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year 1670, a sudden and singularly by the Rector and his assessors that they bold attempt appears to be made for opponed their being content to pass upon their revival, a court of justiciary being the said inquest in initio, and their makheld by the University, and a student ing faith without contraverting their priput on trial on a charge of murder.

vilege ; but notwithstanding thereof, for

their satisfaction and ex abundanti gratia, The weighty matter is thus intro

they declared themselves and their sucduced :

cessors in office enacted, bound, and “Anent the indytment given in by John obliged for their warrandice of all cost, Cumming, wryter in Glasgow, elected to be skaith, danger, and expenses they or ane Procurator-Fiscal of the said University; or other of them should sustain or incur and Andrew Wright, cordoner in Glasgow, through the passing upon the said inquest, neirest of kin to umquhile Janet Wright, or whilk could follow thereupon, through servetrix to Patrick Wilson, younger, the said University their wanting of gairdner there, killed by the shot of ane their original rights or writs for clearing gun, or murdered within the said Patrick to them the privilege and jurisdiction in his dwelling-house, upon the first day of the like cases. Whereupon the said August instant, against Robert Bartoun, Patrick Bryce, as Chancellor, for himself, son lawful of John Bartoun, gairdner in and in name and in behalf of the hailí the said burgh, and student in the said remanent members of the said inquest, University, for being guilty of the said asked acts of court.” +, horrible crime upon the said umquhile

Though we are not aware of any Janet." *

instance in Scotland where the acaA jury was impannelled to try the demic tribunals have arrogated, since question. The whole affair bears a

the Reformation, so high a power, it is suspicious aspect of being preconcerted not difficult to find other instances to enable the accused to plead the where exemption has been claimed, benefit of acquittal; for no objection even at a later period, from the is taken on bis part to the compe- ordinary powers that be. Thus the tency of the singular tribunal before Glasgow Records of the year 1721 bear which he is to be tried for his life; on that the contrary, he highly approves of

“ The faculty, being informed that some them as his judges, and in the end is

of the magistrates of Glasgow, and parpronounced not guilty. The respect. ticularly Bailie Robert Alexander, has able burgesses who acted as jurymen examined two of the members of the had, however, as it appears, their own University — viz., William Clark and grave doubts about this assumption of James Macaulay, students in the Greek the highest judicial functions; and class—for certain crimes laid to their we find them in this curious little do- charge some time upon the month of Febcument, which we offer in full, express

ruary last, and proceeded to sentence ing themselves with that cautious against these students, contrary to and in and sagacious scepticism which is as

prejudice of the University and haill mem

bers, do therefore appoint Mr Gershom much a part of the national character

Carmichael, &c., to repair to the said as its ardour and enthusiasm.

magistrates of Glasgow, and particularly “Patrick Bryce, chancellor, and rema- Bailie Alexander, and demand the cannent persons who passed upon the said celling of the said sentence, and protest inquest, before they gave in their verdict against the said practice of the said to the said court, desired that they might bailie or any of the magistrates for their be secured for the future, lest they might said practice, and for remeid of law as be quarrelled at any time hereafter for accords.” I going on, and proceeding to pass on an It was the principle, not the perinquest of the like nature, upon ane warn

sons—the protection of their priviing by the officer of the said University ; leges, not the impunity of their stuand that in regard they declared the case

dents-that instigated the faculty on to be singular, never having occurred in the age of before to their knowledge, and

this occasion, since in their next the rights and privileges of the University

minute they are found visiting William not being produced to them to clear their

Clark and James Macaulay with punprivilege for holding of criminal courts, ishment for heavy youthful offences. and to sit and cognosce upon crimes of the We offer no apology for quoting, on like nature; whereunto it was answered such an occasion, these scraps from

Glasgow Records, ii. 341. + Ibid., p. 343. I Ibid., p. 422.

technical documents. It appears to the trade of the resurrectionist, the us that when they are not oppressively students had to belp themselves. It long, or too professional for ordinary needed but the very fact of their comprehension, there is no other way having an occasional subject " in the of affording so distinct a notion of any dissecting-room to expose them to an very remarkable social peculiarity, odious reputation, which no argument such as we account the exclusive about the blessed results of the healliability of the members of universi- ing art, and the necessity of studying ties to their own separate tribunals to it in the structure of the human frame, have been.

could in the slightest degree mitigate. Although the Scottish universities The feud thus caused was of a kind never boasted of the vast concourse which widened as the progi ess of of young men of all peoples, nations, scientific acquirement enlarged the and languages, which sometimes flocked study of anatomy; and it seemed as to the Continental schools, and thus if a permanent and deadly hostility with their great privileges created a against the progress of an essential formidable imperium in imperio-yet science were daily deepening and naturally there has existed more or widening, until public wrath, concenless of a standing feud between the trated and accumulated, might be escitizen class and the student class. pected at last to burst on the devoted The records before us show repeated pursuit, and annihilate it. Though contests by the authorities of univer- the students of anatomy were generally sities, against an inveterate propensity among those who had passed through in the students to wear arms, and to use the ordinary curriculum of studies, them. The weapons prohibited by the and no longer wore the distinguishing laws of King's College, Aberdeen, are scarlet robe, yet their younger brethren so varied and peculiar that we cannot were, not entirely without cause, venture to do their Latin names into mixed up in their misdeeds. Horrible English, and can only derive, from the stories of their waylaying children, terms in which they are denounced, a and of their clapping plasters on the general notion how formidable a per. mouths of growi men met in lonely son a student putting the law at de- byways, which stopped the breath, and fiance must have been. But for the instantaneously extinguished life, were difference in the Latinity, one might greedily believed, and founded tales suppose himself reading Strada's cele- capable of superseding Bluebeard and brated account of the weapons in the The One-handed Monk at the winter Spanish Armada.*

chimney-corner. Young lads in their From some incidental causes, a early blushing scarlet were sometimes slight tinge of the desperado habits, savagely assaulted, as if the poor indicated by such restrictions, lingered innocents were ghouls in search of the around the Scottish universities, and horrible prey peculiar to their order. perhaps was most loth to depart from The public frenzy reached its climax that northernmost institution to which on the revelation of the crimes of the prohibitions specially applied. The Burke and Hare. It almost as sudmain cause of their continuance may denly collapsed after the passing of be attributed to the exigencies of the the Anatomy Act, which removed anatomical classes which gradually at- from dissection that odium which pretached themselves to the schools of vious legislation had factitiously immedicine. In obtaining subjects there parted to it as part of the punishment was a perpetual contest with unmiti- of murder, and accompanied the change gable prejudices; and as in the smaller with special facilities for the obtainuniversity towns there were few or no ment of subjects. Hence more thanpeople who followed systematically twenty years have passed since the

*“Gladios, pugiones sicas machæras rhomphæas acinaces fustes, præsertim si præferrati vel plumbati sint, veruta missilia tela sclopos tormenta bombardas balistas ac. arma ulla bellica nemo discipulus gestato.”-Fasti Aberdonienses, 242. The Glasgow list is less formidable : “Nemo gladium pugionem tormenta bellica aut aliud quodvis armorum et telorum genus gestet ; sed apud præfectum omnia deponat.”—Instituta, 49.

habits of our students were tainted changing places like the shifting of by this incidental peculiarity, and its the side-slips in a theatre. Perhaps social effect must now be matter of there may even be alive some who tradition.

have witnessed or participated in It can easily, however, be believed such divertisements. Is there any that the revolting preliminary which one who will admit participation in the votary of science had to undergo that transmutation which scandalised must have had an influence on bis the bailie, by exhibiting his suburban habits very far from propitious. The mansion under the auspices of the nocturnal expedition was occasionally national achievement, as "licensed to joined by those who had not the ex. sell spirits, porter, and ale," just at the cuse of scientific ardour, and thus the moment when the licentiate of the influence of the practice spread beyond Red Lion was lamenting the disappearthe limits of the medical profession. ance of his insignia ? Are none of The mysterious horrors surrounding those virtuous youths alive, who the reputation of such a pursuit were called next day to express their hornot without a certain fascination to ror of the deed, and bold confidential the young gownsmen, and some of communion with the bailie, thus obthem were supposed placidly to cul- taining access to his arsenal, and retivate rather than suppress charges ceiving the comfortable secret inforwhich would have seriously alarmed mation- valuable for future conduct their more knowing and practical —that the blunderbuss, the musket, seniors. Though there was thus a and the brace of pistols, were loaded good deal of exaggeration and boasts with powder only, “but he wad ing both from without and from warrant the scounrels wad get a within, yet the practice did exist fleg"? Who was it, we wonder, that, among the senior students, while at the on the myrmidons of justice coming same time an occasional junior, ap- to his chambers, under the well-warproved for his boldness and discretion, ranted suspicion that he possessed an might be admitted to act a subordinate extensive and varied collection of

resurrectionising affair.” shop signs, had recourse to his inciPossibly he, if not the others, might pient Scripture knowledge by an apt find it necessary to employ some quotation in reference to those who stimulant to brace his nerves for the seek what they do not succeed in formidable work in hand. Thus the obtaining? Is it probable that in adventure which provided the theatre any private neuks in old dwellingof anatomy with the means of keep- houses there may exist relics of those ing a few students at hard work in prized museums not acquired withone of the most important departe out toil and risk - and exhibited ments of human knowledge, had pro- with much caution only to trusted bably occasioned more than one night friends—which consisted mainly of of fierce dissipation, and produced watchmen's rattles and battered lanscenes which would have considerably terns ? Lives there yet one of that astonished the good old aunts, depre- laborious group, who wished to illucating the exhausting labours of their minate the mansion of Professor virtuous nephews in the nasty hospi- Blanc in proper style, and to that tals and that horrid dissecting-room. effect carried out a cluster of street

The excesses which concentrated lamps, and planted them all a-light themselves around this solemn and in his garden, so encountering labour cheerless pursuit, ramified themselves and risk with no better reward than a into others of a more fantastic and reflection on the professor's puzzled cheerful character. Probably it is countenance when he should awaken all changed now; but they are not and behold the phenomenon ? N.B. very old men who remember how the Street lamps in those days were fed smaller university towns were subject with oil, and were supported on to fantastic superficial revolutions. wooden posts, which it was not diffiTrees, gates, railings, street lamps, cult for a couple of strong youths to summer - houses, shop signs, and uproot. other accessories of the realty," as But we are shocking the virtue and lawyers call them, disappearing or civilisation of the age by such queries.

part in a “


They hint at practices which we be- a certain number of young men living lieve to be entirely eschewed by the in celibacy, and they naturally imisuperior class of young gentlemen tated the example set them in the who now frequent our universities. construction of monasteries. The ediIf we have created a throb of terror in fice and its use thus suggested somean amiable parent's breast, we hum- thing like the monastic disciplinebly beg his pardon. He may take and, indeed, an establishment filled our word for it that his hopeful son is with young men, having their sepaincapable of such pranks. This is rate dormitories and common table, mainly an antiquarian article, and yet without any head or system of the matter contained in it belongs discipline among them, would have more or less to the past, and is found been a social anomaly of the most ed on document or tradition.

formidable character. The univerThe semi-monastic foundations by sity required to give its sanction to which the students live under the dis- the well ordering of the separate incipline of colleges or halls, and assem- stitutions thus rising around it. At ble together at a common table, are the same time munificent patrons of indissolubly connected in English no- learning left behind them endowments tions with the idea of a university. for founding such institutions, indiYet the system arose as an adjunct to cating at the same time the method the original universities, and, as late in which the founders desired that inquirers have shown, the parasites they should be governed, and appointhave so overrun the parent stem that ing a portion of the funds to form its original character is scarcely per- stipendiary allowances to office-bearceptible beneath their more luxuriant So arose those great colleges growth. The origin of these institu- and halls which in England have tions is simple enough. When the buried the original constitution of the great teachers brought crowds of university beneath them. young men together from all parts of In the great Continental universities Europe, the primary question was which contained separate colleges, how they were to obtain food and these were more strictly under the shelter ? and a second arose when central control. In Scotland, the these needs were supplied - how wealth at the disposal of the acacould any portion of the discipline of demic institutions, and the numbers the parental home be administered attending them, were never suffito them among strangers ? Certain ciently great to encourage the rise of privileges were given to the houses separate bodies, either independent or inhabited by the students, and streets subordinate. The system of monastic and quarters sprung up for their residence and a common table was accommodation, as we now see the adopted under the authority of the rows of red-tiled cottages sprout university, but it is remarkable that forth like lichens around the tall while so many of the fundamental chimney of a new manufactory. To features of the original institution have prevent fluctuation, and preserve the been preserved, this subsidiary aracademic character wherever it had rangement has totally disappeared. once established itself, it was a fre- The indications of its existence, howquent regulation that the houses once ever, as they are preserved in the inhabited by students could be let to no records, have naturally considerable other person so long as the rents were interest as vestiges of a social condiduly paid. We find traces of this tion which has passed from the earth. expedient in the records of Glasgow, In the Glasgow Records we have, where there seems to have been great of date 1606, a contract with Andrew difficulty in accommodating the stu- Henderson touching the Boarding of dents of the infant university, on

the Masters and Bursars, commencing account of the extreme smallness of thos: “At Glasgow, the twentythe town. Since the house once twa day of October, the year of God occupied by the student was thence. Jm VJc and aucht yeares: it is forth dedicated to his order, specula- appoyntit and aggreit betwix the

were induced to build entirely pairties following, viz., Mr Patrick new to the accommodation of Schairp, Principal of the College of


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Glasgow, and Regentes thairof, with of fresche beif, with sufficient breid and consent of the ordinar auditouris of aill to drink; at evening, on the said the said College compts, undersub- manner, ane tailye of fresche beif to scrivand on the ane part, and Andro

everie meiss. On fische dayis, breid and Hendersoun, Burges of the said burgh

drink as in the flesche dayis; at disjoone, on the uther part, in manner follow

ane eg; at noone, eggis, herring, and ane

uther course; at evening sicklyke.”' ing." Having afforded this initial specimen of the document, we shall

Probably such a bill of fare may take the liberty of somewhat modifying the spelling of such parts of the dispel some notions about the sordid “manner following,” in quoting such living of our ancestors, and the privaportions of it as seem by their curious

tions especially of those who dedicated

themselves to a scholastic life. The character to demand notice; and herein we

existence of meagre days-or fish may observe that we follow the example of a judicious days, as they are called—in the year Quaker we had once the pleasure of have not to offer. It would almost

1608, suggests explanations which we being made known to, who, after a solicitous desire to know the Christian appear, however, that, at least in the name of his new acquaintance, with a

dietary of the superior class, a fish few preliminary thee's and thou's—as

day was one in which fish was added

to a comfortable allotment of meat, much as to say, you see the set I belong to-afterwards ran into the

instead of being substituted for it.

Another contract occurs in the year usual current of conversation very 1649, varying little from the said much like a man of this world. Andrew's,” except in the addition of Well, the document, with much pre

a few luxuries. The mess to be laid cision, continues to say:

in the hall for dinner is to be “broth, " The manner of the board shall be this: skink, sodden beef, and mutton, the At nine hours upon the flesh days-viz., best 'in the market, with roasted Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday—the said Andrew shali mutton, lamb, veal, or hudderin, as

the season of the year shall serve, prepare to the said masters, and others that pay as they pay, ane soup of fine

with wheat bread and good stale ale ; white bread, or ane portion of cold meat, and at supper suchlike, with a capon as best may be had, with some dry bread or hen, or the equivalent." The fish and drink. At twelve hours the said days continue to be distinguished less Andrew shall cover ane table in the hall by the diminution of flesh-since there of the said College, and shall serve them is to be two roasts in the day-than in brose, skink, sodden beef, and mutton, by the addition of fish. At supper the best in the market, rosted mutton or

there are to be sweetmeats and veel, as the commodity of the season of “stoved plumdamas,” which may be the year shall serve, with a fowl, or the interpreted stewed prunes. Another equivalent thereof, with good wheat bread, article there introduced is called the best in the market, without scarcity, and ‘gud staill aill, aucht or ten dayis “stamped kaile.” The application of auld, that sall be bettir nor the haill aill the participle is new to us, though, as in the town, and at supper suchlike. every one ought to know, kail means And on fish days the said Andrew shall broth, or what the French call potage; furnish every ane in the morning 'ane and a critic in such matters suggests callour fresch eg, with sum cauld meit or that the word stamped may refer to milk and breid, and sum dry breid and the mashing of the materials. In the drink; at noone, kaill and eggis, herring, earlier of the contracts which we have and thrie course of fische, give thai may referred to, the board-money was—for be had, or the equivalent thairof in breid the master's table, £30 per quarter, and milk, fryouris with dry breid asof (Scots money, of course); and for the befoir,' and at supper suchlike. The mess of the bursars, which immediately bursars', £16, 13s. 4d. The value of follows, must be given literatim : “On the

money had so far risen that in the fleshe dayis, in the morning, everie ane

next period the sums were respectively of thame, ane soup of ait breid and ane £46 and £24. The master's table drink; at noone, broois with ane tailye was frequented by the young aristo

* Instituta Unio. Glasg., p. 519, 520.

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