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to bring into practical use the voyages and absorb more labour than would of Cook, Vancouver, and other cir- yield a paying return, in comparison cumnavigators of the globe, whose with the ordinary pursuits of inachievements during the past cen- dustry. But each fresh arrival from tury had hitherto been regarded as the colony showed the fallacy of interesting only in a geographical these anticipations and prophecies. point of view. Here, again, it was Gold continued to be picked up in an all-wise Providence which directed abundance, sufficient to remunerate our path. On the 6th May 1851, it every person engaged in its search, was first announced that gold had although the number of the searchers been discovered in our convict settle- had been multiplied twenty-fold ; and ment of New South Wales. The a vast emigration began to flow from news spread like wildfire throughout this and other countries towards the colony; and in a very short the new El Dorado. In 1851—the space of time there were upwards of year when the discovery was first four thousand “ diggers” at Ophir, made-there were despatched from near Bathurst, where the discovery the United Kingdom alone 272 ships, was first made, whose success fully with an aggregate tonnage of 145,164 equalled that of the early adven- tons, having on board 21,532 pasturers at the Californian mines. sengers. In 1852, the number of Additional gold - fields were found ships despatched was 568, with an shortly afterwards both in New aggregate tonnage of 335,717 tons, South Wales and the province of having on board 87,881 passengers. Victoria ; and before the end of July When using this term, by the by, it the arrivals of gold at Sydney, ought to be borne in mind that adult Geelong, and Melbourne were suffi- passengers are meant, children of ciently abundant to create a perfect tender years being counted as nothing, revolution in the labour market, not whilst of young persons under fouronly in those towns, but in the teen years of age, two are counted agricultural districts of the entire as a passenger. The emigration of colony of Australia. The ordinary 1852 would thus be at least a pursuits of the population were every- hundred thousand souls. During the where abandoned. Men of all classes, past year the number of ships descapable of wielding a pick or a spade, patched was 1201, with an aggreand many to whom such instruments gate tonnage of 553,088 tons, being had been previously unknown, were an increase on the year of 633 vessels seen abandoning their farms, their and 217,371 tons over the amount shops, or their counting-houses, to of 1852. We have not before us swell the throng which rushed forth accurate data for determining the from every quarter to prospect' precise number of passengers taken for gold in the gullies and creeks out by them ; but it would certainly whose appearance or geological for- be equal to that of the corresponding mation promised a yield of the period of the previous year. Great precious metal. At the first an- Britain, however, was not the only nouncement of so startling a dis- country which was adding to the covery, a large portion of the public population of Australia. The United in this country were indisposed to States of America were sending us credit it. Would-be-wise people practised gold-diggers from Califorshook their heads, and hinted that a nia, which shortly began to be remania had seized upon the Austra- garded as affording a less profitlian colonists, which in its issue must able field for their labour. Germany be productive of their utter ruin. had begun to pour forth her emigrant We had black pictures painted of classes to the colony; and even China the effect of a neglected agriculture; was joining in the movement. In the and some wiser people than their summary of the Melbourne Argus, fellows-journalists and statisticians written for the mail of the 25th March, -indulged in laboured arguments to we find the following statement: “ In show that picking up nuggets the course of the last month several or dust must in a very short period separate ship-loads of Chinese have become an unprofitable avocation, landed on our shores. . . Numbers

1854 :


of these people, strangers as they are the winter sets in,' they say, 'we to our customs and religion, have been shall have the diggers back.' Simisought for and engaged at good wages lar migrations are continually occurby employers, with whom they can ring; and hence it is most difficult to only communicate by signs. They arrive at the actual population of any have shown themselves, on the whole, particular province or district. It is one of the most inoffensive races of most probable, indeed, that the the motley group who seek our golden numbers of souls in the entire colony land; and a colony of them, that have are considerably understated. This, been for some time established at the we think, will be apparent when we diggings, are remarkable for the come to examine the consuming quietness of their demeanour, and

the powers of Australia, as tested by its propriety of their behaviour.” The imports. From a return, moved for in growth of the colony is, however, best the House of Commons by Mr Archishown by comparing the aggregate bald Hastie, and ordered to be printed number of the population now, with on the 1st of May last, the following what it was at the period when gold were the exports from the United was first discovered. In the com- Kingdom to the colony in each of the mencement of 1851, it was ascertain- three years ending the 5th January ed that the province of Victoria, which contains the most productive

Declared value exported. mines, was 77,360. The same journal

£2,807,356 from which we have quoted estimates 1852,

4,222,205 it to be now 250,000; and adds, that


14,506,532. it is being increased by the arrival of There is certainly evidence here, about 1000 immigrants per week. It either of a most wasteful consumption, is doubtful whether the other pro

or of the existence of a population vinces-New South Wales and South and West Australia—are progressing to be. But this return does not con

greater than it is generally supposed at the same rate. The “ diggers" are a migratory race. The report vey the full extent of that consump

tion. From what appears to be a of a new á find” attracts them from all directions. In February last, the carefully compiled statement in the

Melbourne Argus of the 25th of March Tarrengower gold-field was opened last, the imports into the province of out, and discovered to be most pro- Victoria alone, in 1853, amounted to ductive; and the following is a description of the state of things which ceived from the following countries:

the enormous sum of £15,842,637, refollowed, from one who had visited the locality : “ In leaving Bendigo, Great Britain,

£8,288,226 the comparatively deserted state of West Indies (British), 14,973 the diggings along Kangaroo Flat, in North America (British), 13,560

Other British colonies, 5,036,311 Adelaide Gully, and the Robinson

United States of America, 1,668,606 Crusoe, is very apparent. The vast

820,961 extent of the yellow mounds, where

Foreign States, so much bustle and activity formerly Total Imports, £15,842,637 prevailed, is now in many cases unenlivened by the presence even of a If the same proportionate amount solitary digger. The want of water, has been taken by the other proin the first instance, but chiefly the vinces from colonial and foreign attractions of Tarrengower, have al- markets, the total imports for the most depopulated this portion of the year would reach the vast amount of Bendigo. . Many stores have been twenty-three millions sterling! removed, and a large number are It is certainly true that, with reclosed up for the present; yet there spect to many articles, these imports is a vitality about the place which have been in excess of the requireshows that the glory has not alto- ments of the colony. Its markets gether departed. Some business is have been drugged with Manchester being done, and those who still re- goods, with hardware, and slops, or main have infinite faith in the recu- haberdashery,” as our parliamenperative energies of Bendigo. “When tary returns rather absurdly call hats, shoes, boots, ready-made clothing, &c. British colonies," and £1,668,606 Serious losses will have to be en- from the United States of America. countered by those parties who are Our East Indian markets, no doubt, unable to hold over their consign- supplied the former amount, and the ments, and in part from the want of bulk of the latter crossed the Pacific storage-room. But this state of things from California. On the 27th July is merely temporary, and applies to we had a regular mail by the overland articles which are not strictly neces- route, via India and the Mediterrasaries. The arrival of the overland Dean, bringing advices up to the 29th mail, with dates to the end of May, May, which confirmed those brought brings us the assurance that business by the “Golden Age." It is clear is improving, as indeed might have that a country, which takes from the been expected in a country whose United Kingdom upwards of fourteen population increases at the rate of a millions sterling per annum, ought to thousand persons a-week, each of have permanently established for it a whom is, on landing upon its shores, postal communication as rapid as posplaced at once in possession of an sible. It is unreasonable and suicidal income never previously enjoyed. to torture a great mercantile nation We have the material fact, too, before with a system, or arrangements, which us, establishing the capability of the leave us for four months consecutively Australian colonist to consume largely without advices of the wants of one the products of foreign industry, that of our most valuable customers, and during the past year the province of exchange of sentiments with nearly Victoria exported to the amount of half a million of our own fellow-coun£11,061,543, of which £8,644,529 trymen. Before concluding our rewas gold, and £1,651,543 was wool. marks, we shall endeavour to point The difference between the amount out how such improved postal comof imports and exports may be ac- munication can be best established. counted for without concluding that Returning to the immediate questhe population has been running itself tion of the increase of population in into debt beyond their means of pay- Australia, and its probable future ing it with tolerable promptitude. rate, we may state, unhesitatingly, We may reasonably hope, too, that that it must be vastly beyond what is one of the causes of such excessive generally anticipated. In fact, the importations as those of last year will increase is self-creative—"vires acshortly be removed. We have had quirit eundo.” Every newly-arrived thus far no efficient and regular mail. immigrant, who purchases land from communication with the colony. Up the colonial government, and every to the 20th of July, our latest advices digger who pays for a gold license, from Melbourne were dated the 25th becomes, in so doing, an importer of March; and it was to American of labour. Writing on the 25th of enterprise that we were indebted for March last, The Melbourne Argus intelligence up to May 11, brought says :by the steamer “Golden Age" to Panama, and thence by the West India

“ The following is a statement of the Company's boats to Southampton.

arrivals and departures of passengers by

sea since our last summary : Close upon four months had thus elapsed, during which our merchants

Arrived. Departed. had been operating in the dark, mak- Week ending Jan. 28, 2,619 739 ing shipments to a colony the con

Feb. 4, 1,561 632 suming powers of which had not been

11, 970 512 fairly tested, and which might, for

1,475 557 anything we knew, have supplied its

25, 1,438


Mar. 4, 1,576 434 wants from the nearer markets of In

11, 1,336

670 dia and China, or taken a portion of

1,494 332 the surplus shipments to California. It is clear that such has been the case.

12,469 4,483 We have shown above, that of the

4,483 total imports into Victoria in 1853, £5,036,311 were derived from “other Increase to population, 7,986


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“ In the same number of weeks pre- going away in quest of gold, reported viously, as stated in our last summary, to exist, in more than Australian the increase was 6281. The immigration abundance, elsewhere. For example, is, therefore, again on the increase. It is

there has been recently a rumour of now proceeding at the rate of about 1000

the Peruvian mines reassuming their per week; but we ought not to omit mentioning, that a very large increase over

original fertility; and we observe, in this may be speedily expected. We latelyments of numerous ships about to sail

recent Australian papers, announcestated, on the authority of public documents, that our land-fund available for with passengers for Callao, on the promoting emigration from the United west coast of South America, in the Kingdom amounted in the last quarter to neighbourhood of which port it is said upwards of £250,000, and if that rate is that gold has been recently discovermaintained during the present year, at ed in large quantities. The real gold, the cost of £6000 per ship, as estimated however, will most assuredly be Peby the Land and Emigration Commission ruvian guano, with which such ships ers, and an average of little more than

will load for this country and the 400 persons to each ship, there will be a fund 'sufficient to convey free to these

United States. Such re-emigration shores no less than 70,000 souls in one

is natural amongst a population like year. This, of course, is altogether inde that of Australia, and will continue pendent of the emigration of

for a while. But the arrivals in the

persons paying their own passages, which, we have colony are becoming more and more noticed, always increases with an in. composed of the class likely to be setcreased Government emigration. Within tlers. The Germans have been lately the last few weeks we have been invaded extensive purchasers of land, and are by what seems likely to be the advanced habitués in the colony. A report of guard of a large army of Chinese. Seve

a Hamburg society gives the followral ships have arrived crowded with Chi

ing as the German population in nese passengers, and many more are re

1852 : ported to be on their way. The same spirit of enterprise is doubtless gradually

New South Wales,

13,500 extending itself amongst the people of

South Australia,

8,000 other countries; and the natural effects Victoria,

1,320 will be exhibited in the inflow of a vast wave of population, to a colony which

24,820 affords such a field to the labouring man The German emigration to Austraas is presented in no other country upon lia last year will have greatly swelled earth.”

these numbers ; and the description It may appear singular that there of emigrants from that country may should be so large a number of de- be estimated from the fact that, of partures as 4483 to set against 12,469 nearly 6000 persons who applied to arrivals. We have already remarked, the Berlin Emigration Society in however, that the gold-diggers are 1852 for advice and assistance, 4444 migratory in their habits. Many of possessed property amounting in the them, who have amassed a few thou. whole to 977,635 dollars, or, upon sand pounds, return to their own an average, 218 dollars (£32, 14s.) countries to settle. The state of so- per head.* We have also yet to ciety in Australia is not such at pre- experience the effect which will be sent as to attach parties to the colony. produced by remittances home by There is unfortunately there a want emigrants for the purpose of enof home comforts. The wealth in the abling their friends to join them in colony, suddenly acquired, is in the the colony. The impetus given to hands of people unprepared, by edu- the eflux of population from Ireland cation or early pursuits, for spending by such remittances was strikingly it in a sensible manner, or invest- shown by the Colonial Land and ing it profitably. Many are coming Emigration Commissioners in their thence only for a season, as visitors Report of last year. The remittances to their native land, or to return with from the United States, as relatives and friends; and some are tained through leading mercantile and


* Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners' Report, 1853.


banking firms, were as follows in the the childish efforts of sach parliayears mentioned :

mentary committees as that of which

Mr John O'Connell was recently 1848


the chairman, to prevent its supply: 1849


Notwithstanding its vast agricultural 1850

957,000 1851


resources, the demand for their de1852


velopment created by a rapidly ang

menting population, and the ample, We observe at present that several and, in fact, extravagant remuneraof the leading emigration firms in tion afforded in the colony for every London and Liverpool are making description of industry, the entire arrangements in Australia for the world, whose attention has been for purpose of enabling settlers to pay the last two years attracted by its the passage of their friends out to the display of wealth, and which is ascolony.

sured of the genuine and permanent Independently of the attractions character of its claims to notice, apoffered by the gold-fields, of remit- pears unable to supply labour in suftances from friends in Australia, or ficient abundance. "Whether we turn of Government aid, there is abundant to its imports or its exports, furnished certainty that emigration to that us in the valuable report moved for colony must increase very rapidly. by Mr Hastie, the great want of laIn fact, scarcity of shipping is the bour forces itself upon us. We shall only bar to it which is likely to be take at random a few of the articles felt. There is a positive want of exported from Great Britain to the labour in Australia, which mocks at colony during the past three years :

1851. 1852
Apparel, Slops, and Haberdashery, £591,516 £959,687 £3,633,908
Beer and Ale,

135,674 245,657 635,870
Butter and Cheese,

4,142 50,583 207,094 Soap and Candles,

14,812 45,924 121,774 The last two items certainly would wanting in a country whose live stock not occupy a place in the list of our are so abundant that they have acexports to Australia if that fine tually to be boiled down for their agricultural country had even a mo- tallow and hides ! Our imports from derate supply of labour. The ano- Australia, however, exhibit most maly is monstrous that butter and strongly its deficient supply of labour. cheese, soap and candles, should be We select a few items


1853. Regulus of Copper, tons,

1,115 660

Unwrought Copper, ,


Flax, undressed, cwt.


Hides, tanned or dressed, lb. . 931,600 642,198 9,842
Oil, Spermaceti, tuns,

1,911 1,609

940 Tallow, cwt. .

174,471 159,333 125,206 The above articles the colony can be more largely developed than at supply to almost any extent; yet it present ; for if, almost exclusively will be observed that their export is by the produce of her gold-fields, her falling off every year. Its mines of population of little, if at all, over copper, especially, are amongst the half a million souls can afford to imrichest in the world ; yet they are port our productions to the amount comparatively unworked for the want of above fourteen millions sterling per of hands, whilst the world holds so annum, what may be expected when it many human beings who would becomes enabled to export freely the gladly toil for one-fourth of the remu- raw material, the agricultural proneration wbich Australia could s0ducts, and the valuable minerals well afford them. To the people of copper, tin, &c.—which its soil will Great Britain it is a very material yield to an extent almost beyond the object that the agricultural and min. power of calculation ? eral resources of the colony should We have already stated that the


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