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with the nominal union, which at this apparently with the same effect, if not juncture may perhaps be read with intention, as the Irish injunction not some interest, lead one to suppose to duck the bailiff in the horse-pond. that the two bodies of office-bearers We wonder if the same thing is to could hardly have met round the be repeated in this day. We have same table without kicking each heard it, indeed, maintained from a other's shins. The senior institution very grave authority, that nearly all exhibits itself as overbearing and dic- things are possible save the fusion of tatorial — the junior as sensitive to these institutions ; that it may have every slight. All latent hatreds seem been easy to unite England and Scotto have sprung into vivid life on the land, or Great Britain and Ireland, command to be united in peace. The but that the eternal laws of the unijuveniles appear to have taken the verse show_it to be impossible to matter up, and each college passes a unite the King's College and Unilaw requiring that its students shall versity of Aberdeen with the Marnot insult the

professors of the other,- ischal College and University thereof.


MY DEAR EUSEBIUS, – If you wise as the speaking one. A neighwonder at the speculations with which bour, who had been acquainted with I have amused myself and bewildered the money markets, told me he did not all within reach of inquiry, remember exactly know what it was, but he what a celebrated phrenologist said, thought its condition was indicated that I should never make a philo- by the Three-per-cent Consols. An sopher : you remarked, So much the economist of the new school, who better, for that the world had too happened to be on a visit to him, many already. I am not sure that I preferred as a test “ American breadwas not piqued ; and, owing a little stuffs.” He argued that such stuffs spite against these unapproachable were the staff of life, supported life, superiors-philosophers—have rather and were, therefore, both civilisation encouraged a habit of posing them; and the end and object of civilisation. and finding so many in this my expe- My neighbour's son Thomas, a prerience inferior to the common-sense cocious youth of thirteen years of age, portion of mankind, I amuse myself stepped forward, and said civilisation with them, and treat them as monkeys, consisted in reading, writing, and now and then throwing them a nut arithmetic: upon this, a parish boy, to crack a little too hard for them. the Inspector's pet of the National Wry faces break no syllogisms, so we School, said with rival scorn, “You laugh, and they gravitate in philo- must go a great deal farther than that sophy. What is civilisation ? Is that -it is knowledge, and knowledge is a nut 2-a very hard one, indeed. I, knowing the etymologies of cosmoat least, cannot tell what it is, in graphy and chronology." I asked the what it consists, or how this summum red-faced plethoric Farmer Brown; bonum is to be attained ; but I am no “What's what!" quoth he, with a philosopher. I have taken many a voice of thunder, and, like a true John one by the button, and plunged him Bull, stalked off in scornful ignorance. head foremost into the chaos of My next inquiry was of your playful thought, and seen him come out little friend, Airting Fanny of the flushed with the suffocation of his Grove, just entering her fifteenth year. dark bewilderment. Less ambitious “What a question!” said she, and her persons will scarcely stay to answer very eyes laughed deliciously—“the the question—What is civilisation ? latest fashions from Paris, to be sure." The careless, who cannot answer it, Make what you please of it, Eusebius; laugh, and think they win in the game put all the answers into the bag of of foolishness. Perbaps no better your philosophy, and shake them well answer can be given, and the laugh- together, your little friend's will have ing philosopher, after all, may be as as good a chance as any of coming up VOL. LXXVI.-NO. CCCCLXVIII.

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with a mark of truth upon it. The supposing it to be a portrait from people that can afford to invent nature, what a civilised people must fashions must have a large freedom they be among whom such a wonder from cares. There must be classes was born-not only born, but sweetly who neither toil nor spin, yet emulate nurtured, and arrayed in such a glory in grace, beauty, and ornament the of dress! If you think this indicates lilies of the field. If you were obliged a foolish extravagant passion, know to personify civilisation, would you that this fair one must have“ died of not, like another Pygmalion, make to old age" some centuries before I was yourself a feminine wonder, accumu- born. There she is, in all her pale late upon your statare every grace, loveliness, in a black japan figured vivify her wholly with every possible frame, over the mantelpiece of my virtue, then throw a Parisian veil of bedroom at H — where I am now dress over her, and-oh, the profana, writing this letter to you. Mock not, tion of your old days !-fall down and Eusebius; she is, or rather was, Chiworship her?

nese. I look upon her now as giving There is no better mark of civilisa- out her answer from those finely-drawn tion than well - dressed feminine ex- lips—"I represent civilisation.” If I cellence, to which men pay obeisance. could pencil like that happy painter Wherever the majority do this, there happiest in having such uncommon is humanity best perfected. Homer loveliness to sit to him-I would send teacheth that, when he exhibits the you another kind of sketch; it would aged council of statesmen and war- be a failure. Be content with feeble riors on the walls of Troy paying words. First, then, for dress : She homage to the grace of Helen. The wears a brown kind of hat, or cap, poet wished to show that the person- the rim a little turned up, of indeages of his Epic were not barbarians, scribable shape and texture: the head and chose this scene to dignify them. part is blue; around it are flowers, Ruminate upon the answer, “The so white and transparent, just suffused latest fashions from Paris." What a with a blush, as if instantaneously mass of civilising detail is contained vitrified into china. Lovely are they in these few words !-the leisure to such as botanical impertinences never desire, the elegance to wear, the scrutinised. On the right side of this genius to invent, the benevolent em cap or hat two cock's feathers, perfectly ployment of delicate hands, the trades white, arch themselves, as if they encouraged, the soft influences—the would coquet with the fairer cheek. very atmosphere breathes the most You see how firm they are, and delicate perfume of loves. It is not would spring up strong from the to the purpose to interpose that this touch, emblems of unyielding chasParis of fashion suddenly turned tity. The hair, little of which is savage, and revelled in brutal revolu- seen, is of a chestnut-brown; low tion, sparing not man nor woman. It down on the throat is a broad band was because, in their anti-aristocratic of black, apparently velvet, just peepmadness, the unhappy people threw ing above which is the smallest edging off this reverential respect that the of white, exactly like the most modern uncivilised portion slaughtered the shirt-collar, fastened above, where it civilised. It was a vile atheistical is parted, by a gold clasp. The upper barbarism that waged war with civil- dress is of a pink red, such as we see isation. Think no more of that black in Madonna pictures; below this is a spot in the History of Humanity- dark blue-green shirt-dress, richly that plague-spot. Rather, Eusebius, flowered to look like enamel; over the turn your thoughts to your work, and shoulders a Madonna kerchief, fastenfabricate, though it be only in your ed in a knot over the chest; it is of a imagination, your own paradise, and clear brownish hue, such as we see in she shall be named Civilisation. In old pictures. The upper red dress case your imagination should be at does not meet, but terminates on each this moment dull, rest satisfied with a side with a gold border, of a pattern description of an image now before centre, with two lines of gold. Thus me, which I think, as a personification, a rather broad space is left across the answers the question admirably; for bosom, which in modern costume is occupied by a habit-shirt; but such doing wonders, and, like Katerfelto word would ill describe either the with his hair on end, are in daily colour or the texture here worn; it is wonderment at your own wonders. of a gossamer fabric, of a most deli- You steam-annihilate space and cately-greenish white, diapered and time. You have ripped open the flowered all over; nothing can be bowels of knowledge, and well-nigh conceived more exquisite than this. killed her in search of her golden egg. It would make the fortune of a You are full, to the throat and eyes, modern modiste to see and to imitate of sciences and arts. You are hourly it. A clasp of elegant shape fastens astonishing yourselves and the world. skirt to upper dress; the sleeve of Nevertheless, you have one great deupper dress reaches only half-way ficiency as to the ingredients that down the arm; the lower sleeve is of make up civilisation; you are decidthe rich blue-green, but altogether edly too conceited; you lack charity; ample. Attitude, slightly bent for- you count bygone times and peoples ward; over the left arm, which as nothing and nobodies : yet you crosses the waist, is suspended a build a great Crystal Palace, and fruit-basket of unknown material, and boast of it, as if it were all your own; finely patterned, brown in colour, in whereas the whole riches of it, in the which are grapes and other fruit; elegances of all arts, are imitations of expression, sweetly modest; com- the works of those bygone times and plexion-how shall it be described ? peoples. Who is satisfied with your Never was European like it. It is model-civilisation ? Eusebius, is not finest porcelain, variegated with that the question yet to be asked—What under-living immortal ichor of the old is it in what does it consist? how is divinities. Eyes clear-cut or pencilled, it to be obtained ? True civilisation rather hazel in colour ; background, has no shams—we have too many, rockwork garden, rising to a hill, on and they arise out of our swaggering which are trees — but such trees ! and boasting ; so that we force ourAladdin may have seen the like in selves to assume every individual virhis enchanted subterranean garden. tue, though we have it not. We are Then there is a lake, and a boat on it, contemptuous; and contempt is a at a distance, with an awning. She burr of barbarism sticking to us still, is the goddess, or the queen, of this even in this “Nineteenth Century," Elysium, which her presence makes, a phrase in the public mouth glorifyand has enchanted into a porcelain ing self-esteem. I must, for the arguearth, whose flowers and trees are of ment, go back to the Chinese lady in its lustre.

her narrow japanned gilt frame. As Wherever, Eusebius, this portrait I have drawn my curtains, Eusebius, was taken, it was, and is, an epitome, at the dawn of day, and that placid an emblem of high civilisation. It beauty (though not to be admitted in speaks so plainly of all exemption any book of that name) has smiled from toil and care, of the unapproach- upon me from lips so delicate, so unableness of danger. There is living voracious—did she pick grains of rice, elegance in a garden of peace. It is like Amine in the Arabian tale?-I in fact, the type of civilisation. Whati verily thought she must have lived in will the economist, the philosopher of as civilised an age as ours. Yesour day, be ready to say, -Civilisation perhaps she was not very learned, amongst Chinese and Tartars! and excepting in Chinese romances, and that centuries perhaps ago. Civilisa- very good learning that is: but neither tion is “The Nineteenth Century!" you nor I, Eusebius, lay very great The glory of the Nineteenth Century stress upon knowledge, nor call it is the Press. We are Civilisation. “ Power," nor think that happiness Very well, gentlemen; nevertheless necessarily grows out of it. One evil it would be pleasant if you could ex- of it is, that it unromances the age; hibit a little more peace and quietness, and romance -- why not say it? a little less turmoil, a little more un- romance is a main ingredient in true, adulterating honesty, a little less care- honest, unadulterated civilisation. worn look in your streets, as the mark You would prefer being as mad as of your boasted civilisation. You are Dou Quixote, and be gifted with his romance, to being the aptest of matter- he would bury his father in the earth? of-fact economists and material philo- He was amazed at the questionsophers. Romance, then, springs from shocked. Not for the world; as an the generous heart and mind;-me- act of piety, he would eat him. The thinks, Eusebius, you are progressing, other, asked to eat his father, was and reaching one of the ingredients of hurt and disgusted beyond measure. this said desideratum, “Civilisation." Let us be a little more even in our As a people, it may be doubted if we judgments, and speak somewhat kindare quite as romantic as formerly ; if ly, if we can, of these gentlemen so, however we may advance in know- pagans all over the world. We may ledge and sciences, we are really re- be often called upon to admire their trograding from the summum bonum disinterested heroism, even when lavof social virtues. I remember once ished upon mistaken objects. Here hearing a celebrated physician, who is an example from the misnamed knew as much as most men of mankind, weaker sex-misnamed, for they are their habits and manners, speak of an wonderfully gifted with fortitude. I American “gentleman," adding, “and have been reading of a poor young he was a savage." You can imagine creature, widow of a chief among some it possible, that, in the presence and cannibal race. She was to have been impertinence of Anglo-Saxon vulga- immolated, according to custom, at the rity, the grave and courteous demean- burial of her husband. Her courage our of a so-called barbarian would be at the moment failed her: she was a very conspicuous virtue. I read induced by, if I remember rightly, the other day, in Prince's Worthies of some good missionaries, to fly, and Devon, a quaint passage to the point, they protected her. In the night she which much amused me for its sin- repented of her irresolution, escaped, gular expression. It relates to Sir swam across a river, and presented Francis Drake, who, touching at one herself for the sacrifice and the feast. of the Molucca Islands, was, as the Scholars, you read with love and author words it, “ by the king there- admiration of Iphigenia at Aulis ; her of, a true gentleman pagan, most first reluctance; her after self-devohonourably entertained. "*

Of this tion: you have imagined her youth, gentleman pagan" Prince adds, that her beauty, so vividly painted by the he told General Drake “ that they and poet. Was Iphigenia more the hehe were all of one religion, in this roine than this poor girl whom we are respect, that they believed not in pleased to pass unhistoried as a sagods made of stocks and stones, as vage? She gave herself up, not only did the Portuguese; and further, at his to death, perhaps a cruel one, but departure he furnished him with all with the knowledge that she would the necessaries that he wanted." Yet, be devoured also that night. Iphigenia perhaps, some of the habits of such was certain of funeral honours, of gentlemen pagans had been scoffed at immortal fame, and believed that her by Europeans, and often met with worse sacrifice would insure victory to her usage than contempt. Whoever has father and the Greeks. We have no consideration for others, no indul- written exercises at school in praise gence for habits contrary to his own, of the suicide of Cato, whose act, in though he may be born in nominally comparison with this poor savage's, the most civilised nation under the was cowardice;-more than that, we sun, is really a barbarian. It was have been taught to mouth out with well said that, upon the accidental applause the blasphemy of the celemeeting of the finest drest gentleman, brated hexameter, “ Victrix causa with a powdered head, and a tatooed Diis placuit sed victa Catoni.” Why Indian, he who should laugh first should we not be a little more even in would be the savage. The well-known our judgments? The poor gentlemen story of the horror expressed by dif- pagans of the islands would cut as ferent people at the disposal of their good a figure as heathen Cato, if their deceased parents is curious, showing names and deeds could be turned into that opposite actions arise from the tolerable Latin, and passed off as of same feelings. In this case it was of the classical age. Henley, in a letter filial piety. One party was asked if to Swift, tells the speech of a farmer,

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who said, “If I could but get this spirit. There is a descending, a desame breath out of my body, I'd take gradation of the whole mind. There care, by G-, how I let it come in begivs visible worldliness. We see again!" Henley makes the pithy re- man taking his part in the affairs of mark, “ This, if it was put into fine the world for what he can get as an Latin, I fancy would make as good a individual. There is a prominence of sound as any I have met with.” the business, and less made of the

I did not mean to induce a belief, enjoyments of life ;-the commercial Eusebius, that the Chinese excelled spirit predominating, which has since

, in the fine arts when I wrote down the overwhelmed the imaginative faculdescription of the Chinese lady. The ties, and buried the better, the more portrait had its peculiarities, and civilised pleasures of life, under the would not have been hung upon the weight of avarice. We are, my dear line in the Royal Academy. I only Eusebius, too money-loving and mochose it for its historical expression, ney-getting to deserve the name of a which spoke of civilisation of manners, thoroughly civilised people. Is a true of security, and as containing in itself and just perception of the fine arts a things which civilised people boast of. sign of civilisation? What is admired But there the argument is not very —what is eagerly purchased-what much in favour of this our

intellectual food do the purchases conteenth Century;" for the chiefest works vey? Is the mere visual organ graof art in painting are of the cinque tified by the lowest element of the cents. It is not pretended that we arts — imitation - or the mind's eye bave thrown into oblivious shade the enlarged to receive and love what is masters of old celebrity; nor that we great and noble ? In one sense, unhave made better statues than did doubtedly, the art of living is better Phidias and Praxiteles ; nor excelled understood, because, the romance of the Greeks in architecture; nor even life fading away, personal comforts the artist builders of the ages which and little luxuries become exigencies, we are pleased to style “Dark; and engross the thoughts, filling up that we have at least lost some marks the vacancies that romance has left. of civilisation. Nay, to come to Shall I shock you, my dear Eusebius, nearer times for comparison : It would if I add my doubts if liberty is either be a hard thing for our swaggerers to civilisation or a sign of it? Great find a dramatist willing to be taken things have been done in the world, by the collar, and contrasted face to where there has been little of it face with the portraits of Shakespeare enough, as well as where there has and Ben Jonson, taking their plays been much. The fine arts are ceras their representatives. There were tainly not much indebted to it. worthies of a high romance in the There is much in the question which civilised days of the “Glorious Glo- yet remains to be considered. The riava." What marks of essential civil. questioned may well ask, as did the isation are visible in the comedies of heathen philosopher on one more imShakespeare-what delightful mix- portant, and of an infinite height ture of the real and unreal-the mind and depth-another day of thought springing from its own natural elas- to answer it, and each succeeding ticity above the fogs and blight of day another still. Is civilisation that worldly business, that ever tend to condition in which all the human fakeep the spirits from rising! And culties may be so continually exer. why say comedies? Tragedies too. cised, as to make the more intellectual How fresh is the atmosphere mankind moral and religious being? when the seem then to breathe. Humanity is plant humanity, like every other plant, made lovable or dignified.

If we

shall by cultivation assume a new might judge of civilisation from the character and even appearance? I works of writers of that age, we might fear this condition necessarily implies be justified in pronouncing it most a degradation also. For as in no state civilised, for it was governed by a do the many reach the high standard, vivid and romantic spirit. Take as equality must be destroyed, so that contrast the literature of Queen Anne's inferiority will not only have its moral boasted time. It is quite of another mark, but also its additional toil, far


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