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sive and sometimes widely-severed ent states of civilisation as to render movements. Three centuries after- amalgamation impossible,-and even wards we find the Cimbri on the in this case only when the inferior shores of the Northern Ocean in Jut- race is so intractable as to resist all land ; and between the years 113 and obedience to the superior. Displace101 B.C., we find the race all on tho ment, which is obsolete now, since move, and setting out on that south- advancing civilisation has rendered ward career of devastation which conquest political only-was pretty eventually brought them into Gaul, common two thousand years ago, Spain, and Italy. The Belgians seem when Europe was thinly and nomadito have been a Cimbrian tribe which cally peopled, and tribes migrated en had preceded the main body; for masse. In this way, for example, the when, in this invasion, the Cimbri Cimbri wedged themselves in among reached Northern Gaul, the Belge the Celts in Northern Gaul, and took immediately joined them as allies possession of a large tract in Northern against the Celts,—and it seems also İtaly. But soon after the Christian era proven that the Cimbri and Belge -chiefly in consequence of the increasspoke dialects of the same language. ing density and settled habits of the The Celts, routed by the invaders, population-conquest ceased to prowere impelled to the south and east, duce either extermination or displacedoubtless trespassing in turn upon ment, and consisted merely in the the dark-skinned Iberians. It was im- overlaying of one population by anmediately after this inroad that Cæsar other much less numerous but more and his Romans entered Gaul, and powerful. Thus the Normans in Engcommenced his Commentaries with land and the Franks in Gaul were the well-known statement :-“All but a handful compared to the conGaul is divided into three parts, of quered population ; and consequently, which one is inhabited by the Bel- though they might give their laws gians, [or Cimbri, in the north), and even their name to the country, another by the Aquitanians (or Iberi- they could not materially alter the ans, in the south-west),- and the physical character of the people. third (or eastern), by those who in The chief influence which, in the their own language, call themselves case of two races mingling, deterCelts, and who in our tongue are mines the preservation or extinction called Gael (Galli). These races of types or national features, is simply differ among themselves by their the numerical proportion existing belanguage, their manners, and their tween the two races thus amalgamat. laws." Previous to this time the ing. When races meet and mix on Teutons had settled in central Europe, equal terms, and with no natural reand in alliance with Celtic tribes puguance toeach other (in other words, made incursions into Italy.

cæteris paribus), the relative number We have now reached a period at of the two races decides the question which the population of Europe be- — the type of the smaller number, in comes greatly mixed, in consequence this hypothetical case, inevitably disof the constant rovings and incursions appearing in the long run. Take, for of the various races and tribes of example, a thousand white families which it was composed. It is interest. and fifty black ones-place them on ing to note the effect of such a state an island, and let them regularly inof things upon the physical character- termarry; and the result would be, istics of the people. And first it is that in the course of time the black to be observed, that, with extremely type would disappear, although there rare exceptions, conquest is not at- is reason to believe that traces of it. tended by extermination. When one would “crop out" during a very long people, even in semi-barbarous times, period. And if two fair-skinned races conquers another, it does not anni. were brought into contact in a similar hilate and rarely displaces, but for the manner, and in similar proportions, most part only overlays it. The anni. the extermination of the less numerhilating process, of which a sample ons one would be even sooner effected. may be seen in 'America, only takes The operation of this law is well illusplace in the rare case of the meeting trated in the lower animals. Cross of two nations, in such widely differ- two domestic animals of different


breeds-take the offspring and cross tory of Italy throws important light it with one of the parent stocks, and upon this subject. Successive hordes continue this process for a few gene- of barbarians broke into and overran rations, and the result is that the one that country, powerful from their rude becomes swallowed up in the other. energy, but numerically weak, and This is the theory; but in the actual inferior in mental condition to the world races never intermarry with conquered race. Again and again did such theoretical regularity and indif- human waves of Visigoths, Vandals, ference. Each community of mankind Huns, Herules, Ostrogoths, Lomhas, as its conservative element, a bards, and Normans roll in succession tendency to form unions within its over the Italian plains; and even the own limits; and if a foreign element Saracens for a time held possession of is once introduced into a population, some of its fairest provinces; yet what the operation of this predilection tends vestiges remain in Italy of these barto preserve the type of the lesser barian surges ? The first three passed pamber for a much longer period than over it like tornados; the two next, mere theory would assign to it. The after contending with the Goths, were stranger-hating and obstinate - tem- expelled from the land; and of the pered Bretons and Basques, for in- whole conglomerate mass but small stance, by intermarrying among them- fragments were left, too insignificant selves, have thus preserved the type to materially influence the native Italic of the old Iberians through three types. The Lombards, indeed, rethousand years, although surrounded mained, and implanted their name on on all sides by the fair-haired Celts. a portion of the peninsula; but, with In the case of a conquering race like this fragmentary exception, the aborithe Franks and Normans, there is ginal population of Italy has remained generally less isolation than this; but unaltered in blood and features since then, the way in which the amalgama. the early times when the Celts and tion between the conquerors and the Cimbri made settlements in its northconquered takes place, is such as to ern provinces. And thus the normal give a great advantage to the former. law is fulfilled, in the invaders being The sons of the conquerors may wed swallowed up in the mass of the native the daughters of the conquered, for population, – leavening it, of course, the sake of their lands; but it is com- more or less, but ever tending towards paratively seldom that the daughters ultimate extinction. of the invaders will condescend to When a really conquering race, tarnish their scutcheon by becoming however-one superior alike in phywedded to and merged in the class of sical and mental power to the subthe vanquished. The principle of jugated population-invades a councaste is all-pervading, even when try, and, instead of being expelled, nominally repudiated; and thus, as or passing onwards like a transient the male ever influences most directly whirlwind, continues to hold the the type of the offspring, a small realm in virtue of superior power, number of conquerors may for long such a race, as we have said, may long perpetuate their line in comparative and almost indelibly perpetuate their purity, even though surrounded by features in the land. In such a case myriads of a different race.

they in reality, if not in name, form From all this it results, that when a caste; each one of the invaders bea small body of foreigners is shot into comes a noble; and when they make the middle of a large population, as it exceptions to the practice of interwere in virtue of a mere casual impe- marrying among themselves, it is only tus, and not owing to higher qualities that they may more widely diffuse and organisation on the part of the their lineaments, by forming matrialiens, the new-comers are quickly ab- monial or other upions with the female sorbed into the general mass of the portion of the native race.* Thus the population, and their type, in course feudalism of the all-conquering Norof time, wholly disappears. The his- mans was a system of caste, by means

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It is not improbable that the old fendal law, which placed the person of a female vassal at the disposal of the seigneur on her wedding-night, originated in political motives as well as in a tyrannous sensuality.

of which they long maintained the The operation of these physiologipurity and pre-eminence of their race cal laws upon the population of Europe in the countries which they conquer- has been interestingly illustrated by ed; as may best be seen in French the recent researches of a French history, where the vieux noblesse, even naturalist of high reputation, M. Edin 1789, were the lineal descendants wards. This gentleman, after perusof the soldiers of Clovis ; and where ing Thierry's History of the Gauls, the distinction between noble and rolu- made a tour through France, Belgium, rier was kept up with such rigid and Switzerland, and Italy, engaged in antiquated pertinacity, that at length careful study of the present popula. the Celtic population, becoming more tion in relation to the ancient settlers; and more developed alike in intellect and he asserts that now, after the and resources, threw off the whole lapse of two thousand years, the types foreign system like an incubus, and of the Cimbri, the Celts, and Iberians returned to those principles of equality are still distinctly traceable among and volatility in government which their living descendants, in the very distinguished their ancestors of old localities where history first descries Gaul.

these early families. Of the inland We may remark in conclusion, on eastern parts of France, tenanted of this topic, that the ascendancy of cer- old by the Gauls proper, and which tain families of mankind is due not were never penetrated into by the only to their superior physical, but Cimbri, who took quiet possession of even more to their superior mental their outskirts, M. Edwards thus organisation, which ever keeps them speaks :- “In traversing, from north uppermost, and enables them to mate to south, the part of France which themselves with whom they please. corresponds to Oriental Gaul-viz., It is a remarkable fact, as illustrative Burgundy, Lyons, Dauphiny, and of the native vigour of some races, Savoy - I have distinguished that that there is not a head in Christen- type, so well marked, which ethnodom which legitimately wears a crown graphers have assigned to the Gauls." - not a single family in Europe whose That is to say, “the head is so round blood is acknowledged to be royal, as to approach the spherical form; but traces its genealogy to that Nor- the forehead is moderate, slightly man colossus, WILLIAM the Con- protuberant, and receding towards QUEROR. This has been well shown the temples; eyes large and open; by M. Paulmier;* but we may add, as the nose, from its depression at its a curiosity which lately attracted our commencement to its termination, alown notice, when looking at the por- most straight-that is to say, without trait of the Conqueror-namely, that any marked curve; its extremity is a strong resemblance exists between rounded, as well as the chin; the his fine and massive features and those stature medium ;-the features thus of the present Czarof Russia. Both are being quite in harmony with the form distinguished by the same broad brow of the head.” Of the northern part of and arched eyebrows (not each form- ancient Gaul, the principal seat of the ing a semicircle, as seems to be the Belgæ or Cimbri, he says :-“I trameaning of the term "arched” when versed a great part of the Gallia Belapplied to eyebrows nowadays, but gica of Cæsar, from the mouth of the both combining to form an oval curve, Somme to that of the Seine; and here vaulting over the under part of the I distinguished for the first time the face, as was the meaning among the assemblage of features which constiGreeks), the same thick straight nose, tutes the other type, and often to such and the same massive and beautiful an exaggerated degree that I was conformation in the bones of the jaw very forcibly struck,—the long head, and chin. The face of the Czar, how the broad high forehead, the curved ever, we must add, is not equal in nose, with the point below, and the solid strength and intellect to that of wings tucked up; the chin boldly his great progenitor.

developed ; and the stature tall." In

Aperçus Genealogiques sur les Descendants de Guillaume. Rev. Archéol. 1845,

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P. 794.

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the other parts of France (exclusive lapse and vicissitudes of two thousand of the south and west, anciently occu- years. pied by the Iberians), M. Edwards In passing through Florence, M. found that the Cimbrian type had Edwards took occasion to visit the Dubeen overcome by the round heads cal Gallery, to study the ancient Roand straight noses of the Gauls, who man type, --selecting, by preference, were the more numerous because the the busts of the early Roman emperors, more ancient race in those parts, and because they were descendants of anhad covered the whole country before cient families. Augustus, Tiberius, the arrival of the Cymbrians.

Germanicus, Claudius, Nero, Titus, Passing into Italy, he continues bis &c., exemplify this type in the Florexaminations. “Whatever may have entine collections; and the family rebeen the anterior state of matters," he semblance is so close, and the style of says, “it is certain, from Thierry's features so remarkable, that they canresearches and the unanimous accord not be mistaken. The following is his of all historians, that the Peuples description :-"The vertical diameter Gaulois have predominated in the of the head is short, and, consequently, north of Italy, between the Alps and the face broad. As the summit of the the Apennines. We find them esta- cranium is flattened, and the lower blished there at the first dawn of margin of the jaw-bone almost borihistory; and the most anthentic tes zontal, the contour of the head, when timony represents them with all the viewed in front, approaches a square. character of a great nation, from this The lateral parts, above the ears, are remote period down to a very ad- protuberant; the forehead low; the vanced point of Roman history. This nose truly aquiline—that is to say, the is all I need to trouble myself about. curve commences near the top and I know the features of their com- ends before it reaches the point, so patriots in Transalpine Gaul-I find that the base is horizontal; the chin them again in Cisalpine Gaul.” The is round; and the stature short.” This old “Gallic" settlers in northern is the characteristic type of a Roman; Italy appear to have been Cimbrian. but we cannot expect now to meet with After describing the well-known head absolute uniformity in any race, howof Dante—which is long and narrow, ever seemingly pure. Such a type M. with a high and developed forehead, Edwards subsequently found to prenose long and curved, with sharp dominate in Rome, and certain parts of point and elevated wings-M. Ed- Italy, at the present day. It is the oriwards says that he was struck by the giral type of the central portions of great frequency of this type in Tuscany the peninsula, and, however overlayed (although a mixed Roman type is there at times, has swallowed up all intrudthe prevailing one) among the peasan- As a singular corroboration of try; in the statues and busts of the Me- the French ethnographer's observadici family ; and also amongst the effi- tions, Mr J. C. Nott, an American gies and bas-reliefs of the illustrious surgeon and naturalist, says :—“A men of the republic of Florence. This sailor came to my office, a few months type is well marked since the time of ago, to have a dislocated arm set. Dante, as doubtless long before. It When stripped and standing before extends to Venice ; and in the ducal me, he presented the type described palace, M. Edwards had occasion to by M. Edwards so perfectly, and observe that it is common among the moreover combined with such extradoges. The type became more pre- ordinary development of bone and dominant as he approached Milan, and muscle, that there occurred to my thence he traced it as to its fountain mind at once the bean-ideal of a Rointo Transalpine Gaul. The physical man soldier. Though the man had characteristics of the present popula- been an American sailor for twenty tion, therefore, correspond with the years, and spoke English without statements of history, and show that foreign accent, I could not help asking the ancient type of this widespread where he was born. He replied in a people, the Cimbri, has survived the deep strong voice, 'In Rome, sir !?"*


Types of Mankind. By T. C. Watt and G. R. GLIDDON. London : 1854.

In Greece the Hellenes and Pelasgi quisite), very much like those which are two races identified with the ear- one meets with daily in our streets. liest traditions of the country ; but "Were we to judge solely by the when we appeal to history for their monuments of Greece," continues M. origin, or seek for the part that each Edwards, “ on account of this conhas played in the majestic drama of trast, we should be tempted to regard antiquity, there is little more than con- the type of the fabulous or heroic perjecture to guide us. Greece did not sonages as ideal. But imagination come fairly within the scope of M. more readily creates monsters than Edwards' researches, yet he has ven- models of beauty ; and this principle tured a few note-worthy observations alone will suffice to convince us that in connection with this point. He such a type has existed in Greece, thinks the same principles that go and the countries where its population verned his examination of Gaul may has spread, if it does not still exist be applied to Greece; and that the there." Hellenes and Pelasgi might be follow. In corroboration of this conjecture, ed ethnologically like the Celts and it may be stated that the learned Cimbri. Perhaps the most important travellers, MM. de Stackelberg and de remark which he makes is that which Bronsted, who have journeyed through refers to the differences between what the Morea and closely examined the he calls the heroic and historic-or population, assert that the heroic type what is generally termed the ideal and is still extant in certain localities. M. real types of the Greek countenance. Poqueville likewise assures us that The ancient monuments of art in the models which inspired Phidias and Greece exhibit a wide diversity of Apelles are still to be found among types, and this at every period of their the inhabitants of the Morea. “They history. Of the two great classes into are generally tall, and finely formed; which these may be divided, M. Ed- their eyes are full of fire, and they wards says:

have a beautiful mouth, ornamented

There are, “ Most of the divinities and personages with the finest teeth. of the heroic times are formed on that however, degrees in their beauty, well-known model which constitutes what thongh all may be generally termed we term the beau-ideal. The forms and handsome. The Spartan woman is proportions of the head and countenance .fair, of a slender make, but with a are so regular that we may describe them noble air. The women of Taygetus with mathematical precision. A perfect- have the carriage of a Pallas when ly oval contour, forehead and nose straight, she wielded her formidable ægis in without depression between them, would the midst of a battle. The Messenian suffice to distinguish this type. The har.

woman is low of stature, and distinmony is such that the presence of these guished for her embonpoint," (this traits implies the others. But such is not the character of the personages of truly his may be owing to a mixture with the toric times. The philosophers, orators, primitive race of the Morea, who, as warriors, and poets almost all differ from Helots, long existed as a distinct caste it, and form a group apart. It cannot be in Messenia); "she has regular feaconfounded with the rest : it is sufficient tures, large blue eyes, and long black to point it out, for one to recognise at hair. The Arcadian, in her coarse once how far it is separated. It greatly woollen garments, scarcely suffers the resembles, on the contrary, the type which symmetry of her form to appear; bat is seen in other countries of Europe, her countenance is expressive of inwhile the for:ner is scarcely met with nocence and purity of mind." In the there."

time of Poqueville the Greek women This observation is just. The head were extremely ignorant and unedu. of Alexander the Great is nearly al- cated; but, he says, " music and lied to the pure classical or heroic dancing seem to have been taught type; but this case is an exception — them by nature." He speaks of the and the lineaments of Lycurgus, Era- long flaxen hair of the women of tosthenes, and most other specimens Sparta, their majestic air and carriage, of old Greek portrait-sculpture, are, their elegant forms, the symmetry of with the exception of the beard (if in- their featares, lighted up by large deed such an exception is now re- blue eyes, fringed and shaded with

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