in practice of the storation of Charles II., such a gene- then world of fashion to justify the ral dissoluteness of manners was in- satire of the moral painter. The augurated as can now be scarcely un- “homely but not shining qualities" derstood; while shortly after 1751 the which regulated the court of the “delaw of marriage- which, like the in- vout, chaste, and formal " Queen stitution itself, bad grown inconceiv. Anne, so designated by Lord Chesably loose, and had at the same time terfield, a writer very tolerant of old been greatly abused—was reformed." vices, were not suffered to have a perPuritanism had drawn the social bow manent effect upon the manners of the withi too strong a hand; the string bad people, by the succession of the two brohen, and it had hastily flown back first Georges. Among all classes
“the institution of marriage was un- asunder ;” and the evil suggestion, in settled to its foundations."
the coutrary case, is ready enoughThe effect of this state of things Whom man joins man may put asunupon families was most pernicious. der, and if man only, it little matters The due ratio of increase of popula- what man. Parties may assume that tion was stayed. A gradual improve privilege to themselves. It is hard to ment in the morals of the people com- see how the Church of England can, menced after 1751. Lord Hard- at any after time, by their other offiwicke's bill, in 1753, was “one of the cial acts, recognise such marriages. first evident reforms in the law of What is to be said of the monition marriage.” Historians do not express or warning, that “ so many as are the same sentiments upon the opera- coupled together otherwise than God's tion of this bill—some viewing it as a word doth allow, are not joined tomeans to secure to the aristocracy gether by God, neither is their matrifortunes by marriages, others as giv- mony lawful ? " ing a greater respectability to mar- "Since the Act (of 1753) came riage itself. It was at the time con- into operation, the registers of marsidered by its opponents as likely to riage have been preserved in England, affect the population of the country. and show an increase from 50,972 in The writer in the Report observes: the year 1756 to 63,310 in 1764 " Experience soon showed, that in- “ The rage of marrying is very prevastead of stopping marriage, and the lent," writes Lord Chesterfield in the growth of population, the Act had the latter year; and again in 1767, "in contrary effect, by depriving the mar- short, the matrimonial frenzy seems riage ceremony of disgraceful associa
to rage at present, and is epidemical." tions- by making it not a mere verbal After many fluctuations, the marriages promise, but a life contract to be re- rose to seventy, eighty, ninety, and a corded, to be entered into with delib- hundred thousand annually; and in the eration by persons in the enjoyment Census year (1851) to a hundred and of their faculties, and to be kept in- fifty-four thousand two hundred and violate till death." And here it is sir. Fourteen millions were added to fair to remark, that probably no small the population. The matrimouial share of the disrespect in which mar- “ frenzy " wbich amused Lord Chesriages were held, and the consequent terfield was rife in the reign of our dissoluteness, may be ascribed to the Third George. You will not be surPuritans, who, before Charles's arrival, prised, Eusebius, to learn, that to in 1653, bad passed a bill for solem- George III., bis queen, and the nising marriages by justices of peace. example of his court, is ascribed by The removal of any part of the sanc- this writer in the Census the change tity of marriage bas a tendency to for the better in the morals and manbring it into disrepute; it is better ners of the people. Family sanctities that it should be held even as some were established. The home influence would say with a superstition, thau of the virtuous mother was felt merely as a civil contract, which, like throughout the land. That purity was most other civil contracts, may be restored which had been nearly lost broken ad libitum by those who are in the moral degradation of women of willing to incur the penalties. Mo. previous licentious times. It is with dern legislation has, however, in this a grateful pleasure, Eusebius, as one respect, brought the ceremony of mar- born during that moral reign, and riage down still lower than the Act of thankful for that love of a mother the Puritans, by reducing even the which was its law and rule, and my official diguity of performance, and individual happiness, that I make the authorising marriages at the public following extract:Register Offices. Where there is " Of the political course of George little distinct religious feeling or prin- III. and Queen Charlotte opinions ciple, there is a superstition akin to necessarily still differ; but the truth it. And there are few who do not of the testimony to the Queen's prie receive or remember, with a sense of vate virtues will be universally awe, the solemn words, “Whom God admitted.” (Here follows extract hath joined together, let no man put from Lord Mahou's Ilistory of Eng. land). “Pure, and above all re- General Assembly can marry them, proach in her own domestic life, she or any of the doctors of divinity in knew how to enforce at her court the their own parish.
: I virtues, or at the very least, the sem- should say," says Lord Brougham, blance of the virtues, which she prac- “ that the law of Scotland as it now tised. To no other woman, probably, stands has a very great tendency to had the cause of good morals in Eng- shelter, and therefore to promote clanland ever owed so deep an obliga- destinity, wbich is in my opinion a very tion." The Queen devoted much great evil in any society. It seems time to the education of her family. to me to be of infinite importance that The simple, pure life of the Royal a contract, such as the marriage conFamily, soon became known in every tract, should be overt and known to cottage of England and Scotland, and all mankind, and above all, that it afforded a striking contrast to the should be easy of proof.” Lord Campscandals of preceding reigns. “De- bell is equally strong in his abhor. corum reigned in the court of George rence of the law as it stands. It is inIII., but it was not the result of cal. jurious to Scotland as to England; for culation or of philosophy, but of the besides the disgraces of Gretna Green, love of order, of duty, and of religion. and the evasion thereby of the English This prince as zealously promoted Marriage Law, it affects Scotland by the family, as an institution accord- the fact, as noticed by Lord Brougham, ing to the old Anglo-Saxon type, as that English parents of property are Charles II. propagated the Oriental afraid to send their sons for education fashion, or its spurious modification." to Edinburgh, and by the lower ratio of “ He was to the last the good increase of population through fewer king' whom they had pitied and marriages. For the Census shows blamed, but never bated; for he had that, “ In 1841, of the Evglish people placed the wife on the throne, which in Scotland 18,562 were males, and the mistress had usurped; so that the 19,234 were females: of the Scottish idea of the English family lived again people in England and Wales, 60,704 in all its old beauty. And this was were males, and 42,834 females. Of the great social reform, which de- the Irish people in Great Britain, servedly preceded all other changes." 219,397 were males, and 199,859 were
The writer or writers of this Report females. The respective numbers of are severe in their strictures upon the the ages under and above 20 were not Marriage Law of Scotland. People distinguished in 1841 ; but the proporliving in the state of marriage in Scot- tional numbers of males and females land are one sixth less in proportion support the conclusion that the Scotch than the people of England. Scotland women are forsaken in greater numbers is considered under-peopled. Her than English women by their countrymarriage law has not been reformed men.” What conceivable reason, as in England ; the consequences are Eusebius, can be given for the conthose which operated with us before tinuance of such an evil as this ScotLord Hardwicke's Act in 1753. The tish law of marriage ? The newsevidence of the best legal authorities papers have recently told us of a shameis given in the Report regarding this ful case of a child of about 12 years of evil. Lord Brougham says concerning age taken from a school, and married it,—“As the law now stands, they under its vicious protection. Old plays (the parties) have only to go be- and popular novels sufficiently show fore the ostler, or the chambermaid, what were the dangers and the effects of or the postboy, whoever it is that loose marriages once so common even drives them to the country; or, if they in England. Now, happily, no Olivia reside in the country, they can do it can be in danger of having the rite perbefore any one witness that can prove formed by a pretended clergyman. I il; or even without any witness they can believe, Eusebius, I speak of a notorido il, if they can prove the date, by an ous fact, that it is short of a century interchange of letters and acknowledg- since, for election purposes, parties ments : they have only to do that, and were unblushingly married in cases they are married in a trice, and just where women conveyed a right of as effectually as the Moderator of the freedom, a political franchise, to their
husbands, and parted by shaking hands “ In Great Britain more than half a over a tombstone, as an act of dis- million of the inhabitants (596,030) solution of the marriage, under cover have passed the barrier of threescore of the words“ till death us do years and ten;' more than a hundred part.”
and twenty-nine thousand have passed This subject of marriage, of which the Psalmist's limit of fourscore years; you will see ample details in the Re- and 100,000 the years which the last port, I have dwelt upon to this length of Plato's climacteric square numbers because it is the very fountain-head of expressed (9 times 9=81); nearly ten that feminine influence convertible into thousand (9847) have lived 90 years a national civilisation. From this or more; a band of 2038 aged pilgrims arises the institution of the “Family', have been wandering ninety-five years wherein maternity is enthroned, and and more on the unended journey; and home dignified by duties and responsi. 319 say that they bave witnessed more bilities, and all the ties of love and than a hundred revolutions of the sea. the charities that civilise and grace sons." Are you so satisfied with Plato's life are engendered. These homes ultimatum, and is it so congenial to nestled and neighboured throughout the your“ pleasing hope and fond desire," country, each an epitome of the king- that you will clap your hands and say dom which as a whole they constitute, “Plato, thou reasonest well"? But if maintain-and may they ever main- you should live to record the age of tain-the best character of our race. the old crow, I do not see why you
Whilst we are reading the heart- should be pigeon-holed as an old wanstirring accounts of our victories, and dering beggar, pathetically called a are justly proud of the blood, sinew, pilgrim on a weary journey. Far and spirit of our race, it is of no small better that old age or death, kindly and interest to see how that stock of man- amiably visiting, should find you in liness is likely to be maintained. You your easy-chair, resigned and cheerful, will be glad to find, Eusebius, that we and sensible of and sensitive to all the can still and may for ages contend charities of life. As some check to gloriously with the enemy “in the any supposed “ pleasing hope and foud gate,”—ay, not only in our desire," you must be told that “two"gates," but in any enemy's gates. thirds of the centenarians are women," “ The males at the soldier's age of 20 verifying the distich, to 40 amounted to 1,966,664 in 1821, and to 3,193,196 in 1851. The in- But that of an old woman nobody knows when.”
“ The age of man is threescore years and ten, crease on the thirty years is equivalent in number to a vast army of more The Report gives the examples of than twelve hundred thousand men longevity, Thomas Parr and Henry (1,226,832).”
Jenkins. Parr lived 152 years, nine How few of us, Eusebius, would months — Henry Jenkins 169 years. wish the realisation of the superfluous Let me, Eusebius, for your comfort, compliment, “ May you live for ever.” present you with others. Thomas For my own part, I do not tbink it Carn died January 28, 1588, aged pleasant to have prophetic statistics 207 years, -parish register, St Leoihrust before you like the physicians nard's, Shoreditch. And from the in the Bath Guide.
year 1759 to 1780 died 48 persons, The doctors are counting how long the youngest aged 130—eldest 175; I shall live ; I hope the detail given also in 1797, a mulatto in Frederick on such heads will benefit insurance Town, N. A., said to be 180. Very companies, for whom they seem to numerous examples are to be met have been manufactured : I may be with, in Kirby's Wonderful and Ecallowed to doubt if the idle curiosity centric Magazine, vol. V., among will be of other advantage. If, how which will be found a true Darby and ever, you have any ardent desire for Joan couple, Hungarians, John Rovel longevity, and like the gossips would and Sarah his wife. John is spoken keep a crow to see if it be true that it of as in his 1720 year, and Sarah in lives to a hundred, it may be some her 184th. “ Their children,” adds satisfaction to you to know your the account, “two sons and two chances.
daughters, are yet alive; the young
est son is 116 years of age. Dated the anniversary of the death of poor, August 25, 1725.” You will smile at dear Queen Elizabeth.” If the writer the simplicity of the compiler in the be a married man, and fears death, Report, in dealing in truisms. As “it you will see, however, upon a second can rarely, if ever, happen, that a hus- look at the passage, and statistic deband and wife die in the same instant tails elsewhere, that there may be of time," and, in cousequence, that some cause for this lamentation. You “it may be assumed that, practically, will note, Eusebius, that whereas every marriage is dissolved by the one of the two forming every mardeath of the husband or wife separ- ried couple must be taken before the ately ;" that if man and wife were other, the husband is generally the one universally of the same age, and lived
For, seeing that there are out together the whole cycle of life, only 382,969 widowers and 795,590 " there would be neither widowers widows, more than double the number nor widows in the world." That it is of widowers, the married man needs not so moves very unnecessarily the a pretty stiff tumbler at the moment tender bowels of the writer's compas- of such a contemplation, to give his sion-for besides the “ descending the heart any decent hope and comfort. vale of years," and such other fune. I remember once this comfort was real expressions, he breaks out into a actually felt by one who had, as he strain of lamentation, which makes doubtless thought, escaped his napage xl. resemble the scroll of Ezekiel, tural fate. Upon an attempt to symin which “ was written lamentation, pathise with him upon the death o and mourning, and woe.” He writes his wife, he quickly replied, in a selflike an undertaker, whose lugubrious gratulating tone—* Yes—but it might looks and utterances have a prospect have been much worse, you know I beyond the assumed grief. Í should might have been taken myself.” The suppose from this expression of very calculations prophesy a worse condisuperfluous sorrow, that the penman tion than that of Sinbad in his conhad an eye to a new employment in nubial prosperity: he was to survive the statistics - of - woe line, from the his wife at least a few hours. Sanitary Commission, while he winds These statistics may be useful in up his threnody with a catalogue of answering the purpose of Matrimonial the “ills that flesh is heir to." ** The Register Offices ; for they votify in existence of 382,969 widowers, and what localities widows may have the 795,590 widows, some of tender age, bestchance of finding fresh husbandsin every class of society and in every and widowers, wives. You will think part of the country, who have been it the result of a deep pbilosophy, that left-as well as their companions that this hidden truth is discovered in have been taken-by fever, consump- the Report—"The number of widows tion, cholera, and the cloud of dis- who are every year left depends on the eases that at present surround man- mortality of the husbands ;” but as kind-stand like sad monuments of much abstruse truth, in the shape of our mortality, of our ignorance, negli- matter of fact, may require explanagence, and disobedience of the laws tion, it is thus given" Where the of nature; and as memorials, at the rate of mortality among husbands is same time, we may hope, of the suf- doubled, the number who become ferings from which the people may be widows (in italics) is also doubled." delivered by sanitary discoveries and Lest this should not be clear enough, observances." This ungrammatical and clearness is the very virtue of (for what is the nominative to statistic writing, know that—"Any
stand ? ") and maudlin passage is a diminution in the mortality of men puff direct of the Sanitary Commis- will therefore diminish the relative sion. It is like the outpouring, after number of widows." Neither bachelors the inpouring of that spirit which nor old maids (I hate, Eusebius, the creates a crying inebriation. It will ill-nature of the world that makes me remind you, Eusebius, of the lady write reluctantly the latter) will have who was seen to wipe her eyes after reason to congratulate themselves, dinuer, who, when asked what she was " fancy free" as they may now be crying for, replied with sobs, “It is from the cares and troubles of married