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most intimate friends of the person steadily resisted all temptations to who visited O'Donnell, and who was mingle again in political affairs, was named to me at the same time. in reality the most popular man in
During the period of suspense that Spain, and that he was idolised by preceded the insurrection, attempts the people of Madrid. Some amongst were made to bring about a union be- them (O'Donnell himself, it has been tween the Liberal party and the Mode- said), whose views were more patrirado opposition. The former, although otic and less selfish than those of the divided into sections which differ ou majority, were not unwilling to blend certain points, is unanimous in its with the Progresistas, to whom a few, desire to see Spain governed consti- including Rios Rosas, a distinguished tutionally. Overtures were made to lawyer and senator, frankly proclaimsome of its chiefs. It was proposed ed their adherence, declaring that that it should co-operate in the over- the parties which for so many years throw of the set of men who had had divided Spain were virtually detached themselves from all parties, defunct, and that there were but two and were marching on the high road parties in the country,- the national to absolutism. These men, known one, wlrich desired the welfare of as the Polacos or Poles - a word Spain, and to see it governed accordwhich seems to have had its origin ing to the constitution, and the rein an electioneering joke-were odious trograde or absolutist, which tramalike to Progresistas and Moderados. pled on the rights of the people. But But there were great dificulties in the although a few men were found ready way of a sincere and cordial junction to waive personal considerations and between the two principal parties into to forget old animosities, the great which Spaniards are divided. The majority of the Moderados were less Moderados would gladly have availed disinterested, and the decision finally themselves of the aid of the Liberals to come to was to do without the aid of upset their common enemy; but they the Liberals, and to accomplish an would give them no guarantees that insurrection which, although its sucthey should be, in any way, gainers by cess was likely to be of some advanthe revolution. The Liberals, on the tage to the country, at least for a other hand, mistrusted the Moderados, time, had for its object a change of and would not assist men whose aims men rather than of measures. they believed to be purely personal. One of the most important persons When the Moderados asked wbat guar- concerned in the conspiracy was the antees they required, they were quick- Director of Cavalry, Major-Genely ready with an answer. “ Arm the ral Domingo Dulce, reputed one of national guard of Madrid,” they said; the best and bravest officers in the or, "March your troops, as soon as Spanish army, and who had won his you have induced them to revolt, at high rank and many honours, not by once into Arragon, with one of our political intrigue, as is so frequently most influential and determined the case in this country, but at the chiefs." The Moderados could not point of his good sword. Ho passed be induced to listen to such terms. for a Progresista, and most of his They found themselves exactly in friends were of that party; but in fact the position in which the Progresistas he had never mixed much in politics, were in 1843. Divided amongst and, as a military man, had served themselves, the probabilities were under governments of various printhat the insurrection they proposed ciples. It is evident, however, that would turn to the advantage of the whilst confining himself to the duties Liberals; and the risk of this was of his profession—which is rarely the doubled if they accepted even the case with Spanish general officersmost favourable of the conditions of- he cherished in his heart the love of fered to them. They knew that the liberty, and a strong detestation of feeling of a large majority of tbe na- the tyranny under which Spain has tion was in favour of the Progresistas; for some time groaned. An intimate that Espartero, although for seven friend of his, a well-known and disyears he had led the life of a country tinguished Liberal, was the immediate gentleman at Logroño, and had means of his joining the conspiracy. It was an immense acquisition to the it was to occur, its approach was cause he agreed to assist. Chief of known to several persons who, withthe whole of the Spanish cavalry, re- out being implicated in the plot, spected and beloved by the men and sincerely wished it success. There officers under his command, he could seemed no doubt of the event. But, bring a large force to the insurgent at the very moment, a portion of the banner, and his own presence beneath artillery of the garrison, which had it was of itself of great value, for he pledged itself to take part in the is a daring and decided officer. He movement, failed to make its appearit was who, by his obstinate resistance ance at the place of rendezvous. in the palace, at the head of a handful General Dulce considered their abof halberdiers, defeated the designs of serce so important that he abandoned, the conspirators in the year 1841. for that day, his intention of marching Dulce is a slightly-made, active, wiry off his cavalry, and declaring against man, rather below the middle height, the government. The combat of the of bilious temperament, and taciturn 30th of June, in the fields of Vicálmood, extremely reserved, even with varo, showed that he did not overhis friends, not calculated to cut a rate the importance of including all great figure in the council, but a man arms in the composition of the insurof action, precious in the field. The rectionary force. At the time, howother principal conspirators were ever, a storm of censure burst over General Messina, a man of education his head. He was taxed with treaand talent, who had been under chery, with a deficiency in moral secretary of the war department, courage; his best friends looked misand is an intimate friend of Narvaez; trustfully and coldly upon him ; more Ros de Olano, a general officer of than one general officer, presuming some repute; and Brigadier Echague, on seniority of rank and age, took colonel of the Principe regiment, a him severely to task. General O'DonBasque officer who served with high nell was not backward in reproaching distinction throughout the whole of him. "Never was a white man the civil war.
(these were the very words of the exSeveral false starts were made be- governor of Cuba) * sold as you have fore the insurrection really broke out. sold me." Dulce, although deeply On the 13th of June, especially, it sensitive to all this blame, took it had been fixed to take place. The meekly, acknowledged that appeargarrison of Madrid had been ordered
ances were against him, but declared to parade before daybreak for a mili- that he had acted for the best, and tary promenade and review outside steadily affirmed that his future conthe town. Such parades had been duct would prove his fidelity to the unusually frequent for a short time cause he had espoused. Not all bepast; and it was thought the govern- lieved him. ment ordered them, owing to informa- Some days passed over, and there tion it received, not sufficiently de- was no word of an insurrection. The finite to compromise the conspirators conspirators were discouraged. Rupersonally, but which yet enabled it mour spoke of dissensions among to defeat their designs. On that them. It was thought that nothing morning, however, all was ready. would occur. It was known to many The Principe regiment, instead of that Dulce was of the conspiracy, and marching directly to the parade that, by his fault or will, a good ground, lingered, and finally halted opportunity had been lost; and they at a place where it could easily join said that if he were not playing a the cavalry. O'Donnell left the town, double game, the government would disguised, and stationed bimself in a certainly have heard of his complicity house whence he could observe all with O'Donnell, and would at least that passed. Persons were placed in have removed him from bis command. the vicinity to watch over his safety. It was fact that, for some time past, The proclamations that had been pre- anonymous letters had been received pared were got ready for distribution. by the ministers, warning them that Late on the eve of the intended out. he was plotting against them. But break, about four or five hours before they disbelieved this information, and
some of the letters were even shown at, and Rumour had it all her own to Dulce. The Duke of Rianzares, way. The aspect of Madrid was calling one day on a minister, found curious. The Queen and Court had left Dulce there. " What is this that I two days previously for the Escurial; hear, general?” said Queen Christina's all but two of the ministers were abhusband; “is it true that you intend sent; those two were paralysed by the to shoot us all ?” The question was sudden event, and seemingly helpless. awkward, but easily parried. A few No measures were taken, no troops days before the insurrection occurred, brought out; for a time it might have Dalce went over to Alcala, five leagues been thought that, as was reported, from Madrid, under pretence of in- all but some fifteen hundred of these specting the recruits stationed there. had left with the insurgent generals ; Seven squadrons of cavalry were in for several hours the town was at the that town. Doubtless his object was mercy of the people, and had they to see if he could still reckon upon then risen it would probably have their following him whithersoever he been their own, for many of the troops chose to lead. I met him in the street remaining in Madrid were disaffected after his return; I think it was on the and would have joined them. There 26th of June. He looked anxious and was great excitement ; the general careworn. His position was certainly expression was one of joy at the procritical, and it is not presuming too spect of getting rid of a ministry than much to suppose that a severe struggle which none could be more odious i was going on within him between a the Puerta del Sol and the principal long habit of military discipline and streets were full of groups eagerly disduty, and what we must in justice cussing the events of the hour ; friends believe to have been, in his opinion, met each other with joyous countea paramount duty to his oppressed ances, and shook hands as if in concountry. For he was at the top of gratulation-Liberals and Moderados the tree. His position was splendid; alike well pleased at the event that his emoluments were large; he had threatened to prove fatal to the combut to persevere in his adherence to mon enemy. I need not repeat the the government of the day to attain countless reports current on that day. to the very highest rank in his pro- The most important fact that became fession-although that did not afford known was that the cavalry at Alcala a more desirable place than the one had joined the insurgents, and that he already occupied. Under these two thousand horsemen, some of the circumstances, even his enemies must best dragoons in the Spanish army, admit-however guilty they may deem were in hostile attitude close to Madbim-that he was not actuated by the rid, accompanied by a small but most selfish desire of personal advantage or efficient body of infantry. Towards aggrandisement.
evening the authorities began to Madrid, incredulous of an insurrec- awake from their lethargy of alarm. tion, was taken completely by sur- Ignorant of the fact that a line of prise by the news that greeted its up- telegraphic wires had been concluded rising on the morning of the 28ih on the previous day between Madrid June. Some hours previously, it was and the Escurial, the insurgents had informed, the director-general of ca- neglected to cut off this means of rapid valry, after mustering for review, in a communication ; news of the insurfield just outside the walls, the eleven rection had been transmitted to the squadrons that formed part of the gar- Queen, and her return to the capital rison of the capital, had been joined by a was announced. The streets were battalion of the regiment of Principe, by quickly filled with troops, illuminaa few companies from other regiments, tions were ordered (there was and by General O'Donnell himself, and hope of their being volunteered), andat had marched to Alcala to incorporate about ten o'clock her Majesty made her in his insurrectionary force the troops entrance, passing completely through there stationed. Other generals, it the town, having previously been to was stated, were with him, but for perform her devotions in the church many hours-indeed for the whole of of Atocha, whose presiding virgin is that day-truth was hard to be got the special patroness of the royal
family of Spain-the gracious protec- qualities, but whom evil influences and tress for whom princes embroider pet- à neglected education have brought ticoats, and whose shrine queens en- to sorrow and contempt. rich with jewels, whose cost would I cannot pretend to relate all the found an hospital or comfort many incidents of the last fortnight, which poor. A young Queen, entering her has been crowded with them to an capital in haste and anxiety, a few extent that baffles memory. The hours after a revolt against her autho- most important you will find in this rity, ought, one might suppose, to letter-many of the minor ones have command, by her mere presence, some doubtless escaped me. I must devote demonstration of loyalty and affec- a few more lines to the first day. An tion from her subjects. But the pre- unsigned proclamation was circulated, sent Queen of Spain has so completely of a tenor by no means unacceptable weaned from her the affections of her to the Liberals, whose chiefs consulted people, has so well earned their con- as to the propriety of rising in arms, tempt, and even their hatred, that or at least of making some demonneither on that night nor on any stration of hostility to the government. other occasion that I have witnessed Another proclamation, of greater was a voice uplifted or a viva heard. length, signed by three generals, A body of gendarmes, drawn up op- O'Donnell, Dulce, and Messina, disposite to the ministry of the interior, appointed them, for it contained not cheered as she passed, and possibly a word that guaranteed benefit to the the same may have been the case on nation, and spoke merely of the the part of civil and military function- knavery of the ministers and of the aries at other points of the line of her necessity of getting rid of them. progress, but the attitude of the Moreover, a request was sent in by the people and soldiers was one of perfect insurgents that Madrid would remain indifference. The same was the case quiet, and leave them to settle matters on the following day, when she re- militarily. Between deliberation and viewed the garrison in the Prado, delays the day passed away, and toand conferred decorations and pro- wards night the altered attitude of motion on sergeants and privates who the authorities, who had received had distinguished themselves by their telegraphic orders from Mr Sartorius fidelity in refusing to be led away by to act with the utmost vigour, the the insurgents. Surrounded by a nu- large bodies of troops in the streets merous staff of officers, and having convincing those who had previously the troops formed in such wise that as doubted that there was still a suffimany as possible of them might hear cient force in the town to repress any her, she addressed to them a short popular attempt, caused half-formed speech, was profuse of smiles, and plans to fall to the ground, and even held up to them her infant daughter the most ardent and bellicose resolved as if confiding it to their defence. Now to wait the events of the morrow bewas the time, if ever, for the old shouldering musket and throwing Castilian loyalty to burst for
Larricades. clamation. But its sild
The morrow was the festival of St crushed by royal mi
ter, a great holiday, kept quiet as rule. Nota
Sunday, with much mass and bulleither by off
ghts. I presume the churches were ous sile
attended, but the bull-fights did not sent
take place. Some arrests were made, but not many, for some of the persons sought after had concealed themselves. Madrid was still excited, but quite tranquil. On that and the following day every sort of rumour was current. The insurgents were near the town, and there were frequent reports that they were coming to attack it. Circalation was prohibited in the lower part of the street of Alcala, leading to
the gate near to which the enemy streets were comparatively clear, but were supposed to be. The residence the clubs and coffee-houses were filled of the Captain-general and the officers until past midnight with persons disof the staff is in the lower part of cussing what had occurred, and givthat street, and the constant passage ing fifty different versions. There to and fro of orderlies and aides-de- had been a fight, it was certain, at camp interested the people : so that about a league from Madrid, but who on the line of demarcation, beyond had won and who had lost was a matwhich ther was no passage, there ter of doubt until the next day. was a throng from morning till night, The Madrid Gazette, the order of watching-they knew not exactly for the day, published by General O'Donwhat. · From time to time there was nell, and conversation with officers. a rush and panic—when the mob en- present in the short but sharp action, croached on the limit, and the mili- enable me to give you a sketch, which tary were ordered to make them re- you may rely upon as correct, of its cede. The Café Suizo, at the summit of principal incidents. The garrison of the street-which rises and again sinks Madrid, consisting of about eight batover a small eminence-was a great talions of infantry, four batteries of point of rendezvous, and was crowded artillery, and some three hundred cawith eager politicians. Towards even- valry, took position on a ridge of ing, on the 30th, the garrison (almost ground at about a league from Madrid. the whole) being out of the town, it The enemy, strong in cavalry, but became known that a fight was im- weak in infantry, sought to draw them minent, or already begun. This was farther from the town, and into a in the neighbourhood; but as none more favourable position for horse to were allowed to pass, or even to ap- act against them. As the result proach the gates, news were scanty, proved, the wisest plan would have and little to be relied upon. Cannon been to persevere in these tactics, and, and musketry were heard, and wound- if the garrison refused to advance ed men were seen straggling in. The further, to let the day pass without an fever of expectation was at its height. action. But General O'Donnell had Public opinion was decidedly in favour assurances that a large portion of the of the insurgents. They would beat troops opposed to him only waited an the government troops, it was said, opportunity to pass over to his banand enter the town pell-mell with ner. A part of the artillery, espethem. All the male population of cially, was pledged to do so. After Madrid was in the streets, a few some preliminary skirmishing, he ortroops were stationed here and there; dered a charge, which was made in there was no disorder, but it was easy gallant style by two squadrons of the to see that a trifle would produce it. Principe regiment. In spite of a seI was in the Café Suizo, which was vere fire of shot and shell, reserved. crowded in every part, a short time until they were within a very short after nightfall, when one of the distance of the battery they attacked, alarms I have referred to was given they got amongst the guns, and sabred There was a violent rush in the street many of the artillerymen, but were preoutside, cries and shouts; those with vented from carrying off the pieces, out crowded into the café, most of and compelled to retire, by the heavy those within made for the open doors. fire of the squares of infantry formed The effect was really startling; it was in rear of the artillery. Having thus exactly that produced by a charge of ascertained, beyond a doubt, that troops upon a mob; and I saw more there was no chance of the artillery than one cheek blanch amongst the coming over to them, or allowing consumers of ices and lemonade (the themselves to be taken, the insurgents evening was extremely hot) who would have perhaps acted wisely in filled the café. But it was a ground. making no farther attempts upon the less alarm, produced, as before, merely hostile line, or, if they were resolved by the troops compelling the crowd to upon a contrary course, in assailing recede. Armed police circulated in the flanks, instead of again charging the throng, dispersing groups, and up to the mouths of the cannon. But urging them to go home. Soon the it appears from O'Donnell's own bul