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but it is a mere temporary inconve- more rapidly than bigotry in the nience, which will easily be overcome Russo-Greek Church. Even Turkey by publicity and open courts. The has felt the influence of the humane Tanzimat, or Charter of Gulkhane, principles inculcated by the civilisawhich in 1839 promised a better ju- tion of Western Europe ; and perhaps dicial administration, must now be greater difficulty will be found at Confollowed by a code of civil procedure. stantinople in drawing up a code of

In considering the actual condition civil procedure applicable to all ranks of the central administration in the of society, than in carrying it into Othoman Empire, we ought not to effect when it is published. forget its original constitution.

An erroneous idea has always precomparing the immense changes which vailed concerning the extent of Othoit has already undergone with the im- man bigotry. In every age of the provements which are now desired, empire, the Turks have availed themwe cannot entertain a doubt concern- selves of the service of their Christian ing the ultimate success of any well. subjects in their armies ; and it was considered plans of reform. The ori- the unwarlike habits of the Greeks, ginal foundation of the Othoman Em- far more than the bigotry of the pire was force, and for two centuries Turks, which excluded them from it derived its whole strength from military service. Indeed, whenever conquest. Its army was recruited the Greeks were found fit to bear with Christian children, and its trea- arms, they were employed. Not to sury was filled by a capitation-tax speak of the numerous bodies of Chrison the Christians. Force was the tian auxiliaries wbich the Turks drew basis of the government, and expedi- from Transylvania, Vallachia, and ency, not justice, the guiding principle Moldavia, during their long wars with of its legislation. Never did any other Austria, they have, in their more regreat empire proclaim the same indif- cent wars, drawn contingents of Chrisference for the restraints of morality tian troops from Servia and Albania; and the rules of equity. A single and a Christian gendarmerie, called example of this contempt for justice Armatoloi, composed in part of Greeks, may be cited. The expediency of re- was long maintained in the mountains moving the chances of civil war was of Macedonia, Epirus, and Greece. deemed sufficient to authorise murder, There is no doubt that the military by an organic law of the empire. administration in Turkey is far supeMohammed II., the conqueror of Con- rior at present to the civil. Yet even stantinople, after citing in his Kanun in the conduct of the war, particularly namé the opinion of the Ulema that on the Asiatic frontier, the public atthe Koran authorises murder to avoid tention has been drawn to the venalgreat political dangers, adds this in- ity and corruption of several officials junction to all his successors on the holding high rank in the army. The throne, “Let my children and grand- alarming extent to which venality, children be dealt with accordingly.” corruption, and fraud are engrafted in Now, so long as such principles guided the whole administrative system of the legislation of Turkey, it is evident the Othoman Empire, cannot be dethat every attempt to dispense justice nied by any person who has ever equally to all ranks of society was transacted business with the finance impossible. But no power can so department in Turkey. The Seljouk completely defy the progress of mo- aga may be a disinterested gentleman, dern civilisation as to maintain its but the Othoman official is generally place in Europe by the laws of force an incarnation of avarice and rapaand expediency, as the Emperor city. Since the time of Rustem Pasha, Nicholas will soon learn. We have the celebrated grand vizier of Suleiman seen acts of murder and intolerance the Magnificent, every pashalic, and committed by Christian princes, and indeed every government office in the praised by Christian priests, in past Sultan's dominions, has been annuages, quite as infamons as any that ally put up to sale. The best miniscan be cited from Othoman history. ters of the sultans bave been satisfied Mobammedan intolerance has yielded to sell the public charges at a fixed to the progress of modern civilisation price; but far the greater number have habitually put them up to auc- crowding the Turkish ports instead of tion. The evil consequences of this the Rassian. When this happens, system have been lamented by every there will no longer be any difficulty eminent native historian since the in resisting the progress of Russia totime of the great Suleiman, and they wards the south; and unless this hapare considered by them to have been pen speedily, it will be a hard task, the principal cause of the decline of even for the united power of Great the Othoman Empire. On the other Britain and France, to maintain the hand, the enemies of the Sultan and integrity of the Othoman Empire. the Christian subjects of the Porte There is still one subject on which appeal to this deep-seated corruption we desire to say a few words, and this as a proof that the regeneration of is, the extent to wbich the relics of Othoman society is hopeless, and that communal institutions among the any addition to the resources of the Asiatic Turks may be rendered availempire would only increase the for- able in reinvigorating the frame of tunes of individual ministers, without society. But we are warned, by augmenting the strength of the gove the dry nature of the minute details ernment. There can be no doubt to which it would be necessary to that, unless the venality which now refer, to abstain from entering on the prevails among the officials of the cen- subject. We assert, however, with tral administration be extirpated, all confidence, that, both among the Moendeavours to improve the collection hammedans and the Christians, the of the land-tax, and introduce equit- existing local institutions would be able tribunals, would be ineffectual; found of great importance in facilitatbut we do not despair of rooting out ing all the reforms to which we have the existing corruption by summary alluded. The central power of the process. The present Sultan has Sultan may be strong enough to inpower to do it; the people would troduce the necessary change ; but it applaud any arbitrary act of despotism will require the influence of communal by which it could be effected. Publi- institutions to protect the people from city would soon enable the Sultan to becoming a prey to venality and corpunish evil-doers, if he called in the ruption under the new system, even interests of the agricultural classes to more than under the old. We might aid him in bis reforms. Several mca- here insist on the necessity of comsures might be suggested which would munal institutions to guard against immediately restrain the evil, but it that concentration of dissatisfaction is a waste of time to discuss petty which has so often, in our times, measures of reform when the safety of overthrown the most powerful central the empire can only be secured by a governments in Christendom. This series of measures which would make would be a reason for creating them twenty millions of the Sultan's sub- in Tarkey, even if they had no exisjects aid him in the execution of his tence; but, fortunately, they not only plans. We cannot feel certain that exist, but possess considerable influthe successful termination of the pre- ence on society. In some cases these sent war, even though the pride of institutions are limited by the relithe Czar be so tamed that he consent gious faith of the members, in others to every article of a peace dictated by by the fiscal obligations they impose. Great Britain and France, will secure The fact of their existence, however, the permanent tranquillity of the East, adds greatly to the facilities of the until we see the Mohammedans and Sultan's government at present, and Cbristians who own and till the land it would relieve him from some of the in the Sultan's dominions prospering most difficult details in his fiscal reunder an improved fiscal system, and forms. united under an equitable administra- Great as the administrative difficultion of jnstice. Nor will it be easy to ties of the Sultan's government are, persuade us that these results have they are by no means so great as been attained, unless we see cargoes Europeans generally consider them. of wheat arriving at London and We have seen that the Christian subLiverpool from the plains of Thracejects of the Porte are more disposed and Asia Minor, and Greek ships to wait for reforms at home, than to trust their hopes of bettering their had so entirely annihilated the feel. condition to the orthodox mercies of ings of patriotism in the breasts of the Czar. The Mussulmans are still the few Roman citizens who still ina comparatively docile body. There habited the provinces, that they wel. is certainly no other country in Europe comed the arrival of the northern in which the government has so many barbarians as a deliverance, and, like auxiliaries for effecting great changes Bæthius and Cassiodorus, sought as in Turkey. Compare the internal honour in their service. Now, at organisation and the political burdens this moment there is a considerable of the various races of the population similarity between the Greeks of the of the Austrian empire with those of nineteenth century and the Italians the Sultan's subjects, and we see imme- of the fifth. The Roman provincials diately that the danger of insurrection often invited the Goths, the Greek and independent political action are rayahs are eager to hail the Russians, much less. Turn to examine the fis- and we have seen the senators of the cal burdens and commercial system Hellenic kingdom as eager to become of France, and we find that the very the tools of the Emperor Nicholas as imperfections of the Turkish system the old Italian senators were to beincrease the facilities of reform, and come the servants of Theodoric. Nor insure to the greatest changes a free- will this feeling be removed as long dom from opposition which private as the Christian who tills a few acres interests offer to many useful reforms in the plains of Macedonia and Thrace elsewhere.

sees square miles of the richest land Some of the warmest friends of uncultivated around him; and while Turkey assert that the condition of he listens to the insinuations of his the Christian subjects of the Porte is Greek priest, that all this land would already so favourable that Turkish be cultivated, and that he would be a oppression has no existence, and no rich landlord, exporting cargoes of further reforms are required. The wheat, if the Czar was the ruler of Greeks and their friends, neverthe- the country. What argument can less, declare that the insupportable political science offer that is likely to tyranny of the Sultan's administration counteract the effect of such orthodox is the sole cause of the revolutionary doctrine on the minds of the Bulgarian spirit which prevails among the Greek and Sclavonian peasants ? population, and generally among the With regard to the assertion of the orthodox clergy. Both assertions Greeks that the tyranny of the Sulare incorrect. The well-attested di- tan's government is the sole cause of minution of the productions of the their discontent, their conduct in the soil and of the population, both in Ionian Islands and in the kingdom of European and Asiatic Turkey, for the Greece proves it to be false. In the last six generations, proves that the Ionian Islands the greatest improveoppression of the central government ments in the administration of justice, has destroyed the capital vested in and the establishment of a degree of land by a slow but sure process of protection for life and property preconsumption. We hope we have viously unknown to the Greek race, made the primary causes of the evil appear to have done nothing to allay evident to our readers, and demon- discontent, nor diminish the inherent strated by what general measures love of calumny which seems to be these causes may be soon removed. a Hellenic idiosyncracy. The late The Othoman Empire presents us with events in the Greek kingdom have a living example of the governmental shown that no sense of justice and no policy by which imperial Rome de- treaties can bind them, when they populated and impoverished her pro- believe they can gratify their passions vinces, and rendered them thinly by an appeal to force. Their political peopled and heavily taxed countries sagacity, it is true, was on this occabefore they were invaded by the sion sadly at fault. The rashness Goths and Vandals. Even the small and presumption which for two thouarmies of Alaric and Genseric found sand years have characterised the few to oppose their progress, while Romaiko-Hellenic people, combining fiscal oppression and social stagnation with individual selfishness, royal ambition, national incapacity, and Rus- sary to secure the support of the sian guidance, misled them to appeal whole agricultural population of the their destinies to the sword, which Sultan's dominions, whether Christian they were unable to use with any or Mohammedan, in opposing every effect, even when they took their foreign enemy. At all events, we enemy by surprise. of the Greeks, may assume that we have convinced therefore, we may assert that no all impartial readers that the project measures of equity can secare their of maintaining the integrity of Turkey cordial support to any institutions. is far more practicable than that of reThey have now had the government establishing a Greek or new Byzantine of liberated Greece entirely in their empire at Constantinople. The Bulown hands for ten years, with the garians of Macedonia have lately exercise of universal suffrage, and the given a proof of the impossibility of fullest liberty of the press, and yet forming a Greek empire by closing they have made no progress in their the Hellenic schools in several cities, internal improvements. They culti- and opposing by every means in their vate their lands like medieval serfs; power the appointment of Greeks to they manufacture wine with a mix- high ecclesiastical offices. The proture of resin into a composition that gress of knowledge is daily rendering would make Bacchus himself abjure the Albanians and Vallachians more paganism; they grow bad fruit, make proud of their national distinctions. bad oil, and drive commerce from They boast of being descended from their coasts by preposterous restric- the Macedonians and Romans who tions on their own coasting-trade, and conquered the descendants of Pericles. by their piracies and acts of barratry. A Greek government would certainly The friends of Greece had expected require a much larger military force that she would have served as a to keep the Christian population in beacon for the nations of the East to European Turkey in subjection than steer towards political liberty and the Othoman. The petulant Greek Christian civilisation; but they have is at present a worse master to the been most grievously disappointed. Albanian peasantry of Attica and Even the native merchants of Greece, Argolis, than the phlegmatic Turk is who have conducted their commercial to the Sclavonian in Macedonia and affairs on a liberal scale, have found Thrace. To create a Greek or Byzanthemselves compelled, by the mean- tine empire would be to deliver Conness of the court and government at stantinople to the Czar of Russia, with Athens, to transport their domicile guarantees for his maintaining perto other lands; and, accordingly, the manent possession of it which he merchants who do honour to the could never acquire by the sword. national character are all settled It is, however, in the nature of things abroad, and very many are national- that defeat in the present attempt to ised in France, Italy, and Austria- strangle Turkey should only excite some few even in England-while the Russian government to redouble political intriguers form the leaders its eagerness to discover new means of the nation in the Ionian Islands for renewing her struggle for supreand in Greece.

macy in the south-eastern part of Eu. We have now given a faithful pic- rope. For the contest with the Sulture of some features which have tan is in Russia regarded as a nagenerally been neglected, in judging tional and religious warfare. As far of the final destinies of the Othoman as the mere separate interests of Empire. We have endeavoured to Great Britain are concerned, the preweigh candidly all the evidence in sent war has shown that we have nofavour of the regeneration of the Sul- thing to fear from the power of the tan's government, and we have not Czar. Instead of Russia being in a concealed either its defects or its condition to attempt the invasion of difficulties. It is for our own Go- our possessions in India, it is evident vernment to decide how far it would that it is in our power not only to be prudent for the allies of Turkey conquer, but also to colonise Kamtto urge the immediate adoption of schatka and Ochotsk, to endow these those measures which

countries with local governments, nay,



even to make them independent states, rier against the further progress of and thus put an end to the authority Russia, which no power of the Czar of the Czar in all the countries east of could break through; and these meaSiberia, and exclude the Russians for sures, unlike most theoretical reforms, ever from the Pacific and the Chinese may be commenced to-morrow mornseas. The ambition of the Emperor ing, when the Divan meets at ConNicholas to extend his power and influ- stantinople, and the council of minisence in Eastern Europe may cause the ters is held at Athens. Both the Sulloss of his dominions in Eastern Asia. tan and the Greek chambers have

A hatti-sherif of the Sultan, and a only to withdraw the weight of opJaw of the Greek kingdom, would be pression that now prevents their sub. sufficient to change the social condi- jects from replenishing the face of the tion and future prospects of more than earth. This being the case, we do not twenty millions of mankind engaged think that our own Government has in agricultural pursuits, to enable this embarked in a desperate undertaking, mass of human beings to better their when it engaged in alliance with condition and augment their numbers. France to uphold the integrity of the These measures would raise up a bar- Othoman Empire.


Dis my last letter, dear Eusebius, unlike the world we wake into, where open to yourintellectualsight a glimpse both romance and honesty are faded of the real nature of Civilisation ? Not like old tapestry, and equally derided that I would presume to imagine I could for their out-of-time and seeming ununfold so great a mystery, or to have natural quaintnesses. Yet who knows, reached the kernel of the nut which Eusebius, what "the ever-whirling had broken the teeth of philosophers. wheel" of mutability may throw off Truth is as a ball of thread which, for our allotment. Old things may cast upon the ground, as it rolls un- come round

tricked anew, and folds itself, it is a lucky catch to bright as all the virtues ! bave your fingers upon the outer

“ Redeant Saturnia regpa.” thread : a careful following may un- Is this but a peevish humour ? Are ravel the whole, and the inner sub- we not, after all, “better than we stance become clear and visible, how- seem ?" Have we not greatness in us ever obscured in its involutions. Paint

and among us ? Truly we have. We your phantasmagoria; let it represent are on the stage of a serious drama, a universal tournament, with queens of which the low underplots and the of beauty the prizes, and every action interludes are somewhat ridiculous; be of honour, generosity, and love. but it is a grand piece that is being Imagine a romance that shall embrace acted—that may justify a “plaudite,' a nation, wise and reverenced age, ere the curtain drops. Who shall dare heroic and lovely youth! Why, you to say that heroism is dead — that are laughing doubtless at the rhap- honesty is dead ? because knavery sody—the dream. Well, is it not a happens to be just now thriving, and dream of civilisation? Honest hands miscalculating economists are troublewere they of the trades in their seve- some with their false weights when ral guilds that glorified the general the higher virtues are in the scale. grace with their proud handiwork, I emblematised civilisation, in the emulous of mastership and fair re- Chinese lady in japan-gilt frame, like nown. Maiden-embroidery and horse- a rose in garden enclosure, -the femimillinery were of the true materials; nine excellence, that even you might no shams, no adulterated and knavish not, with an Anglo-Saxon conceit that substitutes. All work was honest; occasionally and for a moment prethere was an additional worth in it of dominates in us all, arrogate to tbis the labour of love. Fast asleep and your England all that is good. Queen, dreaming again will you deem me? Empress, or Ladyen they are all one So much the worse, if it be so very and the same-was she once, in the VOL. LXXVI.-NO. CCCCLXIX.

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