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July, every place had its junta, legis- here,' they would be allowed to give lating as it thought fit, taking off their whole time and undivided attentaxes, admitting foreign goods free of tion to the necessities of the country, duty, sapping the foundations of the to the getting rid of abuses, to the

The effects of this on the introduction of proper economics, to revenue for the month of July was a the adoption of measures calculated diminution of a quarter of a million to improve the wretched financial sterling, or fully one-fifth. though, situation. Not so: the idea of their early in August, the juntas were pro- supporters evidently was that their hibited from passing laws and alter- first duty was the portioning out of ing the established system of the places, not only to old friends, but to country, whilst since then many of many new oneslibéraux du lendethem have altogether dissolved them- main. From the day they took office selves, fears are entertained that for down to the present date, ministers some months the revenue will con- have been besieged, pestered, overtinue below what it is in ordinary whelmed, by a stream of applicants times. The period of revolution was eager to live upon the budget. Esa jubilee for the smuggler. At some partero, from his popularity and inpoints of the frontier he was suddenly fuence, was the chief victim of these converted into a fair trader by the cormorants. For a very long time abolition, decreed by juntas, of all his anterooms were thronged from import duties. But, amidst the con- early morning till late at night, by fusion consequent on the revolution, persons who could not go away, who he nowhere had any difficulty in car- would see the general, although perrying on his commerce. From Gib- haps the request they had to make raltar, from Portugal, from France, had no possible connection with his foreign goods poured in, to the ex- department, and should have been haustion of the smuggling depôts in addressed to some other minister, to those three countries. Those large the intendant of the palace, the capillicit importations must for some tain-general of the province, or the time to come have a serious effect on civil governor of Madrid. Sometimes, the custom-house revenue. It is pre- when there were thirty or forty perdicted that the falling-off in the whole sons waiting at the door of his cabirevenue for August will be even greater net, all deaf to the remonstrances of than in that for July. This appears weary aides-de-camp, he would come to me doubtful, although nearly cer- out himself, as if in despair at ever obtain in the item of custom duties; taining repose, despatch them all, and on the other hand, we may hope one after the other, as quickly as the expenditure will be less under an might be, and then retreat with his honest and economical government, secretary into his private room, whose economy, however, has not, in giving orders that nobody should every instance, been as rigorous as be admitted, to try to get two itself, I fully believe, earnestly de- or three hours' uninterrupted work sired. The difficulties environing a before the usual hour for the sitgovernment that is borne into power ting of the council arrived. And then in Spain on the billows of a revolu- the host of letters-nearly all prayers tion like that of 1854, are not to be and petitions, setting forth the serimagined by any who have not wit- vices and sufferings of the writers, nessed them. To form some faint and their strong claims to place or idea of them, one must be acquainted patronage! The supplicants were of with the ramifications and extent of all kinds and classes ; from the colonel the empleomania-mania for place who thought his merits would not be which is the great curse of Spain, and over-rewarded by a brigadier's emwhich, when one beholds the extent broideries, from the aspirant to some to which it is carried, makes him fat berth of many thousand reals almost despair of the improvement of a-year, down to the suitor for a porter's the nation. It were reasonable to place or a sergeant's stripes, and even suppose that when Espartero and his to individuals desirous of being apcolleagues took office, under as diffi- pointed quitamanchas, grease - spot cult circumstances, certainly, as any extractors (fact) to the palace, and set of men that ever accepted it, even who could think of no more fitting

person to apply to than the prime out hope of reward, nothing for the minister. All this greedy mob pes- pure and disinterested love of their cered, and still pester, the president native land. And to this rule, in of the council, and in a less de- Spain, I fear there are but few excepgree the other ministers, with their tions. daily applications. The craving after A careful investigation and calm place is disgusting to behold, and ex- review of the present state of the tends, with a few honourable excep- finances of Spain, leave upon the mind tions, through all classes. As to a strong doubt as to whether a napatriotism in Spain, I have the utmost tional bankruptcy can possibly be difficulty, after witnessing what has avoided. I have exposed the misery followed upon this revolution, in of the treasury, as left by the mincrediting its existence, except in the istry of Sartorius seven millions breasts of a small minority of the sterling deficiency, and not as many population. Patriotism here appears pence in the coffers of the State for to consist in turning out one party in the pressing necessities of the new order that another may step into the government. With some difficulty, enjoyment of the good things it pos- and by the aid of the signature of the sessed. It is truly sickening to hear San Fernando Bank, the finance minthe selfish cuckoo-song of the seekers ister has obtained about fifty thouafter places, to hear them vaunt sand pounds sterling, secured on colotheir past services, and tell of their nial revenues. Of course, a very short sufferings for the liberal cause during time will see the last of that small the eleven long years that succeeded sum; and what is then to be done, in 1843–sufferings consisting, for the presence of a revenue which it is exmost part, when they come to be in- pected, with good show of reason, quired into, simply in exclusion from will, for some time to come, be below those loaves and fishes for a share of an average ? Economise, it may be which they now hungrily plead. With said ; but economy is not to be effected, a certain and too-numerous class of on an important scale, at a few days' Spaniards, a man is a patriot and a notice. It is probably in the army martyr by the mere fact of his draw- that reform and reduction, if made, ing nothing from the treasury. There would most rapidly be felt. It is said were many persons who really had done to be the intention of the minister of great service to the triumphant cause; war greatly to reduce it; and no opmen who had risked their lives, la portunity can be better than the preboured hard, and been forward and sent, for when all the men who, in most useful in the hour of danger. virtue of the boon of two years' reThese men, on account both of their mission of service lately granted to merits and of their abilities, had not the whole army, have completed their to solicit, but were at once placed in time, shall have received their dishigh and responsible situations. For charge, the military forces of Spain each one appointed, how many mal- will probably be smaller than they contents were made! Of these mal- ever have been since the beginning of contents some must be conciliated; the Carlist war. The expense of the others had claims which deserved at- Spanish army is about three millions tention, and which they had not suffi- sterling—an enormous burthen on the cient self-denial and love for their scanty revenue. There are other burcountry altogether to withdraw. thens more difficult to diminish. The Under these circumstances, how was system pursued in this country of it possible for the government to turning out numbers of public officers economise as it should and might and employés when a new governhave done? The pressure brought to ment comes in, to make room for its bear upon it, the influences exerted, friends and supporters, has loaded were more than it could resist, and Spain with pensions, half-pay, and many a place was given that ought retired allowances. These amount to have been suppressed in the in- to a million and a half sterling. How terest of Spain's exhausted treasury. is this load to be lightened ? But It gives small hope for the future of very gradually, it is evident ;-by fillà country when one sees even the ing up vacant places with pensioned best of her sons doing nothing with- men, whose pensions thereupon cease.

To abolish all those pensions not due debt. At this date but a small porto long service or ill-health would be tion of the last dividend due on the to condemn thousands of families to home debt has been paid. It has starvation, and to raise a storm that been suggested that much will depend no government could withstand. Such on the composition of the constituent a sweeping measure would not be Cortes. If the country elects reprejust, nor is it practicable. A reform sentatives who will support the preof the tariff is an obvious and most sent government, and so give confi. effectual means of improving the finan- dence in its duration and strength, it cial position. Let the government is thought that capitalists will perreduce the duties on foreign manufac- haps be found to come to its aid. But tured cottons to twenty per cent ad if the good sense of Spanish electors valorem. The importations (chiefly prove unequal to the emergency-if contraband) of that class of merchan- they return a Chamber composed dise at present amounts, as I am in- of a mixture of demagogues and formed, to about three millions sterling. of partisans of reaction, and not A twenty-per-cent duty would demo- containing a good working majority lish thesmuggler, and yield the revenue in favour of the policy of moderate six hundred thousand pounds a-year. progress, which is that of the EsparWould it not then be possible for tero-O'Donnell cabinet—there is noSpain to get a small loan on reason- thing but fresh trouble in store for able terms, the coupons being ac- Spain, and the question of finance - cepted, as soon as due, in payment will then appear almost hopeless. of custom-house duties, and an ar- Whilst contemplating the gloomy, rangement, or the promise of an early or at least uncertain, prospects of the one, being at the same time made with Spanish treasury, I am forcibly rerespect to the amount of coupons minded of Cuba and of American which Bravo Murillo laid upon the proposals for its purchase. I have shelf? It is, however, unnecessary not heard a statement of the exact to answer this question until we have amount the States are disposed to give; reduced the duty. Here, again, great but I have been assured, on no mean difficulties present themselves, and authority, that it would suffice to pay jealous interests bar the way. Cata- off the whole of the debt, home and lonia and the smugglers would be in foreign, and that a handsome surplus arms the very moment such a mea- would still remain for roads and railsure was promulgated. Catalonia, ways. Besides these advantages, which produces (I speak from expe- Cuba, once sold, Spain might safely rience of its goods) wretched wares reduce her feet and army, for she at exorbitant prices, has long been would then have no reason to apprethe great impediment to Spain's bend war with the United States, as prosperity, or at least improvement. she at present has none to anticipate That one province pretends to make aggression or interference on the part the whole country buy its inferior of any European power. Relieved of merchandise in preference to that of her heaviest burthens, and blessed with England and France; and this preten- an honest government (if indeed it be sion it enforces, to the great profit possible that such endure in a country and contentment of the contraband upon which the curse of misgoverntrader. Time and a strong govern- ment seems to rest), Spain might soon ment are needed to bring about that and easily forget the loss of that reduction of duties on foreign manu- cherished colony, whose retention, factures which would prove so great under present circumstances, is more a benefit to Spain, and to its revenue. a question of pride than of profit, and And at present, time is wanting to whose loss without compensation, Something must be done quickly. As she must, I fear, by the force of events, things now stand, it is hard to tell be prepared sooner or later to subwhence is to come the money for the mit. next dividend on the home and foreign


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In spite of all that has been said by the Turkish population in Asia, as ourselves and others concerning the well as among the Christian subjects Eastern Question and the condition of the Sultan in Europe. The East of Turkey, we have still something to is quite as much in a state of social say which has not yet been uttered revolution as the West; the Mohamwith sufficient emphasis. We would medan world in Western Asia is on fain persuade our readers to look be- the eve of a great transition, which yond the passing political events of must end either in its regeneration or the present hour, and examine only its subjugation. Now, as the majothose features of the Othoman Empire rity of the inhabitants of Asia Minor that blend with the general history of are engaged in the cultivation of the the civilisation of the human race. soil, we propose devoting this article Our minds have lately been so much to discussing the influence, the position, occupied with the relations of the and the interests of the agricultural Othoman government to Russia, and population of the Turkish Empire, in with our interests in defending the so far as its condition and feelings Sultan's territories, that we have must affect the ultimate fate of the overlooked the position of the great Eastern Question. This subject has mass of the Mohammedan population not hitherto met with due attention in the Turkish dominions. Yet we from those who have discussed the cannot understand all the difficulties state of Turkey, either in Parliament of the struggle in which we are en- or in the press. The existence of the gaged, unless we know what are the twenty millions of the Sultan's subsocial and financial problems that now jects who are engaged in agricultural disturb the old frame of society among pursuits, who are bound together by

A Military Tour in European Turkey, the Crimea, and the Eastern Shores of the Black Sea ; including Routes across the Balkan into Bulgaria, and Excursions in the Turkish, Russian, and Persian Provinces of the Caucasian Range; with Strategical Observations on the probable Scene of the Operations of the Allied Expeditionary Force. By Major-General A. F. Macintosh, K.H., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., commanding Her Majesty's Troops in the Ionian Islands. With Maps, 2 vols. 8vo.

Suggestions for the Assistance of Officers in Learning the Languages of the Seat of War in the East. By Max MÜLLER, M.A., Taylorian Professor of Modern European Languages at Oxford, Member of the Royal Academy at Munich. With a coloured Ethnological Map, drawn by A. Petermann. 8vo.

Russia and Turkey. By J. R. M'Culloch, Esq. Reprinted, with Corrections, from his “Geographical Dictionary," and forming Part 64 of the “Traveller's Library." 16mo. VOL, LXXVI.-NO. CCCCLXIX.

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common interests, and moved to ac- the soil, and no capital can be profittion by fiscal oppression affecting ably invested in its improvement. It them all alike, whether they be Chris- is almost unnecessary to say that the tians or Mohammedans, has not been consequence is a complete estrangesufficiently attended to. Neverthe- ment of the popular feelings from the less, a moment's reflection must con- government, with which the people vince every statesman that the de- have little connection except as tax. finitive settlement of the Eastern payers. Hence the succession of reQuestion cannot be obtained even by bellions and civil wars which characa series of victories over Russia, un- terises the history of the Othoman til the agricultural population of the domination in Asia Minor and Syria. Turkish Empire be placed in a posi- Things, however, have now reached tion to better its condition, and to such a pitch, by the destruction of all increase in numbers and wealth. capital invested in plantations and

We must entreat our readers to buildings during some happier period pardon us if we assume that they are of Turkish society, that great masses less conversant with the subject than of the Mohammedan population in they are with the plans of the Em- Western Asia are on the eve of deperor Nicholas, or the policy of the ciding whether they will adopt a Sultan's Divan. The public has re- nomade life under the Sultan's govceived, and is daily receiving, such ernment, or attempt a revolution, as ample information concerning the ob- the only means of preserving their stivacy of the Russian government, individual property. A social war, in the energy of the Turkish, and the which the proprietor and the labourer fatuity of the Greek, that it may be will be found fighting side by side supposed to be almost as familiar with against the central authority at Conthe general aspect of our political re- stantinople, is more imminent in lations with the Eastern potentates, Asia Minor than in European Turkey. as of those with Count Nesselrode, Now, as about ten millions of MoReschid Pasha, or King Otho. But as hammedans in the great peninsula of no echo has yet reached us of the voices Asia are Turks of the Seljouk race, of the Turkish agas who superintend who retain some traditions of their the cultivation of their estates in Asia old empire, and a lively memory of Minor, or of the Christian proprie- the feudal authority they enjoyed tors who till their fields in the plains before they were subjected to the of Thrace, we may assume that little hated domination of the Othomans, is known concerning their wants, suf- and before the power of the janisferings, and wishes. We must no saries had curtailed their privileges longer trust to old habits, and to the and consumed their wealth, and this supposed immutability of society in mass of population is united by the East, for maintaining the agricul- speaking the Turkish language, and tural population of the Turkish Em. by being entirely dependent on agripire in its actual condition. The cultural industry for its subsistence, hour has arrived when a great change it is evident that the integrity of the is inevitable ; and it depends on the Othoman Empire cannot be secured, central government at Constantinople until the feelings of the Mohammedan whether that change tend to strengthen landed interest in Asia Minor are enthe Othoman power, or break up the gaged in the same career of policy and Sultan's dominions in Asia into several improvement as that pursued by the Mohammedan principalities. The con- Sultan, dition of agriculture has, for about The importance of being well acfour centuries, resembled in its sta- quainted with the exact position of tionary or declining position the the agricultural population in the condition it held in Western Europe East, is further increased by the fact during the medieval period : the land that the feelings and interests of the is cultivated by a determinate number Christian landed proprietors and culof yokes of oxen, and a village con- tivators of the soil in European tains a fixed number of huts ; no in- Turkey are identical with those of crease can take place in the adult the Mohammedans in Asia Minor, male population employed in tilling as far as they depend on their

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