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THE OPENING OF THE GANGES CANAL,
8th April 1854. FROM distant-lying lands, Lone in grey surges of the misty north,
The little band came forth,
The myriads clap their hands,
It comes, long-wished-for, comes,
Wbile blatant arms and rattling drums
And you, O ancient peaks,
Your glory ;—now is done
Still through the night, from ledge to ledge
The avalanches fall,
Your præmemorial wall;
Barren no more! Like her who bore
Ye, having won your heritage from time,
And years to come shall hear your praise,
Holding their grim abodes
Of those who stand to-day
He eyes the green and affluent ground :-
I saw the ruler of the land
Now first her servants blessed ;
Us benefit before,
One shade alone hung o'er us,
To cloud the scene before us,
One mild but earnest voice, though still,
Told us of mingled good and ill,
When we are passed and grown
By deeds like these alone,
True triumphs, that atone,
THE USES OF BEAUTY.
HEART-THROBS of Poesy ;
Old storied walls ;
When daylight falls ;
Keen stars above;
By Beauty, is given
And mould us for Heaven.
H. G. K.
The Hon. James Thomason, late Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Provinces, who lingered too long in India, chiefly in the hope to have been present on the occasion above commemorated.
SPANISH POLITICS AND CUBAN PERILS.
DEAR EBONY,-The political chronicle, since last I wrote to you, is far from offering such stirring incidents as were recorded in my July and August despatches. There has been no fighting, although we were once on the brink of it, and things have gone pretty quietly, and, upon the whole, satisfactorily. After the fray comes the feast; and just as my last letter went off, a banquet was given at the Theatre-Royal, by the press of Madrid, to the ministers and a large number of notable persons. The press took an important part in the recent movements here, and has not been unrewarded, several of its members having been appointed to high posts under government. After the dinner, at which speeches and patriotism were plentiful, the next incident of note was the return to Madrid of the small division that first, under O'Donnell and Dulce, raised the banner of revolt against the Sartorius tyranny, and fought the brief but sanguinary fight of Vicálvaro. But the principal event of the last thirty days, the only one which (with its consequences) is worth dwelling upon, is the departure -I might almost say the escape-of Queen Christina from Madrid and from Spain.
In former letters I have given you an idea of the detestation with which Ferdinand's widow, once so beloved, has long been regarded. To those who remember the affection and enthusiasm testified for her during the early years of her residence in this country, the contrast with the storm of hatred and execration amidst which she has quitted it, is very striking. Then she was the hope of Spain, the idol of the Liberal party; her appearance abroad was the signal for cheers as vehement and heartfelt as any that have since been raised for Espartero. Her name was the soldier's battle-cry, when combating, amidst the rugged hills of northern and eastern Spain, the partisans of Charles V.; it was the burthen of the songs with which he enlivened his brief intervals of repose, and beguiled the weariness of
Madrid, 14th September 1854. the march. As I write, there recurs to my memory the burthen of one of those cheerful ditties, in which Spaniards are called upon joyfully to ex-. claim "Viva la Reina, Maria Cristina, she who broke the chains that bound and oppressed us"-and more to that effect. Little more than a month ago, as I walked through the Puerta del Sol-the heart of Madrid, which is the centre of Spain-blind men and illfavoured women shouted at every corner the titles and contents of scurrilous pamphlets that recounted the misdeeds of " Mother Christina." It may truly be said that, of the fourteen millions that people Spain, not one person (save her own creatures) could be found to raise his voice in her favour. The charges brought against her are numerous, and but too wellfounded. She is accused of gross and wilful neglect of her daughter's education-neglect which has been the main origin of the scandal Isabella has caused, and of the humbled and perilous position in which she now finds herself; her crown tottering on her head, and her only chance of not losing it consisting in implicit obedience to her minister's directions. She is accused of having betrayed the liberties of Spain, which were intrusted to her keeping; of having trampled on the laws she had sworn to maintain; of having built up a colossal fortune at the expense of the nation; of having, by her unscrupulous greed and shameful political intrigues, by her own conduct, and by her patronage of, and complicity with, some of the worst men in Spain, destroyed all public morality, and augmented to an inconceivable extent administrative corruption. On all these charges, an immense jury, composed of the whole Spanish nation, has unanimously found her guilty. And, since her departure, the general hope and prayer are that she may never again set foot in the country she has so deeply injured. "May the accursed Italian," said a newspaper the other day, never return hither to make a traffic of all that is most sacred and holy upon earth.”
But, before she had left, the feeling of upwards of twenty thousand men, concerning her was in one respect dif- and as they elect their own chiefs, who ferent. It was the opinion of many must therefore be considered to reprethat it was neither safe nor just to sent the opinions and enjoy the conallow her to leave the country. It fidence of the majority, the prayer was remembered how, during her of such a deputation naturally had three years' exile in France, she had weight; and at cabinet councils held intrigued and manæuvred, and lav- on that and the following day, the ished treasure, until, aided by the principal question discussed was — divisions in the Liberal camp and by What is to be done with the Queenthe incapacity of the Liberal govern- mother? The impossibility of prement, she rode into Madrid in the venting her intrigues, should she retriumphal car of Reaction. Then, it main in Spain, except by confinement is true, she had a staunch and inter- too rigorous to be legal, determined ested ally in the wily and unscrupu- the council to expel her from the lous chief of the house of Orleans. country; attaching her property until Deprived of his powerful aid and co- the Cortes should have investigated operation, she is manifestly much less her conduct, and decided concernto be dreaded. But a portion of the ing the charges brought against her. Spanish nation, and especially of the This plan resolved upon, it was iminhabitants the capital, well ac- mediately put into execution. The quainted with her great cunning and determination was come to on the skill in intrigue, and overrating, per- evening of the 27th August. On haps, the elements and resources she the 28th, at seven in the morning, can command in a foreign country for the ministers were at the palace, to the purpose of again disturbing Spain's witness the Queen-mother's departranquillity, insisted that she should ture. The adieus were brief. Christina be caged and not expelled, and more- betrayed no emotion at parting from over that she should be brought to her daughter, who, on her part, dropped account before the Cortes for the a few decorous tears, but was not very peculations and robberies attributed greatly afflicted. There has never to her by the voice of the entire na- been much affection between the two tion. You will remember the scenes queens, although the elder of them, that occurred at the palace soon after by berastuteness and superior strength Espartero's arrival here, and the vain of character, has exercised great inattempts then made to get her off influence over the younger. The Queensafety, whilst armed and menacing mother then took leave of the miniscrowds were vigilant to prevent her ters, whom she must heartily detest; passage, and could be induced to recommended her daughter to the care abandon their watch over their sove- and watchful guardianship of Esparreign's palace, and their stations upon tero, and entered a large travellingthe roads from Madrid, only by a pro- vehicle, accompanied by her husband, mise from the government that the who looked grievously dejected, and object of the popular wrath should not attended by an ecclesiastic of high be allowed clandestinely to depart. rank, and by several persons of her But it soon was found that if there household. Her children's departure was a probability of her being danger- had preceded hers. Some were in ous abroad, there was a certainty of Portugal, others in France. Escorted her being so at home. Her daughter's by two squadrons of cavalry, under residence again became a focus of in- the command of the well-known trigue. This got so well known, the General Garrigó, she reached, by reactionary party, encouraged by hav- short stages, and without molestation, ing their old protectress to lean upon, the frontier of the former country. were so active, and symptoms were Few persons were present at Chrisobserved so dangerous to public tran- tina'sdeparture, although it was stated quillity, that the chiefs of the national in the French papers, whose blunders guard sent a deputation to the gove concerning Spanish affairs are incesernment, urging strongly the removal sant and amusing, that the windows of Christina from the palace. As the of the palace were filled with ladies national guard of Madrid now consists waving handkerchiefs, and that its
roof was crowded with national guards. The truth is, that hardly anybody in Madrid knew of the Queen-mother's going, until she had actually gone. As the news spread, a certain excitement was manifested, and towards eleven o'clock a crowd of men, many of them armed, thronged the small square in front of Espartero's residence, with menacing shouts of Down with the Ministry! and loud demands for the return of Christina. An aidede-camp presenting himself at a window to address them, firearms were levelled at him, and he was compelled to retire. The fermentation each moment increased. Deputations from various public bodies waited upon the premier to express their disapproval of the step taken. The general impression abroad was, that a trick had been played on the people, that faith had been broken with them, and that the government was pledged not to suffer the departure of Christina until the Cortes had decided concerning her. The verbal pledge given by Espartero to a deputation, at a time when it was a great object to get rid of the bodies of armed men who beset the palace, and infested the environs of Madrid, making it their business to guard against the escape of the Queenmother, was, that she should not depart furtively, either by day or by night. Her departure, therefore, at eight in the morning, when the gazette containing its announcement had been but an hour published, was held to be a violation of this promise, as far as regarded the people. On the other hand, the national guard had insisted, through its chiefs, that Christina should not remain at the palace; there was danger to the tranquillity of Madrid if she continued there; her property in Spain, and her pension of thirty thousand pounds a-year, which was suspended, offered considerable security for the financial improprieties of which she might be found to have been guilty. To let her leave the country was manifestly the wisest course, and it was adopted. It has been urged that it would have been more straightforward of the government, and would have prevented even the imputation of a breach of faith, to have summoned commissions of the national guards, the corporation,
and other bodies, and from them to have obtained, beforehand, that approval of the measure which was almost unanimously accorded to them a few hours after it had been taken. But in cases of this kind there is a wide difference between before and after. The same men who, when the thing was done, supported the cause of order and the government, of whose good intentions they were sure, and of the wisdom of whose conduct they presently became persuaded, might have assumed a different attitude had they been consulted in advance. Moreover, by acting in that way, by deferring on every occasion to the popular voice, whether it spoke words of wisdom or words of folly, the ministers could never hope to gain strength, which was what they most needed. In short, it might have been a very difficult and dangerous business to get Christina out of Madrid, had the intention been published the day before; and doubtless the government preferred risking the unfounded imputation of a deception, to incurring the responsibility of fresh collisions. In my opinion, as an eyewitness of all that passed, it would have been hazardous to have acted otherwise than the ministers did. As it was, not a shot was fired, not a wound received; and three days after the affair, everybody seemed convinced that the best had been done.
I shall not dwell upon the incidents of the afternoon and night of the 28th August, of which you will have already seen accounts. For a short time things looked menacing, and many expected a fight. The council of ministers, assembled in the large building on the Puerta del Sol which is at once the Spanish" Home Office" and the main guard-house, received numerous delegates from the corporation, the provincial deputation, and from other public bodies; expounded to them their views and reasons, and received promises of support. Meanwhile the national guard-a portion of it somewhat sulky and dissatisfied-took up arms and prepared to maintain order. A considerable number of barricades had been thrown up. The presence and exhortations of General San Miguel sufficed for some of these to be removed by their makers. But in a