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arriving at Sydney a day or two earlier daily intercourse with their friends than her previous performances led are unwilling to embark for a country her to be expected ; and it was with from which they can rarely assure difficulty that the colonists were them of their safe arrival, or inform enabled to induce her commander to them as to how the world goes with stay above twelve hours to enable a them, in less than eight or nine mail for Great Britain to be made up. months. A brother, a sister, or a Any one who has read the excellent friend, with whom we can correspond, digests of Australian news contained in is not as one lost to us. We do not the Melbourne Argus and the Sydney regard them as quite beyond our social Morning Herald, sent by every Go- circle. But an emigrant to Australia vernment mail, may imagine that has thus far been practically rendered some time is required for writing them, an outcast. We may hear of him, or irrespective of printing. The General her, if fortune smiles, or dire adverScrew Steam Company also attempted sity occurs ; but the ordinary kindlithe carrying of the mails, and sub- ness of brotherhood, or sisterhood, sequently the Australian Royal Mail becomes neglected when the means of Steam Company, both subsidised by epistolary intercourse are denied. The Government, made the same attempt. rudest amongst us feel this as a bar to They failed in the performance of their adventuring into a new country. The engagements. The latter had con- emigrant would be glad to communitracted to perform the voyage from cate the tidings of his good or evil England to Sydney in 64 days, and lot to sympathising friends at home ; homewards in 68 days. The“Chusan" and there are few who do not know was 79 days on the passage from Eng- with what delight even the merest land to Sydney ; the “Formosa" 76 scrap of home news is received by days; the “ Cleopatra” 120 days. In those who are separated by far less fact, the Company's ships were laugh- than half the circumference of the ed at by ordinary sailing vessels. Then globe from that home. What would sailing vessels were tried ; and we not any Australian digger give at the were told that mails were to be for- present moment if he could hear his warded by this or that “clipper," parent's clock tick in its old familiar the Post-Office guaranteeing its sailing place? What would any parent at on a particular day. But first-rate home not give for a glimpse of the ships would not accept the terms present features of a child now located offered ; and accordingly, we had con- at the antipodes ? tinual instances of those who had It is humiliating to us as Britons, undertaken the work failing in its to contrast the niggardly conduct of performance. There has hitherto been our own Post-Office authorities, and of no certainty as to the mail communi- the Colonial Office, with that which cation between this country and the we have already shown was adopted colony. We never could tell, within by the Government of the United two or three months, at what date States towards the population of its we might expect to receive the reply new territory of California. Unforto a letter to Australia, or when one tunately, we are governed in this from Great Britain would arrive out country upon "economical" principles. in the colony. The merchant who The spirit of the trader is carried into had shipped, or made advances upon every department of the public service. goods, had no certainty as to the time When we ask for any comprehensive when be must make arrangements to and perfect scheme of improvement, meet the demands upon him out of we are mocked by some petty expehis own resources. The want of cer- dient, because every successive adtainty imparted an additional amount ministration, and every public official, of hazard to the trade between the are ambitious of doing their work more two countries. But this is not all the cheaply than their predecessors. This evil resulting from inadequate postal is especially the case with respect to communication. It has tended very the postal arrangements of the country. greatly, combined with bad post-office When an extension or an improvemanagement in the colony, to pre- ment of the system is suggested, the vent emigration. People accustomed to first question asked is not, “ Is it wanted ?" but, “ Will it pay? " Our Sydney ” took 54 days; the “MelAmerican brethren have always dealt bourne" took 75 days; and the “Adewith the business of their post-office laide” took 77 days. Of the two in a different spirit. They felt that last vessels' voyages the Melbourne those who are maintaining the com- Argus remarked at the time :mercial greatness of the country by “The preposterous length of the voytheir toil in California are worthy of age is a minor evil in comparison with being enabled to communicate cheaply the anxiety which haunted this comwith their friends at home. Our own munity for weeks in the case of the last postal authorities, however, appear

two steamers. We were almost on the disposed to treat that colony, which is point of giving up the Adelaide' for lost, similarly promoting the commerce of when the lumbering old hulk was re

ported at last to have rolled into AdeGreat Britain, rather as an unreason


The mischiefs inflicted ably intruding suppliant than an im

upon the mercantile community here, by portant community asking for what is the detention of the 'Adelaide,' and the fairly due to them. Our colonists feel fears for her safety, have been intolerable. deeply the injustice of their position, Mails have been postponed-goods have that, whilst a portion of the colonial arrived before the advices or bills of revenue is contributed to the Home lading had come to hand-correspondGovernment, to be expended in secur

ence has been confused, and business ing steam facilities for their mails, the

transactions have been utterly deranged. object for which they are paying is

It is most provoking to think that a not accomplished.

steamer holding the Government mail

contract, and for which the mails have We feel perfectly assured that we

been kept back for several weeks, should never shall bave an effective postal leave London on the 11th of December, communication with Australia, until and arrive in Port Philip on the 1lth of we cease to regard that important May following--a period of five months colony as a mere calling-station for precisely ! " our East Indian mails. Its increasing Undoubtedly the Company must commerce with the mother country have mismanaged its business, and its demands that it should have a mail ser- vessels been unfit for the service. vice distinctly its own, conducted with But it is the opinion of all nautical no other view than to promote the con- men, that mails, conveyed in even venience of that commerce, and of the most superior steamers by way of the people of the colony. How then the Cape of Good Hope, can never is this to be provided most economi- be depended upon either for speed or cally, and, at the same time, most regularity. The most efficient mode effectively? The latter is the main which we have seen proposed for question. We ought scarcely to think performing the service, is that of the about cost in the effort to improve Australian Direct Steam Navigation the postal facilities of a possession Company via Panama. It is intended which, we have seen, took from us that this Company's vessels, which last year upwards of fourteen millions are to be powerful paddle - wheel sterling of British produce and manu- steamers of 3000 tons, shall proceed factures. Past experience has, we at stated periods from Milford Haven think, shown sufficiently that the ob- to Aspinwall (Navy Bay), on the Atject in view can never be obtained by lantic side of the Isthmus ; from steaming round the Cape of Good whence passengers and cargo will be Hope. The shortest passages as yet conveyed by railway to Panama, on attained by that route were per- the Pacific side, and there re-emformed by the “Golden Age" in 61 barked for Australia, accomplishing days, and by the “Argo " in 64 the whole distance, to or from, in days. The noble steam-ship“ Great about fifty-five days. That the power Britain," in the last trip made the of fultilling this promise is within the distance to Melbourne in 65 days. reach of an energetic Company, has The Australian Steam Navigation recently been proved by the experiCompany, which promised so largely, ment made by the United States failed most unequivocally. The first steamer, “Golden Age." America, by of their ships, the “ Australian," took the by, is still our pioneer in steam 44 days to reach the Cape; the enterprise.

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“ The Golden Age :-(we quote from counter calms, and can derive no aid an ably-conducted Liverpool paper, the from carrying canvass. The loss of Journal)--steaming only slowly, and that aid is a serious matter to screw under unfavourable circumstances, made

steamers, in a voyage where economy the run from Sydney to Tahiti in 134 in the article of fuel is so desirable. days, and from Tahiti to Panama in 18 From Great Britain to Navy Bay, on days 12 hours. A more powerful vessel would have performed the distances in

the other hand, is usually a run in about 11 and 15 days respectively, and

which canvass can be advantageously surmounted effectually the only difficulty used, whilst the run from Panama to to be experienced in crossing the Pacific, Australia is through pleasant weather namely, carrying coals sufficient for the for the entire distance, the Pacific fully voyage from station to station. The de- justifying the propriety of its appellatention, which in this case was nearly tion. 15 days between Sydney and Southamp

Of course, a company working the ton, might be shortened to about 4 days, Panama route effectively, with supeby proper arrangements being made

rior vessels, and carrying regular for prompt despatch ; and the voyage

mails, must be subsidised by the Britwould thus be performed in from 50 to 53

ish Government. Our colonists themdays."

selves would gladly lend their aid by A portion of the journey across grants out of their own public revenue. the Isthmus, we may remark, was In fact, the province of New South performed on mules, only thirty-one Wales has recently advertised its miles of the railway being as yet willingness to give a bonus of £6000 completed. The whole line, however, sterling to any company which will is expected to be opened in the bring the postal distance between course of the present year.

England and Melbourne to sixty Many circumstances concur to ren- days each way. The Australian Dider the Panama route infinitely pre- rect Company, however, anticipate a ferable to any other. In the first good profit on their undertaking, irreplace, the shortest distance has to spective of remuneration in the form be traversed. From Milford Haven to of a subsidy for carrying the mails, as Sydney by this route is only 12,440 will be perceived from the following miles, the whole of which, with the extract from their prospectus, pubexception of 45 miles, is by sea. By lished last year :the present Peninsular and Oriental Company's route, via Swan River and

“It is thought unnecessary to dwell on Cape Leeuwin, from Southampton the the great extension of general traffic distance is 12,855 miles, of which 238 wherever proper facilities of intercourse have to be performed between Alex. by steam have been afforded : it may, andria and Suez by canal, by the Nile, however, be briefly stated, that the proand across the desert. By the same

duce of gold during the year 1852, in the Company's route via Torres Straits, colony of Victoria alone, amounted to the distance is 13,095 miles, with the

over £18,000,000, with every prospect of

a continuous increase, exclusive of the same overland journey to make from Alexandria to Suez. We can only get forms a large addition to this vast amount;

produce of New South Wales, which our mails from Australia by either of that, during the months January, Februthese routes in sixty days, by the ary, March, and April last, the specie very costly express from Marseilles. transmitted across the Isthmus-from The General Screw Company's route, Peru and Chili, from the western coast by way of the Cape of Good Hope, of Mexico, and from California--amountMadras, and Point de Galle, is ed to 20,410,796 dollars, exceeding enormously circuitous; and the same £4,000,000 sterling,—and that the pasCompany's new route, without touch- senger traffic, by the same route and for ing at the Cape, is 12,837 miles.

the same period, amounted to 10,568 There is another serious disadvantage by the San Juan de Nicaragua line. It

persons, irrespective of those conveyed connected with the eastward voyage. may be, moreover, observed that this exFrom the Cape to Australia the

tent of traffic, however great, affords no weather is generally boisterous, with adequate idea of the vast trade which variable winds; and in passing the will arise to feed this line, when in full equinoctial line, ships have to en- operation,-with all the important advan

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tages of a completed railway, and of a possible. The present charges are systematic conduct of business.

preposterously high. A letter by a Large additions to this vast traffic sailing ship, which may be from ninety must necessarily flow from the increas- to one hundred days on the passage, ing intercourse between North America

costs eightpence, if under half an and the Australian colonies, facilitated as such intercourse is by the powerful

ounce. By steam and overland mail, lines of steamers already established be- it is from a shilling to twentypence, tween the United States and the Isthmus

if under a quarter of an ounce in of Panama in the North Atlantic, and weight, for what to a man, whose between California and Panama in the caligraphy is not of a diminutive North Pacific. The augmented line of order, or who cannot command “bank" steamers, also, employed by the Pacific or“ foreign post” paper, must be only Steam Navigation Company between Val- half a letter. Cheap postage for the paraiso and Panama, must considerably newly settled population of Australia, swell the stream. These great results and for their friends in this country, stand in perfect independence of a line projected, which will in all probability, tious mails are to the mercantile com

is as essential as regular and expediat no distant period, connect California and China ; and likewise of traffic, the

munities in both countries. We must natural result of conveyance of passengers remark, too, that newspapers and and valuable merchandise diverted from

trade circulars are as much required old and circuitous routes.

to be conveyed expeditiously as mer“ The Directors derive great encourage- cantile letters. By the last overland ment from the knowledge that the objects mail a fortunate few received desof this Company are favoured with the patches via Marseilles in sixty days. high approval of British merchants in

The bulk of the mail, consisting of general. Many of the most eminent London houses have strongly expressed their

newspapers and letters from emi

grants, &c., was not delivered until approbation ; and the following docu

the arrival of the steamer at Southment fully attests the spirit in which the enterprise is regarded by several influ- ampton, nearly seventy days from ential and distinguished Manchester firms:

her leaving the colony. We, the undersigned, being desirous We have certainly little hope of of encouraging the establishment of a our Government doing much to deline of first-class steam-packets, offer- velop the resources of Australia. The ing increased facilities and advantages Post-Office authorities may, indeed, for the transit of passengers and goods to be induced to concede to the colony, and from Australia and the different im- and to the mercantile community of portant States in the Pacific Ocean, and

this country, a direct mail communibeing deeply impressed with the advantages of the route by the way of the indeed, almost certainty-that if they

cation via Panama, by the prospectIsthmus of Panama, since the establishment of the railroad at that place con

fail in the performance of their duty, necting the two oceans,—hereby signify the United States Government will our approval of the projected British and do it for them. The experiment Australian Direct Screw Steam Packet made by the American steam-ship Company, for the purpose of carrying “ Golden Age" is said to have been, out the line of communication to those commercially, an unprofitable one. parts in the most efficient manner. But the application of steam power (Signed)-R. GLADSTOKE & Co., HOR- to the performance of long voyages is ROCKS, JACKSON & Co., ROBERT Smitu & Co., ROBERT GARDNER, Samuel MENDEL,

even as yet in its infancy. The chief RoBt. BARBOUR & BROTHERS, John Pen

difficulty hitherto experienced in makDER & Co., GEORGE FRASER, Son, & Co.,

ing short and regular passages to a Henry B. JACKSON, R. I. FARBRIDGE &

distant port has been the large quanCo., B. LIEBERT, PRESCOTT, Brothers, & tity of coals required to be carried, Co., Thos. CARDWELL & Co., Oswald

which diminishes the power of carrySTEVENSON & Co., J. A. TURNER & Co.'" ing cargo in our mail steamers. It

is estimated that our Cunard ComIt is most desirable that whatever pany's and the Collins' boats would line is selected for conveying the mails have to diminish their speed, and to should be as far as possible remunera- forfeit some of their character for retive, in order to enable Government gularity in the transmission of mails to fix the rates of postage as low as to and from America, were the two

countries a thousand miles farther interest in the borough-Beverleyapart. But at the present time an which Mr Lawley represented, and improvement is making in the ma- had also a son, who was ambitious of chinery of one of the boats of the parliamentary honours. Mr Lawley latter Company by her owners in the was appointed Lieutenant-Governor United States, which, it is stated, is of South Australia ; vacated his seat likely to economise very materially for Beverley; and Lord Aberdeen's her consumption of fuel

, the saving son was elected to fill his place. We by which may either be applied to only mention this as a curious coinincreasing her speed or her carrying cidence. But Mr Lawley had some capabilities. The same improvement sense of honour in his breast, as becan be adopted in our Australian

came a young man of his rank and steamers. But from the Colonial birth, or he may have had merely a Office we expect literally nothing. correct appreciation of "the fitness The treatment of Australia by that of things." Subsequently to his illOffice has been, from first to last, success upon the Turf-it is not said most neglectful; and even since the whether or not during his tenure of gold discoveries, and the recognition his confidential office under the Chanby all thinking men of the vast im- cellor of the Exchequer – he had portance which the colony has as- speculated on the Stock Exchangesumed as a feeder of the commerce and lost. His resolution-taken, no of England, our statesmen have doubt, after a due examination of the appeared incapable of appreciating state of his affairs — was promptly its claims to their consideration. À notified to the Government. He reglaring instance of this perverse or signed the office to which he had ignorant blindness has recently oc- been appointed ; and the colony was curred in the filling up of the office of spared the infliction of a Lieutenant Lieutenant-Governor of South Aus- Governor in whom the propensity tralia. The first party appointed for gambling was so strongly devewas Mr Stonor, an Irish member, of loped, and whose favourite sphere of no great mark in Parliament or else- action would probably have been where. This gentleman duly sailed upon the race-course of Adelaide. for the colony, but was shortly after What may be the effect upon the his departure unseated for bribery. minds of the population of this treatSuch was the grossness of the ment of South Australia by the Cocharges against him, brought to light lonial Office we are not to foretell. It by a parliamentary inquiry, that the cannot, however, advance that Office Colonial Office were compelled to in their estimation. despatch his recall. Another Lieuten- Failing the hope of efficient Govant-Governor was to be appointed; ernment aid to the growth of the and the choice fell upon the Hon. Australian colonies—as we think it F. Lawley, M.P. for Beverley. Mr will fail-those colonies bave within Lawley's claims to hold an appoint- their reach the means of aiding themment, so important at the present selves in one vitaliy important matter crisis in a country which eminently the securing of a larger supply of requires the supervising of a practical labour. The funds accruing from the statesman, experienced in the manage- sale of lands in the colony have, for ment of colonial affairs, are not easy to some years past, been devoted to the discover. He was a young man-young purpose of assisting the emigration of at least in public life-twenty-eight useful classes of labourers — princiyears of age; had passed rather a pally agricultural — to the various distinguished course at the university, colonies ; the business being managed and had held for a few months the in this country by the Colonial Land situation of private secretary to the and Emigration Commissioners. Of Chancellor of the Exchequer ; but he course, a crotchety management was was chiefly known to the public as a to be anticipated from such a body, runner of race-horses, and a rather composed of parties utterly unversed unsuccessful speculator on the Turf. in the business. We believe it will The noble Lord at the head of the be found by the colonists that the Administration, it appears, had some management has not only been crotch

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