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ent states of civilisation as to render
The chief influence which, in the
sive and sometimes widely-severed
We have now reached a period at which the population of Europe comes greatly mixed, in consequence of the constant rovings and incursions of the various races and tribes of which it was composed. It is interesting to note the effect of such a state of things upon the physical characteristics of the people. And first it is to be observed, that, with extremely rare exceptions, conquest is not attended by extermination. When one people, even in semi-barbarous times, conquers another, it does not annihilate and rarely displaces, but for the most part only overlays it. The annihilating process, of which a sample may be seen in America, only takes place in the rare case of the meeting of two nations, in such widely differ
breeds-take the offspring and cross it with one of the parent stocks, and continue this process for a few generations, and the result is that the one becomes swallowed up in the other. This is the theory; but in the actual world races never intermarry with such theoretical regularity and indifference. Each community of mankind has, as its conservative element, a tendency to form unions within its own limits; and if a foreign element is once introduced into a population, the operation of this predilection tends to preserve the type of the lesser number for a much longer period than mere theory would assign to it. The stranger-hating and obstinate-tempered Bretons and Basques, for instance, by intermarrying among themselves, have thus preserved the type of the old Iberians through three thousand years, although surrounded on all sides by the fair-haired Celts. In the case of a conquering race like the Franks and Normans, there is generally less isolation than this; but then, the way in which the amalgamation between the conquerors and the conquered takes place, is such as to give a great advantage to the former. The sons of the conquerors may wed the daughters of the conquered, for the sake of their lands; but it is comparatively seldom that the daughters of the invaders will condescend to tarnish their scutcheon by becoming wedded to and merged in the class of the vanquished. The principle of caste is all-pervading, even when nominally repudiated; and thus, as the male ever influences most directly the type of the offspring, a small number of conquerors may for long perpetuate their line in comparative purity, even though surrounded by myriads of a different race.
From all this it results, that when a small body of foreigners is shot into the middle of a large population, as it were in virtue of a mere casual impetus, and not owing to higher qualities and organisation on the part of the aliens, the new-comers are quickly absorbed into the general mass of the population, and their type, in course of time, wholly disappears. The his
tory of Italy throws important light upon this subject. Successive hordes of barbarians broke into and overran that country, powerful from their rude energy, but numerically weak, and inferior in mental condition to the conquered race. Again and again did human waves of Visigoths, Vandals, Huns, Herules, Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Normans roll in succession over the Italian plains; and even the Saracens for a time held possession of some of its fairest provinces; yet what vestiges remain in Italy of these barbarian surges? The first three passed over it like tornados; the two next, after contending with the Goths, were expelled from the land; and of the whole conglomerate mass but small fragments were left, too insignificant to materially influence the native Italic types. The Lombards, indeed, remained, and implanted their name on a portion of the peninsula; but, with this fragmentary exception, the aboriginal population of Italy has remained unaltered in blood and features since the early times when the Celts and Cimbri made settlements in its northern provinces. And thus the normal law is fulfilled, in the invaders being swallowed up in the mass of the native population,- leavening it, of course, more or less, but ever tending towards ultimate extinction.
When a really conquering race, however-one superior alike in physical and mental power to the subjugated population-invades a country, and, instead of being expelled, or passing onwards like a transient whirlwind, continues to hold the realm in virtue of superior power, such a race, as we have said, may long and almost indelibly perpetuate their features in the land. In such a case they in reality, if not in name, form a caste; each one of the invaders becomes a noble; and when they make exceptions to the practice of intermarrying among themselves, it is only that they may more widely diffuse their lineaments, by forming matrimonial or other unions with the female portion of the native race.* Thus the feudalism of the all-conquering Normans was a system of caste, by means
*It is not improbable that the old feudal law, which placed the person of a female vassal at the disposal of the seigneur on her wedding-night, originated in political motives as well as in a tyrannous sensuality.
of which they long maintained the purity and pre-eminence of their race in the countries which they conquered; as may best be seen in French history, where the vieux noblesse, even in 1789, were the lineal descendants of the soldiers of Clovis; and where the distinction between noble and roturier was kept up with such rigid and antiquated pertinacity, that at length the Celtic population, becoming more and more developed alike in intellect and resources, threw off the whole foreign system like an incubus, and returned to those principles of equality and volatility in government which distinguished their ancestors of old Gaul.
We may remark in conclusion, on this topic, that the ascendancy of certain families of mankind is due not only to their superior physical, but even more to their superior mental organisation, which ever keeps them uppermost, and enables them to mate themselves with whom they please. It is a remarkable fact, as illustrative of the native vigour of some races, that there is not a head in Christendom which legitimately wears a crown -not a single family in Europe whose blood is acknowledged to be royal, but traces its genealogy to that Norman colossus, WILLIAM the CONQUEROR. This has been well shown by M. Paulmier;* but we may add, as a curiosity which lately attracted our own notice, when looking at the portrait of the Conqueror-namely, that a strong resemblance exists between his fine and massive features and those of the present Czar of Russia. Both are distinguished by the same broad brow and arched eyebrows (not each forming a semicircle, as seems to be the meaning of the term "arched" when applied to eyebrows nowadays, but both combining to form an oval curve, vaulting over the under part of the face, as was the meaning among the Greeks), the same thick straight nose, and the same massive and beautiful conformation in the bones of the jaw and chin. The face of the Czar, however, we must add, is not equal in solid strength and intellect to that of his great progenitor.
The operation of these physiological laws upon the population of Europe has been interestingly illustrated by the recent researches of a French naturalist of high reputation, M. Edwards. This gentleman, after perusing Thierry's History of the Gauls, made a tour through France, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy, engaged in careful study of the present popula tion in relation to the ancient settlers; and he asserts that now, after the lapse of two thousand years, the types of the Cimbri, the Celts, and Iberians are still distinctly traceable among their living descendants, in the very localities where history first descries these early families. Of the inland eastern parts of France, tenanted of old by the Gauls proper, and which were never penetrated into by the Cimbri, who took quiet possession of their outskirts, M. Edwards thus speaks:- "In traversing, from north to south, the part of France which corresponds to Oriental Gaul―viz., Burgundy, Lyons, Dauphiny, and Savoy-I have distinguished that type, so well marked, which ethnographers have assigned to the Gauls." That is to say, "the head is so round as to approach the spherical form; the forehead is moderate, slightly protuberant, and receding towards the temples; eyes large and open; the nose, from its depression at its commencement to its termination, almost straight-that is to say, without any marked curve; its extremity is rounded, as well as the chin; the stature medium;-the features thus being quite in harmony with the form of the head." Of the northern part of ancient Gaul, the principal seat of the Belgæ or Cimbri, he says:-"I traversed a great part of the Gallia Belgica of Cæsar, from the mouth of the Somme to that of the Seine; and here I distinguished for the first time the assemblage of features which constitutes the other type, and often to such an exaggerated degree that I was very forcibly struck, the long head, the broad high forehead, the curved nose, with the point below, and the wings tucked up; the chin boldly developed; and the stature tall." In
Aperçus Genealogiques sur les Descendants de Guillaume. Rev. Archéol. 1845,
the other parts of France (exclusive of the south and west, anciently occupied by the Iberians), M. Edwards found that the Cimbrian type had been overcome by the round heads and straight noses of the Gauls, who were the more numerous because the more ancient race in those parts, and had covered the whole country before the arrival of the Cymbrians.
lapse and vicissitudes of two thousand years.
Passing into Italy, he continues his examinations. “Whatever may have been the anterior state of matters," he says, "it is certain, from Thierry's researches and the unanimous accord of all historians, that the Peuples Gaulois have predominated in the north of Italy, between the Alps and the Apennines. We find them established there at the first dawn of history; and the most anthentic testimony represents them with all the character of a great nation, from this remote period down to a very advanced point of Roman history. This is all I need to trouble myself about. I know the features of their compatriots in Transalpine Gaul-I find them again in Cisalpine Gaul." The old "Gallic" settlers in northern Italy appear to have been Cimbrian. After describing the well-known head of Dante-which is long and narrow, with a high and developed forehead, nose long and curved, with sharp point and elevated wings-M. Edwards says that he was struck by the great frequency of this type in Tuscany (although a mixed Roman type is there the prevailing one) among the peasantry; in the statues and busts of the Medici family; and also amongst the effigies and bas-reliefs of the illustrious men of the republic of Florence. This type is well marked since the time of Dante, as doubtless long before. It extends to Venice; and in the ducal palace, M. Edwards had occasion to observe that it is common among the doges. The type became more predominant as he approached Milan, and thence he traced it as to its fountain into Transalpine Gaul. The physical characteristics of the present population, therefore, correspond with the statements of history, and show that the ancient type of this widespread people, the Cimbri, has survived the
In passing through Florence, M. Edwards took occasion to visit the Ducal Gallery, to study the ancient Roman type,-selecting, by preference, the busts of the early Roman emperors, because they were descendants of ancient families. Augustus, Tiberius, Germanicus, Claudius, Nero, Titus, &c., exemplify this type in the Florentine collections; and the family resemblance is so close, and the style of features so remarkable, that they cannot be mistaken. The following is his description :-"The vertical diameter of the head is short, and, consequently, the face broad. As the summit of the cranium is flattened, and the lower margin of the jaw-bone almost horizontal, the contour of the head, when viewed in front, approaches a square. The lateral parts, above the ears, are protuberant; the forehead low; the nose truly aquiline--that is to say, the curve commences near the top and ends before it reaches the point, so that the base is horizontal; the chin is round; and the stature short." This is the characteristic type of a Roman; but we cannot expect now to meet with absolute uniformity in any race, however seemingly pure. Such a type M. Edwards subsequently found to predominate in Rome, and certain parts of Italy, at the present day. It is the original type of the central portions of the peninsula, and, however overlayed at times, has swallowed up all intruders. As a singular corroboration of the French ethnographer's observations, Mr J. C. Nott, an American surgeon and naturalist, says: "A sailor came to my office, a few months ago, to have a dislocated arm set. When stripped and standing before me, he presented the type described by M. Edwards so perfectly, and moreover combined with such extraordinary development of bone and muscle, that there occurred to my mind at once the beau-ideal of a Roman soldier. Though the man had been an American sailor for twenty years, and spoke English without foreign accent, I could not help asking where he was born. He replied in a deep strong voice, 'In Rome, sir!'"*
Types of Mankind. By T. C. WATT and G. R. GLIDDON. London: 1854.
In Greece the Hellenes and Pelasgi quisite), very much like those which are two races identified with the ear- one meets with daily in our streets. liest traditions of the country ; but "Were we to judge solely by the when we appeal to history for their monuments of Greece," continues M. origin, or seek for the part that each Edwards, “ on account of this conhas played in the majestic drama of trast, we should be tempted to regard antiquity, there is little more than con- the type of the fabulous or heroic perjecture to guide us. Greece did not sonages as ideal. But imagination come fairly within the scope of M. more readily creates monsters than Edwards' researches, yet he has ven- models of beauty ; and this principle tured a few note-worthy observations alone will suffice to convince us that in connection with this point. He such a type has existed in Greece, thinks the same principles that go and the countries where its population verned his examination of Gaul may has spread, if it does not still exist be applied to Greece; and that the there." Hellenes and Pelasgi might be follow. In corroboration of this conjecture, ed ethnologically like the Celts and it may be stated that the learned Cimbri. Perhaps the most important travellers, MM. de Stackelberg and de remark which he makes is that which Bronsted, who have journeyed through refers to the differences between what the Morea and closely examined the he calls the heroic and historic-or population, assert that the heroic type what is generally termed the ideal and is still extant in certain localities. M. real types of the Greek countenance. Poqueville likewise assures us that The ancient monuments of art in the models which inspired Phidias and Greece exhibit a wide diversity of Apelles are still to be found among types, and this at every period of their the inhabitants of the Morea. “They history. Of the two great classes into are generally tall, and finely formed; which these may be divided, M. Ed- their eyes are full of fire, and they wards says:
have a beautiful mouth, ornamented
There are, “ Most of the divinities and personages with the finest teeth. of the heroic times are formed on that however, degrees in their beauty, well-known model which constitutes what thongh all may be generally termed we term the beau-ideal. The forms and handsome. The Spartan woman is proportions of the head and countenance .fair, of a slender make, but with a are so regular that we may describe them noble air. The women of Taygetus with mathematical precision. A perfect- have the carriage of a Pallas when ly oval contour, forehead and nose straight, she wielded her formidable ægis in without depression between them, would the midst of a battle. The Messenian suffice to distinguish this type. The har.
woman is low of stature, and distinmony is such that the presence of these guished for her embonpoint," (this traits implies the others. But such is not the character of the personages of truly his may be owing to a mixture with the toric times. The philosophers, orators, primitive race of the Morea, who, as warriors, and poets almost all differ from Helots, long existed as a distinct caste it, and form a group apart. It cannot be in Messenia); "she has regular feaconfounded with the rest : it is sufficient tures, large blue eyes, and long black to point it out, for one to recognise at hair. The Arcadian, in her coarse once how far it is separated. It greatly woollen garments, scarcely suffers the resembles, on the contrary, the type which symmetry of her form to appear; bat is seen in other countries of Europe, her countenance is expressive of inwhile the for:ner is scarcely met with nocence and purity of mind." In the there."
time of Poqueville the Greek women This observation is just. The head were extremely ignorant and unedu. of Alexander the Great is nearly al- cated; but, he says, " music and lied to the pure classical or heroic dancing seem to have been taught type; but this case is an exception — them by nature." He speaks of the and the lineaments of Lycurgus, Era- long flaxen hair of the women of tosthenes, and most other specimens Sparta, their majestic air and carriage, of old Greek portrait-sculpture, are, their elegant forms, the symmetry of with the exception of the beard (if in- their featares, lighted up by large deed such an exception is now re- blue eyes, fringed and shaded with