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ambitious Czar into his present ag- full-blood " white slaves," and at the gression; for he felt that now or never same time providing able and fiery was the time to interfere, if he did not leaders for the oppressed Negro race wish to see a Turko-Greek state esta- in the event of an insurrection and blish itself in such strength as to bid servile war. defiance to his power. We may add, But the great variety of countethat, whatever be the issue of the pre- nance and temperament in Western sent contest, it must tend to a further and Southern Europe is not due mereand higher development of the Turk, ly to actual crossings of the commin. ish character. The contagion of gling races. Civilisation itself is the Western ideas, disseminated in the parent of variety. The progress of most imposing of ways by the presence humanity produces physical effects of the armies of England and France, upon the race, which may be classed cannot fail to impress itself on the under two heads, one of these being slumbrous but awakening Ottomans, & general physical improvement, and and not only expand their stereotyped the other increasing variety. Take civilisation into a wider and freer an undeveloped race like the Tartars form, but possibly to strike also from or Negroes, and you will find the their religion the more faulty and aspect and mental character of the obstructive of its tenets.

nation nearly homogeneous,—the difSuch are the elements of the pre- ferences existing amongst its indivisent population of Europe,--a popula- dual members being comparatively tion which, in its western and south- trivial. Pass to the Slavonians, and ern portions, no longer presents dis- you will perceive this uniformity lesstinct masses of diverse tribes, and ened ; and when you reach the nawhose various sections every century tions of Western Europe, you will is drawing into closer contact. The find the transition accomplished, and progress of commerce and civilisation homogeneity exchanged for variety. produces not only an interchange of The explanation of this is obvious. products of various climes, and of Just as all plants of the same species, ideas between the various races of when in embryo, are nearly alike, unmankind, but also a commingling of developed races of mankind present blood; and as the most nobly de- but few signs of spiritual life; and veloped races are always the great therefore their individual members wanderers and conquerors, it will be greatly resemble one another, - beseen that the progress of the world cause the fewer the characteristics, ever tends to improve the types of the less room is there for variety, and mankind by infusing the blood of the the more radical and therefore more superior races into the veins of the universal must be the characteristics inferior. The settlements of the Nor- themselves. Pebbles, as they lie mans are an instance of this. And a rough upon the sea-shore, may prestill more remarkable, though excep- sent a great uniformity of appearance; tional, exemplification of the same but take and polish them, and a hunthing may at present be witnessed in dred diversities of colour and marking America-where the Negroes, trans- forthwith show themselves;—even so ported from their native clime, have does civilisation and growth develop already become a mixed race, owing the rich varieties of human nature. to the relation in which all female As these mental varieties spring up slaves stand to their masters, and the within, they ever seek to develop themconsequent frequent crossing of the selves by corresponding varieties in European blood with the blood of the outer life,-placing men now in Africa. In point of fact, there are riches, now in poverty, now under the slaves to be found in the Southern sway of the intellect, now of the pasStates, who, like “ George" in Uncle sions, now of good principles, now of Tom's Cabin, are as Caucasian in bad, and moreover leading to an infi. their features and intellect as their nite diversity of external occupation. masters,-a circumstance fraught with The joint influence of the feelings considerable danger to the White caste within, and of the corresponding cirin these States, because producing the cumstances without, in course of time extremest irritation in these nearly comes to affect the physical frame,


often in a very marked manner; and, viated from the colour of the Celts in indeed, it is well known that even so the time of Strabo, who declares that subtle a thing as the predominant the Britons are taller than the Gauls, thoughts and sentiments of an indivi- and less yellow-haired, and more indual are almost always reflected in firm and relaxed in their bodies.” The the aspect of his countenance. Na- Germans have also varied in their tions, when in a primitive uncultured complexion. The ancient Germans state, differ as widely from those at the are said to have had universally yelapex of civilisation, as the monotonous low or red hair and blue eyes, -in countenance and one-phased mind of short, a strongly marked xanthous a peasant contrasts with the rich va constitution. This, says Niebuhr, riety of expression in the face of “has now, in most parts of Germany, genius, whose nature is quickly re- become uncommon. I can assert, sponsive to every influence, though from my own observation, that the often steadied into a masculine calm. Germans are now, in many parts of Let any one inspect the various classes their country, far from a light-haired of our metropolitan population, and

I have seen a considerable he will perceive an amount of phy- number of persons assembled in a large sical, mental, and occupational vari- room at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, and ety such as he will meet with no- observed that, except one or two where else in the world-presenting Englishmen, there was not an indivi. countenances deformed now by this dual among them who had not dark form of brutal passion, now by that, hair. The Chevalier Bunsen has asranging upwards to the noblest types sured me that he has often looked in of the human face, the joint product vain for the auburn or golden locks of easy circumstances and high men- and the light cerulean eyes of the old tal and spiritual culture. It is all the Germans, and never verified the picresult of civilisation, which ever tends ture given by the ancients of his to break up the uniformity of a popu- countrymen till he visited Scandinalation, and allows of its members ris- via,—there he found himself suring to the highest heights or sinking rounded by the Germans of Tacitus." to the lowest depths,-thus breaking In the towns of Germany, especially, the primitive monotony of life into its the people are far from being a redmanifold prismatic hues.

haired, or even a xanthous race; and, Not the least remarkable of the from the fact that this change has been physical changes thus produced by developed chiefly in towns, we may civilisation, is the diversity of com- infer that it depends in part on habits, plexion which it gradually affects. It and the way of living, and on food. appears certain, for example, that the Towns are much warmer and drier races who peopled the northern and than the country; but even the open western parts of Europe, subsequent country is much warmer and drier to the dark-skinned Iberians, were than the forests and morasses with all of the fair or xanthous style of which Germany was formerly covered. complexion ; but this is by no means The climate of Germany has, in fact, the case with the great mass of people changed since the country was cleared who are supposed to have descended of its vast forests ; and we must atfrom them. “ It seems unquestion. tribute the altered physical character able,” says Prichard, “ that the com- of the Germans to the altered condiplexion prevalent through the British tion under which the present inhabiİsles has greatly varied from that of tants live. all [?] the original tribes who are It was the conquests of Rome that known to have jointly constituted the first scattered the seeds of civilisation population. We have seen that the in Western Europe. There it has ancient Celtic tribes were a xanthous grown up into a stately and nearly race; such, likewise, were the Saxons, perfect fabric on the shores of the Danes, and Normans; the Caledo- Atlantic, gradually losing its perfecnians also, and the Gael, were fair tion as it proceeds eastwards, until it and yellow-haired. Not so the mixed reaches the semi-barbarism of Russia, descendants of all these blue-eyed and the still deeper barbarism of Uptribes. The Britons had already de- per Asia. Our limits hardly allow of

our inquiring what influence this civilisation is calculated to exert in future upon the ethnological condition of the Continent, although it is a question of great importance, as foreshadowing the chief changes which may be expected to result from the state of chronic strife upon which Europe has now entered. We can only remark that the grand action of progress and civilisation is to develop the mind, and so convert the units of society from a mass of automatons into thinking and self-directing agents, conscious of, and able to attain, alike their own rights and those of their nation. Hence follows the growth of liberty within; and, without, the gradual establishment of union between scattered sections of the same race. Supposing, then, that the progress of civilisation in Europe be unobstructed, we may calculate that wherever we now see internal despotism, there will be liberty, wherever we see foreign domination, there will be national freedom, and that, after a little more training in the stern school of suffering, the Continental nations, grown wiser, will make an end of the present arbitrary and unnatural territorial system of Europe, and arrange themselves in the more natural, grander, and permanent communities of race.

It was doubtless a perception of this truth that caused the French Emperor recently to declare that "the age of conquests is past." We regret to think, however, that the statement is somewhat premature,for Europe is still far from that happy climax of civilisation which in the preceding sentences we have indicated. Moreover, there are two very opposite periods in the life of nations when the race-principle reigns supreme, their first and their last;

just as, in the case of individuals, men often adopt in old age, from the dictates of experience, principles which in youth they had acted upon from instinct. Now, Europe at this day presents both of these phases of national life existing simultaneously, at its eastern and western extremities; and it seems probable that the development of the race-principle in its early form among the Slavonians, will take precedence of its development in maturity among the civilised races of the Continent. There is every indication that the Panslavism of Russia will precede the coalescing of the Teutonic tribes into a united Germany-or of the Romano-Gallic races of France, Spain, and Italy, into that trinity of confederate states which Lamartine so stoutly predicts. Nay, may not this Panslavism of Russia, by a short-lived political domination, be destined to prove the very means of exciting the ethnological affinities of the rest of Europe, and of thereby raising up an insuperable barrier to its own progress, as well as involuntarily launching the other nations on their true line of progress?

The fag-end of an article is little suitable for the discussion of such really momentous topics, and we especially regret that we cannot proceed to consider the effects which the progress of civilisation is likely to exert upon Russia itself. Any one, however, who is disposed to supply for himself the deductions from the above principles, will feel that his labour in so doing is not without its recompense, by establishing the consolatory truth that, so far as human eye can discern, "a good time coming" is yet in store for Europe, - though, alas, what turmoil must there be between this and then!


DISGUISE it as we may, conquest to the conquered must ever be a bitter draught.

It is impossible for nations to be entirely disinterested. The rewards of the victors cannot be reaped without trenching upon the rights of the vanquished.

Three centuries have gone by since Machiavelli wrote, yet still does the Italian mutter his words, "Ad ognuno puzza questo barbaro dominio ;" and all the material benefits which the peasantry of Lombardy often admit that they enjoy under their present masters, cannot abate the aversion of the people of that province to the Austrian rule.

There are more points of resemblance than we may like to confess between the position of Austria towards Italy, and that of England towards India. In both cases, the bulk of the conquered, especially the agricultural classes, have little to complain of, and are on the whole passively contented and reconciled to a yoke which, as far as they are concerned, presses, perhaps, but does not gall; in both cases, all of a higher order, all upon whom ambition can have any influence, must feel more or less discontented with a condition necessarily attended with a diminished chance of advancement, and a mortifying stagnation of hope. Both of the dominant powers ought to regard this frame of mind not as a fault, but

as a moral malady, and to direct their best efforts to the cure of an affection naturally resulting from the depressed position of those brought by conquest under their sway.

What the sanative measures of Austria may have been, and into the causes of their failure, we need not stop to inquire, but may proceed at once to consider in how far we have, in this respect, acquitted ourselves of our obligations to those over whom we also rule mainly by the right of conquest and superior strength.

Not being gifted, like many of our contemporaries, with power to take in the totality of the gorgeous East at one comprehensive glance, we must examine our Indian empire in detail, and for the present confine our remarks to the Presidency of Bengal, with its appendage the LieutenantGovernorship of Agra.

The guides whom we propose to follow in the prosecution of our inquiries into the state of these Gangetic provinces, their past and present condition, and their future prospects, are the authors enumerated at the foot of the page, each of whom may be regarded as a representative of one or other of the schools into which those interested in the work of Indian administration may now be said to be divided.

The history of our civil administration of the Gangetic portion of our Eastern territory divides itself into

What Good may come of the India Bill; or Notes of what has been, is, and may be, the Government of India. By FRANCIS HORSLEY ROBINSON.

Modern India. A Sketch of the System of Civil Government; to which is prefixed some Account of the Natives and Native Institutions. By GEORGE Campbell, Esq., Bengal Civil Service.

The Administration of the East India Company. A History of Indian Progress. By JOHN WILLIAM KAYE, Author of the "History of the War in Afghanistan."

Life in the Mission, the Camp, and the Zenana; or Six Years in India. By Mrs H. COLIN MACKENZIE.

Defects Civil and Military of the Indian Government. By Lieutenant-General Sir CHARLES JAMES NAPIER, G.C.B. Edited by Lieutenant-General Sir W. F. P. NAPIER, K.C.B.

How Wars arise in India. Observations on Mr Cobden's Pamphlet entitled "The Origin of the Burmese War." By JOHN CLARK MARSHMAN.

An Address to Parliament on the Duties of Great Britain to India in respect of the Education of the Natives and their Official Employment. By CHARLES HAY CAMERON, late Fourth Member of the Council of India, President of the Indian Law Commission, and President of the Council of Education for Bengal.



three distinct periods. The first, ex- or more literally, “Manners of the tending from the victories of Clive in Moderns." This history of the events 1757, to the commencement of Lord attending the downfall of the Moghul Cornwallis's system in 1793, may be and the rise of our own power in called the heroic and irregular; the India, was written by a Mahommesecond, dating from the year last men- dan gentleman, of the name of Mir tioned, and continuing till the acces. Gholan Hussein, whose descendants, sion of Lord William Bentinck in if we are not misinformed, continued 1829, may be designated the judicial under our rule to hold possession of and regular; and the third, stretching certain lands in the province of Behar, from that time to the present day, the since lost to them in a manner likely anti-judicial and progressive period. to be chronicled among the events of

During the first of these periods, it the third of the three historic periods is in vain to deny that gross abuses to which we bave alluded. prevailed, and that many acts of op- If even at this distance of time it pression were committed by those is painful to read the reproaches bevery individuals among our own stowed by the author on our internal countrymen, whose heroism in the field administration, it is still consolatory and sagacity in council were the sub- to find one, to whom neither partiality jects of admiration to such natives as nor flattery can be imputed, recording were brought into communication and his unfeigned admiration of the percontact with them.

sonal conduct of many of our countryA degree of intimacy thus subsisted men in those early days. between the European rulers and Of Warren Hastings the author natives of higher rank, such as, in writes with enthusiasm. He records these days, is only to be found where all of that great man's troubles with the native has been by education assi- his council; and gives, if we remember milated in some degree to the Eng. right-for we bave not been able to lishman.

find a complete translation of the It is stated by Mr F. H. Robinson, work in London - a circumstantial that men who had left India at that account of the duel with Francis, early period, could not believe those fought, according to English custom, who, in after years, told them of the with tummunchas (pistols), in a social estrangement prevailing in that bugishea (garden); and then after country, and of the reluctance evinced, narrating the complete dispersion of even by Mahommedans, to share a the factious opposition by which he repast with a Christian.

had been thwarted, he breaks out in a Engaged, as the English of those triumphant tone, with an exclamation early days were, in a struggle for politi- like the following: “Now did the cal existence, their deportment towards genius of Mr Hastings, like the sun natives of rank was influenced by the bursting through a cloud, beam forth often-felt necessity of winning them in all its splendour.” In describing over to their interests; and thus our an action fought in the vicinity of the national disposition to be contemptu- city of Patna, in the year 1760, the ously churlish towards those who native author dwells with delight upon differ from ourselves in language, the conduct of his friend Dr William complexion, and manner, was kept for Fullerton, who, in the midst of a rea while in abeyance. At that period, treat in the face of a victorious enemy, therefore, we find traces of friendly on an ammunition-cart breaking down, personal feeling subsisting between stopped unconcernedly, put it in order, Englishmen and natives, and express- and then bravely pursued his route, ed by the latter, even in the same and “it must be acknowledged," he breath with the most earnest protes- adds, " that this nation's presence of tations against the mal-administration miud, firmness of temper, and unof the country then in our hands. daunted bravery, are past all quesStriking instances of these conflicting tion." feelings are exbibited in that most In abatement of these praises, he curious work entitled Syar-ul Moo. adds the following reflections: "If, to tekherin, which may be translated so many military qualifications, they into a “ Review of Modern Times," knew how to join the art of govern

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