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long eye-lashes. "The men," he says, of their own features. There is some
among whom some are blonds,' or thing more than mere vanity in the fair, have noble countenances ; are of pleasure usually derived from looktall stature, with masculine and regu- ing into a mirror; for when the fealar features." They have preserved tures are in exact or nearly exact acsomething of the Dorians of ancient cordance with the desires of the framSparta.
ing Spirit within, there must always It would be erroneous, however, be a pleasure in the soul looking upon to conclude from this that Greek art its own likeness : even as it experiowed everything to the actual. The ences a similar delight when meeting type existed more or less imperfectly with a being of perfectly congenial nain the population, but Phidias and ture-in other words, its spiritual (as the Greek artists took and developed the other is its physical) likeness. it, by the aid of the imagination, into It is to be expected, cæteris paribus, that perfect phase of physical beauty that this pleasure will be most felt by which we justly term the beau-ideal. those who are gifted with much perA nation's beau-ideal is always the sonal beauty, and whose features are perfectionment of its own type. It is most perfect of their kind; for in their easy to see how this happens. In case there is more than ordinary barnations, as in individuals, the soul mony between the soul and its feshly moulds the body, so far as extrinsic envelope. Accordingly, no artist ever circumstances permit, into a form painted himself more than the beautiin accordance with its own ideas ful Raphael. And we could name an and desire; and accordingly, when- eminent individual, now no more, as ever a marked difference exists in the rarely gifted with physical beauty as physical aspect of two nations, there, with mental powers, to whom the also, we may expect to find a vari- contemplation of his portrait was alance in their beau-ideals. Not, as is most a passion. Some of our readers generally supposed, from the eye of may recognise the distinguished man each race becoming accustomed to the of whom we speak. No one less national features, but because these vain or more noble-hearted than features, are themselves an incarnation he, yet his painted likeness had and embodiment of the national mind, always a fascination for him. It is the soul which shapes the national is a curious thing," he used to say, features, not the national features that “how I like to look at my own pormould the æsthetic judgment of the trait.” Was it not because, in that soul. It is not association, therefore, beautifully developed form and counthat is the cause of the different bean- tenance, the spirit within had most ideals we behold in the world, but a successfully embodied its ideal, with psychical difference in the nations little or no hindrance from extrinsic which produce them,-a circumstance circumstances, and accordingly reno more remarkable than those moral joiced, though it knew not why, in the and intellectual diversities in virtue presence of its own likeness ? of which we see one race excelling in But to return to ethnography, and the exact sciences, another in the fine trace out the successive changes which arts, a third in military renown, and have taken place in the population of a fourth in pacific industry. We may Europe. As we have already observadduce, in curious illustration of this ed, the great ebb and flow of nations point, the well-known fact that Ra- was over by the Christian era. The phael and many other eminent artists population had become comparatively have repeatedly given their own like- dense, so that room could no more be Dess to the imaginary offspring of their made for tribes of new-comers—and art,—not real, but idealised likenesses. settled in their habits and occupations, How was this? From vanity? No, so as no longer to admit of their shiftcertainly; but because the ideal most ing or being driven to and fro like congenial to them, which they could waves over the land, as was the case most easily hold in their mind, and while they were in the nomadic state. which it gave them most pleasure to And as the nations became consolilinger over and beautify, was the dated, they began, however feebly at ideal constituted by the perfectionment first, to live a national existence, and
to put forth national efforts of self- was evidently a branch of them that defence against those who assailed Herodotus describes as peaceful, pasthem. On these various accounts, toral, and agricultural tribes located the system of conquest by displace- near the shores of the Black Sea. Inment, which marked the pre-historic stead of entering Europe via Asia and in a faint degree the early historic Minor and the southern borders of the times, was brought to an end,—the Euxine, as many of the Celticand Teuconquests of the Northmen being the tonic tribes did, they appear to have last examples of the kind ; and these taken the route by the north of the Casbeing hardly worthy of the name, as pian and Black Seas, and probably adthey were marked rather by the political vanced southwards into Europe on the predominance of the new-comers, and gradual and ultimately sudden subsidby an overlaying rather than by anyence of the waters of the inland sea displacement of the native population. which primevally stretched from the For all useful purposes, therefore, we Baltic eastwards to the Sea of Aral. may conceive that at the Christian This race, which now constitutes the era the various nations of Europe were largest ethnographical unit of populaarranged on the map very much as tion in Europe,numberiug nearly eighty they are now,-the only exceptions millions, has never yet been examined worth mentioning being the influx of in rigorous detail. The earliest and the Magyars and Turks, and the best developed of its tribes is the Polsouthward progress of several of the ish, which, though it has in recent Slavonian tribes through the old By- times been subjected by the Russozantine provinces into Greece. Slavons aided by the German powers,
* Had a Roman geographer of the days bas not yet lost its nationality; and of the Empire,” it has been well observed, it is probable that, in the course of * advanced in a straight line from the At the future, the mighty Slavonic race lantic to the Pacific, he would have tra- will get give rise to several distinct versed the exact succession of races that states. Both in features and complex. is to be met in the same route now. First, ion there is much diversity to be found he would have found the Celts occupying in the various tribes which it comas far as the Rhine ; thence, eastward to prises ; but, if we consider the im. the Vistula and Carpathian mountains, mense numbers of the race, and the he would have found Germans ; beyond different climes and temperatures un. them, and stretching away into Central der which they are located, it must Asia, he would have found the so-called Seythians, - race which, had he possess
be allowed that they are more homoed our information, he would have di geneous in character than any other vided into the two great branches of the people in Europe. The general type Slavonians or European Seythians, and of the Slavonians is thus described by the Tartars and Turks, or Asiatic Sey. M. Edwards :thians ; and finally, beyond these, he would have found Mongolian hordes orer
* The contour of the head, viewed in spreading Eastern Asia to the shores of front, approaches nearly to a square ; the the Pacific. These successive races or height surpasses a little the breadth ; the populations he would have found shading summit is sensibly flattened ; and the dioff into each other at their points of section of the jaw is horizontal. The juuetion. He would have remarked, length of the nose is less than the distance also, a general westward pressure of the
from its base to the chin ; it is almost whole mass, tending toward mutual rup- straight from the depression at its rootture and invasion, --she Mongolian press- that is to say, without any decided curing against the Tartars, the "Tartars against vature ; but, if appreciable, it is slightly the Slavonians, the Slavonians against the concave, so that the end has a tendency Germans, and the Germans against the to turn up ; the lower part is rather large, Celts,
and the extremity rounded. The eyes, Although the early history and mi- which are rather deep-set, are (unlike grations of the Slavonians are involved those of the Tartars) perfectly on the same in greater obscurity than that of either character, they are smaller than the pro
line ; and when they have any particular of the other two great branches of the portion of the head ought to indicate. European population, it is erroneous The eyebrows are thin, and very near the to suppose that they are a recent ac- eyes, particularly at the internal angle ; cossion out of the depths of Asia. It and from this point are often (like those of the Tartars] directed obliquely out- delphia, on the curious diversities of wards. The mouth, which is not salient, complexion so remarkably observable has thin lips, and is much nearer to the among the Hebrew race :nose than to the tip of the chin. Another singular characteristic may be added, and “ In respect to the true Jewish comwhich is very general, viz., their small plexion, it is fair ; which is proved by the beard, except on the upper lip [a trait variety of the people I have seen, from connecting them with the peoples of Up- Persia, Russia, Palestine, and Africa, per Asia). Such is the common type not to mention those of Europe and Ameamong the Poles, Alesians, Moravians, rica, the latter of whom are identical with Bohemians, Slavonic Hungarians, and is the Europeans, like all other white inhavery common among the Russians.”
bitants of this continent. All Jews that ever
I have beheld are identical in features ; Having thus briefly and imperfectly though the colour of their skin and eyes glanced at the ethnographical features differs materially, inasmuch as the Southof Europe prior to the Christian era, ern are nearly all black-eyed, and some. we come now to note, equally briefly, what sallow, while the Northern are the accession of foreign elements which blue-eyed, in a great measure, and of a the Continent has received subsequent- fair and clear complexion. In this they ly to that period. The first of these is assimilate to all Caucasians, when transthe memorable one of the Jews. Un- ported for a number of generations into like the other incomers, they came not
various climates. Though I am free to
admit that the dark and hazel eye and as conquerors, nor in a mass—but as isolated exiles, seeking new homes tawny skin are oftener met with among
the Germanic Jews than among the Gerwhere they might be suffered to pre
man natives proper. There are also redserve their religion and gain a liveli- haired and white-haired Jews, as well as hood. A military race when in the other people, and perhaps of as great a land of their fathers, in Europe they proportion. I speak now of the Jews developed only that other feature of north-I am myself a native of Germany, their nation, the passion for money and among my own family I know of none making. In pursuit of this object they without blue eyes, brown hair (though have settled in every country of Eu- mine is black), and very fair skin-still i rope ; and, in spite of persecations in- recollect, when a boy, seeing many who numerable, continue to preserve to the contrary, eyes, hair, and skin of a
had not these characteristics, and had, on this day their religion and their na
more southern complexion. In America, tional features. Despite the warm
you will see all varieties of complexion, passions of the Hebrews, wbich, even from the very fair Canadian down to the when in their own land, repeatedly almost yellow of the West Indian - the led both the people and their princes latter, however, is solely the effect of exinto the contraction of sexual alliances posure to a deleterious climate for several with other nations, the Jewish blood on generations, which changes, I should the whole is still much purer than that judge, the texture of the hair and skin, of any other race—the foreign elements and thus leaves its mark on the constitufrom time to timemingled with it being tion-otherwise the Caucasian type is gradually thrown off by innumerable strongly developed ; but this is the case crossings and re-crossings with the from a German than a Portuguese stock.
more emphatically among those sprung native stock. At present there are
The latter was an original inhabitant of about two millions of Jews in Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, and whether it and in the rest of the world about a was preserved pure, or became mixed million and a half. The modern Jews, with Moorish blood in the process of cenwbile preserving the national features, turies, or whether the Germans contractpresent every variety of complexion ed an intimacy with Teutonic nations, save black—for the black Jews of Ma- and thus acquired a part of their national labar are not Jews at all, but the de- characteristics, it is impossible to be told scendants of apostate Hindoos. In
now. But one thing is certain, that, both regard to the matter of complexion, Judaism during the early ages, say from
in Spain and Germany, conversions to which varies so much with the climate the eighth to the thirteenth century, were and condition of the people, we shall by no means rare, or else the governments say something by-and-by; but we would not have so energetically prohibitshall here give some remarks of ed Jews from making proselytes of their Mr Leeser, a learned Jew of Phila- servants and others. I know not, indeed, whether there is any greater physical dis- have had an exodus ; both are exiles, crepancy between northern and southern and dispersed among the Gentiles, by Jews than between English families who whom they are hated and despised, continue in England or emigrate to Ala- and whom they hate and despise unbama-I rather judge there is not."
der the names of Busnees and Goyim; Types of Mankind, p. 121.
both, though speaking the language The Hups and Magyars were the of the Gentiles, possess a peculiar next tribes who made their way into language which the latter do not unEurope; and their advent, fierce, ra- derstand; and both possess a peculiar pid, and exterminating, was conduct- cast of countenance by which they ed like a charge of cavalry. They may without difficulty be distinguishhewed their way with the sword ed from all other nations. But with through the Slavonian and other these points the similarity terminates. tribes who impeded their march ; and The Israelites bave a peculiar religion, after being for a brief season the to which they are fanatically attachterror of Europë, they settled en per- ed; the Romas (gypseys) have none. manence on the plains of Hungary, The Israelites have an authentic hiswhere for upwards of a thousand tory; the Gypseys have no bistory,– years they dominated, like a ruling they do not even know the name of caste, over the surrounding Slavonic their original country." Everything tribes. The influx of this warlike connected with the Gypsey race is inrace took place by two migrations,- volved in mystery; though, from their firstly, of the Huns, under Attila, physical type, language, &c., it is conin the fifth century; and, secondly, of jectured that they came from some the Magyars, under Arpad, in the part of India. It has been supposed ninth. The type of the two races was that they fled from the exterminating identical ; it is peculiarly exotic, and sword of the great Tartar conqueror, unlike any other in Europe. It be- Tamerlane, who ravaged India in longs to the great Uralian - Tatar 1408-9 A.D.; but Borrow's work furstem of Asia; but, strangely enough, nishes good ground for believing that though they differ in type from they may bave migrated at a much the Fins, the Magyars speak a dialect earlier period northwards, amongst of the Finnish language, which shows the Slavonians, before they entered that the two races must have been Germany and the other countries associated in some way at a remote where we first catch sight of them. epoch, and before either of them All that we know with certainty is, emerged from the depths of Asia. M. that in the beginning of the fifteenth Edwards thus describes the Magyar century they appeared in Germany, type :-“ Head nearly round; fore- and were soon scattered over Europe, head little developed, low, and bend- as far as Spain. The precise day upon ing; the eyes placed obliquely, so that which these strange beings first entered the external angle is elevated ; the France has been recorded, -namely, nose short and flat; mouth prominent, the 17th of August 1427. The enand lips thick ; neck very strong, so tire number of the race at present is that the back of the head appears flat, estimated at about 700,000, - thus forming almost a straight line with constituting them the smallest as well the pape ; beard weak and scattering; as the most singular and distinctly stature short." The Magyars did not marked of races. But if their numbelong to the Caucasian stock; and bers be small, their range of habitat their long-continued supremacy over is one of the widest. They are scattribes decidedly Caucasian, is a nuttered over most countries of the habitto crack for those ethnographers who able globe-Europe, Asia, Africa, and deduce everything from race, irrespec- both the Americas, containing specitive of the habits and state of develop- mens of these roving tribes. ment of particular nations.
tents,” says Borrow, are pitched on The next alien race which entered the heaths of Brazil and the ridges of Europe was the Gypseys, the history the Himalaya bills; and their language and peculiarities of which strange is heard in Moscow and Madrid, in people present many curious analogies London and Stamboul. Their power with those of the Israelites. “Both of resisting cold is truly wonderful, as
it is not uncommon to find them en- who is generally Georgian or Circascamped in the midst of the snow, in sian by the female side. As this slight canvass tents, where the tem- crossing of the two races has been perature is 25° or 30° below the freez. carried on for several centuries, the ing-point according to Reaumur;” modern Ottomans in Europe are in while, on the other hand, they with truth a new nation-and, on the whole, stand without difficulty the sultry a very handsome one.
The general climes of Africa and India.
proportion of the face is symmetrical, The last accession which the popu- and the facial angle nearly vertical, lation of Europe received was accom- the features thus approaching to the plished by an irraption similar to that Circassian mould; while the head is of the Huns, but on a grander scale. remarkable for its excellent globular In the beginning of the fifteenth cen- form, with the forehead broad and the tary the Osmanli Turks swept across glabella prominent. the Hellespont and Bosphorus, and in The natural destiny of the Turks in 1453 established their empire in Eu- Europe, like that of ruling castes everyrope by the capture of Byzantium. In where when holding in subjection a proportion to its numbers, no race population greatly more numerous ever gave such a shock to the West- than themselves, is either to gradually ern world as this; and, by its very relax their sway and share the governantagonism, it helped to quicken into ment with the subject races, as the life the population and kingdoms of Normans in England did, -or, if obsticentral and eastern Europe. It is nately maintaining their class-despotsemi - Caucasian by extraction, but, ism, to be violently deposed from the coming from the northern side of the supremacy. The increasing developCaucasus, and pretty far to the east, ment of the Greek and other sections the original features of the race had a of the population of European Turkey strong dash of the Tartar in them. has of late years made one or other The portrait of Mahomed II., the con- of these alternatives imminent; but queror of Byzantium, may be taken as the extensive reforms and liberalisaà fair sample of the primitive Turkish tion of the government simultaneoustype, - indeed a more than average ly undertaken by the Ottoman rulers, specimen, for among all nations the and the remarkable abeyance in which nobles and princes, as a class, are they have begun to place the disever found to possess the most perfect tinctive tenets of the Mahommedan forms and features. The Turkish faith, promised, if unthwarted by tribes who still follow their ancient foreign influences, to keep the various nomadic life, and wander in the cold races in amity, and admit Christians and dry deserts of Turkistan, still ex- to offices in the state. The history hibit the Tartar physiognomy-even of the last fifteen years has shown this the Nogays of the Crimea, and some system of governmental relaxation of the roving tribes of Asia Minor, growing gradually stronger-so that present much of this character. The Lord Palmerston was justified in sayEuropean Turks, and the upper classes ing that no country in the world could of the race generally, exhibit a great- show so many reforms accomplished ly superior style of countenance, in in so short a time as Turkey. And consequence of the elevating influ- after the recent exploits of the Ottoences of civilisation, and of their mans in defeating simultaneously the harems liaving been replenished for attacks of Russia and of the Greek four centuries by fair ones from and Montenegrin insurgents, and the Georgia and Circassia, a region Turkish predilections even of those wbich, as Chardin long ago remarked, provinces which were entered by the " is assuredly the one where nature Christian forces of the Czar, it cannot produces the most beautiful persons, be doubted that the Turkish rule was anda people brave and valiant, as on the whole giving satisfaction, and well as lively, galant, and loving." that, if unaided by foreign Powers, There is hardly a man of quality no insurrection against the supremacy in Turkey who is not born of a of the bold-hearted Osmanlis had the Georgian or Circassian mother, slightest chance of success. It was counting downwards from the Sultan, this state of matters which alarmed the