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small section of the town they were cannonade at daybreak, abandoned maintained ; and a few hundred mal- their barricades in the course of the contents busied themselves in strength- night. Many of them left their arms ening them, and declared their inten- behind them; a considerable pumber tion of defending them. Over their were taken prisoners ; more escaped uneven summits were to be seen the by concealing themselves in houses barrels of muskets and fowling-pieces, until such time as the national and a few familiar faces which had guards, all danger being over, retired often crossed my sight during the re- to their homes. On the 29th, Madrid volution of July. It was not certain was as quiet as if nothing had ocwhat the barricaders wanted ; in fact, curred. there was a strange combination of A foreigner, lately resident in this elements ; but the chief demand they capital, and who, within little more put forward was, the dismissal of the than a year, has acquired a rather unministry, whom they declared to have enviable celebrity, is here generally betrayed the people. As far as I believed to have had a hand in the could observe, Espartero was ex- outbreak of the 28th ultimo. I refer cepted from this verdict; but only by to the Minister of the United States those of the insurgents who, however at Madrid. A Frenchman by birth, mistaken in the course they pursued, but compelled to abandon his country acted in good faith, and in support of previous to the revolution of 1830, in their own political views. There were consequence of certain political writmany others who were actuated by ings, M. Pierre Soulé settled on the widely different motives. The reac- other side of the Atlantic, and betionary and absolutist party had its came heart and soul an American. A representatives at the barricades ; fo- man of great energy, vigorous intelreign influence was also at work; and lect, and considerable astuteness, he it has been supposed by some that attained to high practice at the bar, Christina had supplied funds-not, to a seat in Congress, and to the perhaps, in anticipation of the out- leadership of the party which seeks, break (although even that she may without much regard to the means have foreseen), but to be in readiness employed, to annex Cuba to the for any occasion of mischief that might States. With that unscrupulous party, present itself. It was clearly for her his open profession of the most disinterest, the revolution having gone torted views on questions of interna. so far, to see it carried farther. If the tional righit made him highly popular. ultra-democratic party, aided by the From his seat in the Senate, early in rabble of the low districts of Madrid, 1852, he bitterly attacked the govern. could gain the ascendant, the certainment of Mr Fillmore for not taking up result was anarchy. Then would come the cause of the adventurers under Loreaction, and Christina and her friends pez; some of whom had been executed, might hope to resume their places and others sent to prison, for their piand recommence their spoliations. ratical attempt on the island of Cuba. Accordingly, there can be no doubt In 1853, shortly before his appointindeed, it were easily proved—that ment as minister at Madrid, he made agents of the expelled party—the Pa- a long and eloquent speech, in which lacos, as they are called-stimulated he lauded Lopez and his companions and assisted in tbe disturbances of the as heroes, indulged in stinging sar28th August. Their efforts were of casms on Spain and Spaniards, and, no avail against the steady attitude of speaking of Cuba, urged the governthe national guards, who remained ment, in metaphorical phrase, not to for eighteen hours under arms in the delay too long to pluck the fruit from streets, obedient to their officers, and the tree, lest it should rot upon the turning a deaf ear to the perfidious stem. This is the man whom Mr insinuations of agents who sought to Franklin Pierce thought proper to set them against the government, and send as envoy to Spain. You will to divide them amongst themselves. remember that, on his arrival at New The insurgents, seeing that their cause York to embark for Europe, a meetwas hopeless, and having the promise, ing was held in that city, composed of from Espartero's own lips, of a brisk members of the Lone Star Society, of
fugitives from Cuba, and of other parti- comparing persons, but merely of sans of annexation, who proceeded to criticising a costume. Mr Soulé's serenade him, bearing banners on son, however, a very young man, which were inscriptions coupling Mr overheard the remark, took it in bad Soulé's name with the rescue of Čuba part, and provoked the Duke of Alba. from the Spanish yoke. A member of The result was a bloodless duel, the procession made a high-flown fought with very long swords, lasting speech, in which he expressed a hope a very long time, and followed up by that, when the honourable envoy re- a very long letter to the papers, which turned to his own country with fresh Mr Soulé, jun., had, for his own sake, claims upon the esteem of his fellow- much better have left unwritten. Out citizens, a new star would shine in of this affair grew a second duel, more the celestial vault of Young America. serious in its character and results, M. Soulé replied to this address, refer- between Mr Soulé and the French ring to Cuba as a suffering people; minister at Madrid. They fought and declaring that, as an American with pistols, and the Marquis de minister, he did not cease to be an Targot received an unfortunate wound American citizen ; and that, as an in the leg, which, to this day, comAmerican citizen, he had a right to pels him to use crutches. The whole attend to the sobs of anguish of the details of these unpleasant circumoppressed. Taken in connection with stances were at the time placed his harangues in the Senate, and with before the public by the English and the address to which it replied, his French press, and the general opinion speech was certainly most significant, certainly seemed to be that the Soulés indiscreet, and offensive to Spain. It had unnecessarily commenced, and caused great scandal, not only in afterwards wilfully aggravated a foolEurope, but amongst the right-think- ish quarrel, which, as new comers to ing, portion of the people of the the country and considering the di, United States. Mr Pierce was loudly plomatic character of the senior, and censured for the appointment, and the imputations of hostility to Spain American newspapers declared that under which he laboured, they ought it was his duty, as soon as he knew to have done their utmost to avoid. what had passed in New York, to Be this as it may, and without entersend a steamer after Mr Soulé to ing into the political animosities that bring him back, since he had proved are said to have mingled in the affair, himsele completely unfit to fill the the Spaniards naturally took the part office of American minister in Spain. of their countryman and of M. Turgot I believe it to be a fact that the the case of the latter exciting parUnited States did not expect their ticular sympathy, since he had been envoy to be received as such at dragged into and maimed in a quarrel
Madrid. But they underrated the with which he had not the least con• meanness and pusillanimity of the cern. Thenceforward the society of Ma
Spanish ministry then in power. After drid avoided that of the Soulé family some delay at Paris, employed, it was These unpleasant incidents had said, in ascertaining what sort of re- scarcely ceased to arrest the public ception awaited him in the Spanish attention, when the affair of the capital, Mr Soulé proceeded to his Black Warrior again brought Mr destination. He had been but a short Soulé's name prominently before the time there, when an unfortunate affair world. This affair has been so much brought him into bad odour. At a discussed that its main facts must be ball at the French ambassador's, the generally and well known, and I will Duke of Alba, referring to Mrs Soulé's use the utmost brevity in here redress, which struck him as peculiar, capitulating them, which I do for the compared her to Mary of Burgundy. sake of adding a few comments, and Probably the comparison was not very of relating one or two circumstances apt; possibly the grandee who made in the dispute to which they gave rise it was not particularly conversant that I believe are not widely known. with the costumes of the middle ages: On the 28th February last, the Black there certainly does not appear to Warrior steam-ship, a regalar trader have been any offensive intention of between Mobile and New York, arrived from the former place in the costs and charges. In the mean time port of Havanah. She was entered the consignees had made various apat the custom-house as in ballast, plications to the captain-general, ad. and the manifest presented was con- mitting their fault, declaring the formable with that declaration, ship’s captain's omission to have arisen from provisions being the only cargo set ignorance, pleading ignorance on their down. Her clearance was then ap- own part also, begging that the vessel plied for; but on the searcher from might be allowed to depart upon paythe custom-house visiting the vessel, ment of the transit duties, correshe was found to be cotton-laden; sponding to a ship laden as she was; whereupon her departure was stopped, and, finally, when the fine of six and judicial proceedings were com- thousand dollars was definitely fixed menced, the delay having expired that upon, entreating its further reduction. is allowed by law for the rectification This, however, the captain-general, of the manifest. Article 162 of the who had officially announced his deCustoms Regulations of the Havanah cision, refused to grant; but he forstates, that after the twelve hours warded a petition from the consignees allowed by Article 15 for the rectifi- to the Queen of Spain, in which it cation of, or addition to, the manifest, was set forth that there could have shall have expired, all goods that may been no fraudulent intention-cotton have been omitted in it shall be seized; not being an article of consumption and, moreover, the captain shall be in the island of Cuba-in wbich the fined to the amount of their value, heavy loss arising from the detention, provided always the amount of duty discharge, and reloading of the vessel which would have to be paid on the was urged, and the remission of the contents of the package or packages fine craved. This prayer was subdo not exceed four hundred dollars ; sequently granted; but before that because if it exceed that sum, and if was done the dispute between Spain the goods belong, or are consigned to, and the United States had assumed the owner, captain, or supercargo, the menacing proportions. fine shall not be imposed, but, instead This statement of well-ascertained of it, the vessel, together with its facts shows the Cuban authorities to freights and everything else available, have acted strictly within the law shall be seized." This is explicit throughout the whole business, and enough ; and it is to be noted that a with great clemency to the persons copy of the castom-house regulations, who had transgressed it. If it suited printed in English, was handed to American vessels, trading between Captain Bullock, commanding the Mobile and New York, to call at the Black Warrior, as soon as he entered Havanah to take in coals, or for the port. By order of the authorities other objects, they were bound to the cargo was landed, and found to comply in every respect with the laws consist of 957 bales of cotton. The and regulations of the colony, and amount of seizure and of fines in- could not expect to get off scot-free curred was very large, and the Marquis if they transgressed them. But there of Pezuela, captain-general of the is a circumstance to be taken into Havanah, desired the superior board consideration which somewhat modiof administration to consider the fies this view of matters in the case matter, with a view to its reduction. of the Black Warrior. It appears That board fully confirmed the legal- that, owing to the remissness, inity of the steps taken and fines im- dulgence, or—it has been suggested, posed, but left it at the discretion of but I have not seen it proved – the captain-general to reduce the the corruptness of the Cuban autholatter if he thought proper. He con- rities, the Black Warrior had been in sulted the attorney-general of the the habit of entering the port with island, who recommended their reduce a cargo, exhibiting a manifest that tion to ten thousand dollars, exclusive stated her to be in ballast, and being of all expenses incurred in discharg- entered and cleared accordingly, and ing the cargo; but general Pezuela that she had actually made more than finally decided to reduce the penalty thirty voyages in that manner without to six thousand dollars, including all let or impediment. It is scarcely possible that this should not have been of the American flag." Now Mr known to the Cuban custom-house, Soulé appears again upon the scene. and if so, it must be admitted that The demands addressed by him to the course pursued on the occasion of the Spanish government were an inthe voyage made in February 1854 demnity of £60,000 sterling, the diswas, although doubtless strictly legal, missal of all those Cuban authorities harsh and injudicious. The neglect that had been concerned in the proto enforce the law on more than thirty ceedings against the Black Warrior previous voyages might not suffice to (this would of course include General abrogate it; but it should have in- Pezuela, although his name appears duced the Cuban authorities—though not to have been mentioned in the it had been but from considerations note), and finally that, in future, the of prudence-to re-enforce it less sud- governor of Cuba should have power denly. It is easy to understand that to settle disputes with the United the new captain-general, and one or States without reference to the home two other newly-appointed and high government—an arrangement directly functionaries, who had gone out with opposed to the colonial policy of Spain. him to the Havanah only a few weeks As may be supposed, the Spanish before the occurrence of the difficulty, ministry demurred to such exorbitant were fired with zeal for reform; and and unreasonable demands. Calderon it is stated that, during the first few de la Barca, the feeble and timid months of their administration, the foreign minister of the Sartorius cabirevenue of the island increased. But net, was no match for Mr Soulé. He they should have gone to work more even suffered himself to be bullied by coolly and gradually. In consideration the American secretary of legation, of the long impunity the irregularities who, on conveying to him a commuof the Black Warrior had enjoyed, it nication, took out his watch and stated would surely have sufficed, on the 28th the exact time he would allow him February, to have warned the captain to answer it. And although Sartoand consignees that such could be no rius came to the aid of his aged and longer permitted, and that, on her incapable colleague, he quickly disnext voyage, the law would be rigidly gusted Mr Soulé by his double-dealenforced, should occasion begiven. To- ing, evasions, and procrastination. wards a country of equal or inferior None of the communications that power, this would have been the fairest have passed during the discussion of and most proper course to pursue; but the Black Warrior affair have as yet towards so potent and aggressive a been published in Spain, or, that I am neighbour as the United States, it aware of, in America. All the correwas most unwise to adopt any other. spondence that passed in Cuba is beBut although numerous misrepresen- fore us, so that we are enabled to tations have been circulated on the form an opinion on the merits of the subject, this fault of judgment is the case; but there our documentary inonly one in the affair of the Black formation stops. What is positively Warrior that can fairly be imputed to known from other sources is, that General Pezuela and his subordinates there seemed so little chance of the
Of course, the business was a god- affair being settled with Mr Soulé, send to President Pierce and the an- that the Spanish government directed nexation party in the United States. Señor Cueto to try to arrange it at The former forthwith sent a strong- Washington, and sent after him, soon I might almost say a violent-message after his departure, by Señor Galiano, to the House of Representatives, de- notes and instructions to aid him in claring the seizure of the Black War- the task. For a considerable time rior to present "a clear case of wrong,' after that, scarcely anything was heard attributing habitual misconduct to the ofthe matter; and there is strong reason authorities of Cuba, and stating that to believe that Mr Soulé was himself he had already given instructions for left without communications from his the demand of an immediate indem- government for a length of time that nity; in the event of the refusal of annoyed and perhaps surprised him. which, he declared, in menacing terms, This naturally awakens a doubt whethat he would " vindicate the honour ther his proceedings have been alto
VOL, LXXVI. NO, CCCCLXVIII.
gether approved at headquarters. His a lodge of the “ Lone Star," or at a friends here maintain that they have. New Orleans public meeting. But It is presumable that they derive their although “ Cuba without cost " may information from himself.
be the device inscribed on his banner On the 1st of August last, in com- --a black one, it is to be presumed pliance with the desire of the United when he came to Spain as the repreStates Senate, President Pierce sent to sentative of his government, he was it a message with respect to the state of bound to obey his instructions, and American relations with Spain since his these, there can scarcely be a doubt, former menacing message of the 16th were to offer a large sum of money March. All that he said that directly for the much-coveted island. Knowreferred to the Black Warrior affair, ing what we know of the Sartorius was that Spain, instead of granting ministry, we are justified in believing prompt reparation, had justified the that they would have had no objection conduct of the Cuban authorities, and to effect a sale which they assuredly thereby assumed the responsibility of would have made the means of filling their acts. The tone of the whole their own pockets. But however inmessage was threatening to Spain, clined they may have felt, they dared and the probability of war at no dis- not do it. tant period was plainly indicated. It For some weeks the Black Warrior nevertheless excited little apprehen- question had been comparatively little sion here, where it was generally con- spoken of in Madrid, and the general sidered to be merely an unprincipled opinion seemed to be that it had been attempt, on the part of Mr Pierce, to amicably adjusted at Washington, or regain, by an appeal to the passions was in a fair way to be so, when the of the people, the popularity he had O'Donnell insurrection and the July lost, and at the same time to keep revolution concentrated the public up alarm in Cuba, and to wear out thought on home politics. Things the energies of Spain, in hopes that at had scarcely begun to settle down, last, disheartened and intimidated, a when, on the 21st August, the arrival Spanish government would be found of the President's message of the 1st willing to sell the island. It is doubt once more drew attention to Cuba, ful, however, whether any Spanish and to the state of affairs between minister would dare to entertain pro- Spain and America. Just a week posals for its purchase. Mr Soulé later, on the 28th, occurred the outhas declared himself, in his place in break I have described in the early Congress, decidedly opposed to that part of this letter. On that same day, mode of acquiring Caba, on the ground before the revolt was suppressed, it that it must, at no distant date, fall was said in Madrid that the Ameriinto the lap of the Union without can minister was concerned in the costing a dollar. This declaration is insurrection. The next day, when nearly tantamount to saying that it is things were quiet, the part he was less expensive to take a thing by force alleged to have played was matter of than to buy it with money, and con- common conversation, and then the veys pretty much the sentiment for the newspapers took up the matter. The praetical carrying out of which on a Diario Español, usually one of the small scale, men used to be hung, and best written and best informed of the are now transported. Mr Soulé is Madrid journals, which supports the unquestionably a man of talent-elo- present government, and is believed quent, wary, skilful in adapting him to be the special organ of General self to the persons with whom he O'Donnell, published on the 30th comes in contact—but he is deficient August a very strong article on the in good taste, as he has more than subject. It had been stated the day once shown since he came to Madrid, before with truth that Mr Soulé was and his patriotism and philanthropy, about to leave Madrid for France, and with respect to the island of Cuba, the supposition had been added that smack too strongly of piracy to obtain he did so in order to avoid being in much respect in Europe, however the Spanish capital when news should acceptable they may prove, and how arrive of a piratical invasion of Cuba ever loudly they may be applauded, in by citizens of the United States.