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industrial positions, on their pros- Bavaro - Hellenic kingdom, can be pects of bettering their condition, safely guaranteed by Great Britain and on their fiscal relations to the until the agricultural population of central government. The same mea- these countries is placed in a very sures which would improve the con- different state from that in which it dition and augment the population of is now perpetuating its existence. It the Mohammedans in Asia Minor, will be our business to prove to our would have even a more speedy effect readers that a great improvement-in in improving the condition and aug. short, a complete change in the conmenting the Christian population of dition of about twenty millions of European Turkey; and what is of mankindis as practicable as it is more importance, perhaps, in the eye necessary, and that it may be effected of the central administration at Con- in the space of a few years by some stantinople, they would bind together changes in the central administration, the whole agricultural population of which will immediately allow the culthe Sultan's dominions by ties of tivators of the soil to employ their common interest, without any dis- labour in the way most conducive to tinction of race or religion. It must their own profit. also be highly interesting to some How the improvement of the great cultivated minds at home, to know mass of the agricultural population of that these measures are the only Turkey may be effected can be shown means of improving the condition of without much difficulty; but how far the Greek kingdom, though from the it would be advisable for Great Brisingular incapacity of the Greek court, tain to carry her interference 'either ministers, and public men of every with the government of the Sultan, or class, there appears no probability of even with that of our pouting protégé this little Christian monarchy making King Otho, may admit of more disany step towards this most essential cussion, and is not a question on improvement of society in the East, which we feel it necessary to enter at until the example be given by the present. Turkish government. In two coun- The agricultural population of the tries where the public administration Turkish Empire is estimated at more is so notoriously defective, and where than twenty millions : of these, as we the ministers and statesmen are so have already said, about ten millions utterly destitute of all practical know- are Turks and Mohammedans, dwellledge as landed proprietors and agri- ing in Asia Minor and the north of culturists, as they are known to be Syria ; and about ten millions are both in Turkey and Greece, there Christians of various races inhabiting will probably be great difficulty in Europe. Hitherto the social and poforcing the governments to commence litical interests of this great mass of the requisite changes. It is true, both mankind bave been utterly neglected governments are paralysed by the both by the Othoman government want of roads, by excessive corrup- and by European statesmen. The tion on the part of the officials sent cultivators of the soil, whether Chrisby the central government to the pro- tians or Mohammedans, have been vinces, and by the systematic manner oppressed by the sultans ; and in in which the central authority has King Otho's dominions they are redebased and degraded the local agents tained in a state of medieval barbarand municipal institutions. But in ism by the stupidity of the Athenian spite of all these difficulties, we must parliament. In both countries agriinsist on the great truth that about culture is carried on in the same rude three-quarters of the population of manner in which it was pursued in the Othoman Empire and of the Greek the early ages, when slaves alone tillkingdom derive their subsistence from ed the soil, and freemen acted as agriculture, and that nearly three- graziers and herdsmen. In both it quarters of the national revenues are is retained in this wretched condition derived from agricultural taxes; and without any hope of amelioration, we feel warranted in asserting that by similar fiscal regulations; and in neither the integrity of the Othoman both, the same social reforms will be Empire, nor the existence of the required to render agriculture a flourishing occupation, to induce the quently futile to hope that the Othowealthy to employ capital on the man government will long be able to land, and make Turkey a country from maintain its authority, or preserve which grain can be exported with permanent tranquillity in these reprofit in large quantities. Strange to gions, unless some change be effected say, European intelligence has not which shall place the interests and hitherto done much to further these feelings of all those who cultivate the ends. Everything requires to be soil in unison with the policy of the commenced. The Bavarian King at Sultan. The Christian labourer must Athens, and the Athenian parliament feel that it is as much_his interest to in Greece, have not done more for im- support the Othoman Empire as the proving agriculture than the Sultan Mohammedan landlord, and the Chrisat Constantinople and the pasha- tian landlord must prefer the Sultan's prince at Cairo. There is no carriage- government to that of the Emperors road from Patras any more than from of Russia and Austria, or else the Brusa ; the currants of the Morea task of maintaining the integrity of and the silk of Bithynia are carried to the Othoman Empire will be one of the ports of export on the backs of which Great Britain and France must mules and pack-horses, and the ex- ultimately grow weary. pense of transport to the place of ship- Great changes have already taken ment forms a very considerable part of place in Turkey. The past condition the price, and limits the consumption of the Othoman Empire can never be of every article produced in Turkey recalled, for the causes of many of the and Greece. Indeed, whatever dif- changes already consummated have ference exists between Turkey and been long in operation. The MohamGreece, with reference to agriculture, medan population of Asia Minor had is in favour of Turkey. The road undergone many social changes before from Adrianople to Constantinople, Sultan Mahmoud commenced his pobad as it is, is much better than the litical reforms. The destruction of road from Athens to Sparta. While the Deré-beys, who were the last the Sultan maintains steamers which relic of the feudal institutions of the keep up a regular communication be. Seljouk empire, preceded the extertween the capital and the principal mination of the janissaries, who had seaports in his dominions, King Otho, once been the chief support of the on the other hand, has done abso- Othoman power, and the agents by lutely nothing for improving the ma- which the Seljonk Turks of Asia Minor ritime communications of his little had been originally subdued by the state, though nine-tenths of his sub- race of Othman. Time had comjects pass their lives within sight of the pletely undermined the edifices of sea. The funds for the national navy the Seljouk aristocracy, and of the of Greece, and the money voted by military despotism of the Sultans, by the Hellenic deputies, are employed in transmutations in the different rauks maintaining vessels to serve as gove of society, before any administrative ernment yachts, or in transporting changes were attempted at ConstanGerman princes up and down the tinople. The insurrections of the Archipelago. The unsettled state of Christian rayahs, the establishment of the great mass of the population, the Greek kingdom, and the formation whether Christian or Mohammedan, of the Servian state, were in great in all the countries between the Adri: part caused by social changes, as well atic and the Persian Gulf, has been as the attempts of Ali Pasha of repeatedly pointed out by travellers. Janpina, and Mohammed Ali of The Albanians, the Bosniacs, and the Egypt, to erect independent princiGreeks delight in feuds and civil palities. The progress of civilisation, broils; they prefer plundering the both among the Mohammedan and fields of their neighbours to cultivat- Christian population in the Sultan's ing their own land. The Turks, dominions, continues with increasing Turcomans, and Curds of Asia Minor, speed, and a conviction that a great are gradually quitting agriculture in change must and ought to take place order to devote themselves exclus in the condition of the agricultural sively to a pastoral life. It is conse- classes, is rapidly spreading among the owners of the soil. A social re- they have formed concerning the provolation is inevitable, and it is not bable duration of a Mohammedan of a nature likely to be arrested by power in Europe, concerning the posVienna protocols, or palliated by any sibility of establishing an equal and anodyne that foreign military force equitable administration of justice can apply. How this impending re- among all the various religious sects volution may be guided and rendered and dissimilar races of men who dwell conducive to maintaining the Sultan's in the Sultan's dominions, and even power, and the integrity of the Otho- concerning the practicability of renderman Empire, is the most important ing the Greeks and Albanians in the branch of the subject we propose to Greek kingdom bappy and prosperous discuss.

under a Bavarian king and a native We must observe that, the agricul- legislative assembly. To many, the tural population of Turkey and Greece agricultural population of Asia Minor being placed in similar social circum- appears to be sunk in an apathy from stances, the same measures of im- which no governing power can awaken provement are applicable to both; and it; and the maritime population their interests and feelings on most around the Ægean Sea seems given up fiscal and administrative questions are to the spirit of piracy and barratry, so identically the same, that the great from which nothing can restrain it body of the agricultural interest in the but war-steamers, and what ShakeEast, whether composed of Moham- speare calls “the charity of a penny medans or Christians, would be more cord.” The events passing before our easily brought to act in unity than eyes have done much to dispel the diplomatists and statesmen appear to dreams entertained by the Greek think possible. Both in Turkey and Christians of fingering Russian gold, Greece the bulk of the landed interest and forming Byzantine empires. The is decidedly hostile to the existing visions of those who waited for the governments. It is true, the Turks proximate dismemberment of the hate the Russians more than they Othoman Empire, have been dispelled hate the Constantinopolitan officials, by Omar Pasha on the banks of the and that the Greeks detest the Turks Danube, and by Fuad Effendi on more than they detest the Bavarians; the slopes of Mount Pindus. The but nevertheless, the Osmanlee of incapacity of the Emperor Nicholas Stamboul is thoroughly detested by and his faithful ally King Otho to setthe Mohammedan provincials in Asia, tle the Eastern Question has been and the scribes, logiotatoi or kalamor- proved, but the true basis on which adhes, of Athens, are the abhorrence it can be permanently settled has not of every free Greek and Albanian. yet been pointed out, even by the Those, therefore, who think it is pos- Sultan's government. sible to settle the Eastern Question It requires something more than an without paying any attention to the able and energetic central administraground-swell of public opinion among tion, something, too, which the greatthe rural population, know very little est military power cannot supply, to of the subject they pretend to under- maintain the Sultan's authority in the stand. The want of accurate atten- present anomalous state of the population to the direction of the distant tion of his empire. The Christian gale, which has caused the billows to population can no longer be held in heave in dark and sullen agitation, vassalage by the Mohammedan, nor produces the vacillation observable in will the Arab any longer allow the the opinions of many who have been Osmanlees to rule as a privileged for years familiar with the east. Di. Reform is everywhere strugplomatists actually engaged in trade gling with decay, Christian progress have a mortal aversion to general with Mohammedan bigotry. The conviews; while discarded diplomatists fusion of ideas following from the have each their own pet discovery for overthrow of old prejudices in all doing everything in the East which is ranks of society, and the difficulty of impossible. In this state of uncer- fixing the attention universally on tainty, many persons of sagacity seem any attainable object, equally desired inclined to reconsider the decisions by different sects and races, is increased by the circumstance that in of the Sultan's allies would ultimately every town and province of the Otho- prove of little avail in restoring his man Empire the inbabitants consist authority. of several nations, speaking languages Haring premised these general obimperfectly known to one another, and servations, we sball now proceed to holding adverse religious tenets with sketch the actual condition of the culthe most orthodox bigotry, even wbile tivators of the soil, and of the whole they are compelled to mingle con- body of the landed proprietors in the stantly together in the daily inter- Othoman Empire, and point out the course of life. To unite this ferment changes which must be made before ing mass of human agitation in at. agriculture can flourish, and the people tachment to a government of which become satisfied with the existing the Sultan shall remain the head, it is government. It is not necessary for necessary that the great body of the us to accumulate proofs that the people should feel it to be their in- whole landed interest in Turkeyterest to support the fiscal system of Mohammedan as well as Christian, the central administration, and that proprietor as well as peasant, Turk they should be convinced of the Sul- as well as Greek-is, as a mass, tan's power to secure an equal dispen- ground down by the fiscal oppression sation of justice, and equal rights to of the Sublime Porte. It is notorious every class of his subjects. The re- that for nearly two centuries the numforms of Sultan Mahmoud having bers and the wealth of the agricnlswept away all local institutions, the tural class have been diminishing from people are everywhere placed in generation to generation. Accidental direct connection with the central ad- circumstances, the impulse given to ministration, and the same causes of particular branches of culture by the revolution and the same dangers vicinity of flourishing commercial exist in Turkey as in the Western cities, casual facilities of transport to centralised states. The hour has a market, and the expenditure of the arrived when the policy of the Sublime central administration in many of the Porte must be determined by the towns where European traders princiwishes of the majority of the popula- pally reside, tend in some degree to tion of the empire, or a scene of conceal the extent of the general deanarchy will be the consequence. population and rapid destruction of Fortunately the support of a majority capital vested in the soil which is conof every race and religion can be stantly going on. But few travellers gained by the fiscal and political re- have visited the interior of Asia Minor forms most conducive to the increase without seeing mosques and marble of the Sultan's authority. Neverthe. tombs standing in solitary desolation less, a very numerous and powerful near the ruins of an abandoned town. body of officials at Constantinople and The signs of a departed population, the great towns of the empire, will which has notwithstanding left ample be found hostile to these necessary proof that it possessed considerable changes. The alternative, however, wealth at no very distant period, may is the fall of the Othoman Empire ; be seen on every great road in the for unless the reforms we are going to Sultan's wide extended empire. Many indicate be very speedily effected, no writers have overstated the extent of human power will be able to maintain the decay, some bave caricatured the the integrity of the en pire for another causes of the evil, but no one has yet generation. The Christian subjects ventured to proclaim that the proof the Sultan in Europe, the Moham- gress of the decline has been armedan in Asia, and even the Fellahs rested. of Egypt, must be satisfied that their The ruin of the agricultural interest lives and property are as secure under in Turkey is caused by the manner the government of the Sublime Porte in which the taxes on agriculture are as under any Christian potentate, or levied. The evil lies in the collection they will attempt to throw off the of the revenue, not in its amount. All Sultan's yoke. Now, if the whole the land in the Othoman Empire pays mass of the agricultural population the land-tax in kind, and it never were to rise in rebellion, the exertions amounts to less than one-tenth of the gross produce of the soil, besides all sue the same routine of culture ; the labour of gathering in, threshing, consequently every man possesses a and winnowing the government share. superfluity of the articles which his This tax is levied in kind, from the neighbour is desirous of selling. It absolute impossibility of collecting it may be remarked, that at an earlier in money, in districts where no roads period of the Othoman government, exist, and consequently where con- when a numerous population existed siderable capital is necessary to trans. which is now destroyed, when many port the produce to any market. The vineyards, orchards, mulberry planregulations adopted by the govern- tations, and olive groves, Aourished, ment, and by the farmers of the which have long been annihilated, revenue, to guard against fraud, con- when many Mohammedan merchants fine the routine of agriculture within and capitalists made fortunes by transthe rudest limits. These regulations porting the produce of the interior to fetter the industry of the landed pro- the nearest seaports, no apparent inprietor, exclude all improvement in convenience arose from paying the the application of labour, and force land-tax in kind. The evil comthe peasantry to live in a barbarous menced when the central government state of society. The whole grain seized the local revenues destined for crops, in consequence of these regula- the maintenance of roads and bridges, tions, frequently remain nearly two and allowed both to fall to ruin. The months exposed in the open air near increased expense of transport then the threshing-floors, merely to prevent enabled a few capitalists to monothe cultivator from abstracting some polise the whole trade in all articles portion for the use of his family, with- of export. The ruin of the landed out paying the government the tenth proprietors and agriculturists soon on this trifle. It is not too much to commenced, but it excited little at. estimate the loss on the whole pro- tention, from the great profits which duce in grain at about five per cent, enriched the commercial cities on the in consequence of this system of ex- coasts of the Mediterranean during the posing the crops. We have more than sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, once seen thunderstorms in the month The trade with Turkey was at that of July carry off whole sheaves of period the most lucrative branch of wheat from the threshing-floors. European commerce; and MohamHere, therefore, we have an enor- medan merchants were among the mous sacrifice on the part of the agri- most wealthy who visited the marts cultural classes to a very questionable of Ancona and Venice. But the administrative necessity.

race.

avarice of the Othoman officials was Another consequence of preventing at last awakened. The pashas and the agriculturist from performing his their bankers and dependants first farming operations, and employing his shared in the profits of the Mohamtime in the way he may consider most medan traders, and ultimately moconducive to his interest, is, that the nopolised the wbole trade. Their whole agricultural population is kept oppressive regulations ruined the in a state of idleness congregated round landed proprietors, and exterminated the village threshing - floors for two the peasantry; families were immonths every year. The price of poverished, villages disappeared, and labour generally, and particularly the in many extensive districts the whole cost of raising grain, are greatly in- rural population abandoned the culticreased without any corresponding vation of their native soil to emigrate increase in the wellbeing of the la- into the nearest commercial cities. We bourer, or in the profits of the farmer. must also here remind our readers that The late changes which have increased the Othoman government, though it the authority of the central adminis- created a powerful and energetic centration, have greatly added to the tral administration in civil and milifiscal severity of this rude system of tary affairs, adopted most of the local, collecting the national revenues. In financial, and judicial corruptions of each district the great bulk of the the degraded inhabitants of the Greek agricultural classes cultivate the and Seljouk empires which it consame articles of produce, and pur- quered. These empires were in a

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