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instrument of so much good to the prompta was by no means the least whole nation, but rather accept of successful of his puns. “Well, his some honourable acknowledgment of name agreeth very well to his nature; his munificence in bestowing upon the for charters contain much matter, yet College an honest residence for the say nothing, bat put great purposes in muses.” But to return to the impugn- men's mouths." ment. The next thesis was on local Few natures would be charlish motion, “pressing many things by enough to resist a genial glow of satisclear testimonies of Aristotle's text;" faction on receiving such pearls of and this passage of literary arms called rhetoric scattered among them by a out one of James's sallies of pawky per- royal band, and we may believe that sifiage. “These men,” he said, " know the professors were greatly gratified. Aristotle's mind as well as bimself But, pleased more probably by his own did while he lived." The next thesis success, the king gave a more substanwas on the “ Original of Fountains;” tial mark of his satisfaction, and said, and the discussion, much to the pur- “I am so well satisfied with this pose, no doubt, was so interesting that day's exercise, that I will be godit was allowed to go on far beyond father to the College of Edinburgh, the prescribed period, “bis majesty and have it called the College of himself sometimes speaking for the King James ; for after the founding impugner, and sometimes for the de- of it had been stopped for sundry fender, in good Latin, and with much years in my minority, so_soon as I knowledge of the secrets of philo- came to any knowledge, I zealously sophy."

held hand to it, and caused it to be Talking is, however, at the best, dry established ; and although I see many work. His majesty went at last to look upon it with an evil eye, yet I supper, and no doubt would have will have them to know that, having what is termed "a wet night.” When given it this name, I have espoused its up to the proper mark, he sent for the quarrel." And further on in the professors, and delivered himself of night, he promised, “that as he had the following brilliant address :- given the College a name, he would

" Methinks these gentlemen, by also, in time convenient, give it a their very names, have been destined royal godbairn gift for enlarging the for the acts which they have had in patrimony thereof." hand to-day. Adam was father of In the course of the multifarious all; and, very fitly, Adamson had the talk of the evening, a curious and first part of this act. The defender is delicate matter was opened up-the justly called Fairly-his thesis had difference between the English prosome fair lies, and he defended them nunciation of Latin and the Scottish, very fairly, and with many fair lies which corresponds with that of Europe given to the oppugners. And why in general. "An English doctor, who should not Mr Lands be the first to must have enjoyed exceptional opinenter the lands? but now I clearly ions, or been a master of hypocrisy, see that all lands are not barren, for praised the readiness and elegancy of certainly be hath shown a fertile wit. his majesty's Latinity; on which he Mr Young is very old in Aristotle. said, “ All the world knows that my Mr Reed needs not be red with blush- maister, Mr George Buchanan, was ing for his acting to-day. Mr King a great maister in that faculty. I foldisputed very kingly, and of a kingly low his pronunciation both of Latin purpose, anent the royal supremacy of and Greek, and am sorry that my reason over anger and all passions." people of England do not the like, for And here his majesty was going to certainly their pronunciation utterly close the encomiums, when some one spoils the grace of these two learned nudged his elbow, and hinted that he languages ; but you see all the unihad omitted to notice the modest versity and learned men of Scotland Charteris; but the royal wit was not express the true and native pronunciabashed, and his concluding im- ation of both.”.


* These notices are taken from the History of the University of Edinburgh, from 1580 to 1646, by Thomas Crawford, printed in 1808 from a MS. of the seventeenth century.


Madrid, July 1854. DEAR EBOXY.-Had I known that when your August number arrives, you would treacherously publish my I will venture to send you another private communications, and that epistle, notwithstanding that I have Maga comes to Madrid, I certainly received sundry mysterious warnings would have waited until I had quitted that a repetition of my first offence this capital, before imparting to you would lead to prompt blood-letting. my impressions of it, its inhabitants, This time, however, I shall have less and its institutions. I admit that I to say of the follies and failings of the have but myself to blame for my igno- natives, and more of what has ocrance of the fact that Maga, whose curred since last I troubled you with fame extends to the uttermost parts of my prose. Then I did but glance at the earth, has her regular readers cven politics en passant; now, I propose in Madrid. But you, who must be devoting my whole letter to them. aware of that fact, are not the less Just one fortnight ago there occurred culpable for risking the valuable life at Madrid an event so important that of your old ally and contributor. You I think it best to confine myself to an might have had a little more consi- account of it, and to reserve lighter deration for your outpost than to ex- matters for a future communication. pose him to the thrust of an Albacete I need hardly say that the event in dagger or Catalan knife, whether dealt question is the military insurrection under the fifth rib, or treacherously in of the 28th of June. the back. You should have reflected Things had been in rather a queer that my olive-green uniform, with a state here for some time past. As golden thistle on the black-facings, you may possibly, amidst the excitewould naturally betray my quality of ment of the Eastern question, bave Maga's vedette. Since the 10th of neglected to follow up the minute June, date of the Magazine's arrival intricacies of Spanish politics, I must in Madrid, my existence has not been step back a pace or two, in order to worth an hour's purchase. I have put you au fait. Autumn of last been obliged to strike my tent, pitched year witnessed the arrival at power in the Puerta del Sol, as the best place of the present ministry, which speedfor observation, and to picket my ily became far more unpopular than, charger in the recesses of the Retiro, for some time past, any administrawhose cool shades, I confess, are not tion had been. Headed by an unprinaltogether to be despised now that the cipled and unscrupulous adventurer, it thermometer ranges from 90 to 100 in recoiled from no illegality or tyranny the shade, and that the streets of this that might conduce to its own advancapital resemble nothing so much as tage. Defeated in the senate by a limekilns, thanks to dust from demo- large majority, on the memorable litions, and to the rays of a sun com- railway question, it suspended the pared to which the Phæbus of the session, and began to indulge its British Isles is a very fecble impostor. hatred of those who assisted in its You are, of course, aware of the plea- rebuff. In January of the present sant peculiarities of the Madrid cli- year, about a month after the closing mate-Siberia in winter and in the of the legislative chambers, some of wind; the Sahara in summer and in the most formidable of its opponents, the sun. We are just now in all the on that occasion and on most others, delights of the dogdays; a wet brick were ordered into exile. It is cusis sunburned red in half an hour; tomary and legal in Spain for the eggs, placed for ten minutes on the minister to assign a residence to tiles, open for the exit of lively unemployed officers, whither they are chickens; and Madrid, to avoid cal bound to proceed. In those disposicination, flies to the woods and waves. tions, the convenience of the officers As I hope soon to follow its example, is usually to a certain extent conand shall consequently not be here sulted, but sometimes, especially for



political reasons, the contrary is the support the movement; but some of case, and such assignment of quarters the latter played the traitor, others becomes little less than a sentence of hesitated at the very moment when banishment. A military man may be promptness and decision were most authorised to reside in Madrid (the necessary; José Concha, who was Spaniard's paradise), or transported then concealed in Spain, and expected to the Philippines, which he would to start up at Saragossa to bead the consider purgatory. As most military revolt, did not appear, but soon aftermen of high rank in this country are wards presented himself to the authomore or less political characters, rities of Bordeaux. In short, the either having held office, or hoping whole thing failed. The Cordova resome day to find a place in one of giment was broken up; changes were the ephemeral Spanish governments made in one or two garrisons ; a num(whose existence rarely exceeds a ber of arrests, especially of military year, and is sometimes limited to a men and newspaper editors, were day), and constantly manæuvring to made in Madrid; promotions and deobtain it, they hold it a cruel destiny corations were lavished upon certain that consigns them to a colonial abode, officers, amongst whom were some or to vegetation in a remote town, far who had betrayed to death the friends from the capital, that centre of every and confederates they had promised kind of intrigue. It may be imagined, to support; the last of the insurgents therefore, with what extreme disgust were driven across the frontier; the some of the military chiefs of the government emerged from the brief Moderado opposition suddenly found struggle with renewed strength, and themselves ordered to places where became daily more unconstitutional, they would be at full liberty to study arbitrary, and tyrannical. strategy, or play the Cincinnatus in Within a short time after the inci. their cabbage gardens, but where they dents I have thus briefly sketched, it would be forgotten by the world, and was generally reported that the place powerless to annoy the ministers or where the Moderado opposition (noto forward their own ambitious views. way discouraged by the disaster in Generals Leopold O'Donnell, Manuel Arragon) intended to make their next Concha, José Concha, and Infante attempt, was Madrid itself. The con(a deserter from the Progresista or duct of the government in the mean liberal party), were the men whose time bad certainly been such as to influence and intrigues the Sartorius irritate its enemies, and rouse public ministry thus attempted to annul. indignation. No one was safe from The two former were ordered to the the despotic system introduced. IlCanary Islands, the two latter to the legal arrests were of frequent occurBalearics. Manuel Concha and In- rence, made without a shadow of a fante obeyed orders and departed for pretext, and whose victims, contheir destinations; José Concha, by scious of no crime, were left to lanfar the cleverer of the brothers, went guish in prison, transported to the into France; O'Donnell disappeared, colonies, or escorted out of Spain. and it was not until some time after. The opposition journals were daily wards that it became known where seized, not only for the articles they he was concealed. From the time of published, but for the mere news they these banishments (the latter part of gave, as there were many things January) may be dated the com- which ministers did not choose to have mencement of the conspiracy which communicated to the nation except in has just broken out in the shape of a the falsified version given by their own military insurrection.

journals. The Clamor Público, ably On the 20th of February, the regio conducted by a staunch and wellment of Cordova, quartered at Sara- known liberal, Don Fernando Corradi; gossa, rose in revolt, headed by its the Nacion, also a Progresista paper, colonel, Brigadier Hore, an officer of whose editor, Rua Figueroa, still conmerit, wbo bad served in the royal trived to write in it from the concealguards during the civil war. Nearly ment to which an order for his arrest the whole of the garrison, and several had compelled him ; the Diario Esofficers of high rank, were pledged to pañol and the Epoca, representing the Moderado opposition, were the chief be of commanding talent, and, we are objects of ministerial oppression and justified in believing, of far more vindictiveness, and day after day their patriotic mind than he ever had credit columns were headed with the an- for, cut the knot of the difficulty, at nouncement, that their first edition the cost, certainly, of constitutional had been seized by order of the cen- forms, but, as many now think, for sor. In spite of this persecution, they the real benefit of the nation. In steadily persevered, opposing the go- Spain, the situation of affairs was vernment as well as they might, but quite otherwise. Where was here the prevented from exposing, otherwise vigorous intellect whose judgment, and than by inference and in a most guard- firmness and foresight were to guide, ed manner, the scandalous corruption without assistance and through many and jobbing of the ministers and the perils, the ship of the state. Was it court. Discontent was general, and that of the unfortunate, uneducated daily increased. It was asked when Queen, who detests business, and passes the Cortes were to assemble, for only her life sunk in sloth and sensuality ? in their discussions did there seem a Was it to be the upstart unscrupulous chance of such expression of public minister who, by sheer audacity (the opinion as might alarm and check the most valuable quality for a Spanish men in power. These, however, had politician who seeks but his own agno intention of calling together the grandisement), had first crawled and legislative chambers. They contin- afterwards pushed his way to the head ued to make laws by decree, and to of the royal council-board? Or would sanction, for the benefit of their friends the arch-intriguer, Maria Christina, and adherents, railways and other sketch the course her daughter should national works, for which the approval adopt when converted into an absolute of the Cortes was to be asked at some sovereign ? No, for her time was too future day. But that day bas not yet much taken up in adding, at the excome, nor will it come, so long as the pense of Spain, to her already incalpresent ministry is in office and the culable wealth, and in planning marQueen-mother supports them, for she riages for her numerous daughters. dreads, as much as they do, the ex- In short, to carry into the higher posure of the countless iniquitous spe- sphere of politics the general and serculations at the country's expense, in vile imitation of France now observable which she and her husband have been in Spain, was an idea repugnant to the concerned, with the connivance and Spanish nation, and which increased, aid of the government, who thus re- if possible, the universal discontent paid her for the countenance that often that already prevailed-excited by the stood them in good stead against the closing of the chambers, the violence intrigues of the camarilla headed by used towards the independent press the Queen's favourite. Then there (which it was evidently intended to were frequent rumours of an approach- crush), the notorious corruption of the ing coup d'état, on the plan of that of administration ; the unsatisfactory December 1851 in France, or of that, state of the finances, tending inevitably nearly resembling it, which the bravo- to some extraordinary exactions from Murillo ministry had actually pub- the already over-taxed people; and lished, but had been unable to carry last, but not least, by the scandalous out. All this time (ever since the concessions daily made to the friends outbreak at Saragossa) the whole and adherents of the ministry, and to country was under martial law; no those influential persons, the Riancoup d'état could confer upon the gov. zares, Señor Arana, Mr Salamanca, ernment more arbitrary powers than and others, whose enmity the Sartothose it already exercised-it could rius cabinet dared not encounter, and but legalise illegality. The case was whose support they were compelled to vastly different in France and in Spain. purchase. In France, after a period of anarchy, It was understood that a military succeeded by a conflict of political insurrection was contemplated, with factions which rendered all govern- O'Donnell at its head. The government impossible, a man long depre- ment affected to make light of the ciated, but now generally admitted to affair, but in reality they were not

without uneasiness, for they could not but feel-although they daily had it proclaimed by the hireling Heraldo that they were the saviours of the nation, and the most popular and prosperous of ministries-that they were execrated, and that all classes would rejoice in their downfall. It is difficult to convey to Englishmen except to those who may be personally acquainted with this singular country and people-a clear idea of the state of political affairs in Madrid during the second quarter of the present year. I must content myself with supplying a few detached facts and details, from which you may, perhaps, form a notion of the whole. For three months conspiracy may be said to have walked the streets of Madrid openly and in broad daylight. Almost every one knew that something was plotting, and a considerable number of persons could have told the names of the chief conspirators, and given some sort of general outline of their plans. O'Donnell, disobeying the orders of the Queen's government, remained hidden in Madrid, seeing numerous friends, but undiscoverable by the police. He had frequent meetings with his fellow-conspirators; his wife often saw him; for some time, during which he was seriously ill, he was daily visited by one of the first physicians in Madrid; still the government, although most anxious to apprehend him, failed in every attempt to discover his hidingplace, which was known to many. It is rare that the secrets of a conspiracy, when they have been confided to so large a number of persons, have been kept so well and for so long a time as in the present case; but this caution and discretion are easily explicable by the universal hatred felt for the present government and by the strong desire for its fall. The superior police authorities were bitterly blamed by the minister; large sums were placed at their disposal, numerous agents had assigned to them the sole duty of seeking O'Donnell. All was in vain. The government paid these agents well, but O'Donnell, as it afterwards appeared, paid them better. A portion, at least, of the men employed to detect him, watched ver his safety. The government,

ashamed of its impotence to capture, spread reports that he they sought had left Madrid; and, afterwards, that they knew where he was, but preferred leaving him there and watching his movements to seizing him and sending him out of the country, to prepare, on a foreign soil, revolutionary movements in the provinces of Spain. These ridiculous pretences imposed upon very few. Could the government have apprehended O'Donnell, they might not have dared to shoot him, and might have hesitated permanently to imprison him; but they would not have scrupled to ship him to the Philippines, where he would have done little mischief. The truth was, that they employed every means to discover his hiding-place, and every means proved ineffectual. O'Donnell, I am informed, was concealed in a house that communicated with the one next to it, which had back and front entrances. His friends and the friendly police kept strict watch. Of a night, when he sometimes went out to walk, his safety was cared for by the very men whom the authorities had commissioned to look for him, and who went away with him when he left Madrid to assume the command of the insurgents. A gentleman who, during a certain period, was in the habit of frequently seeing him, was one morning on his way to his place of concealment, and had entered the street in which it was situated, when a police agent, making him a sign, slipped a scrap of paper into his hand. On it were the words


Beware, you are watched." Taking the hint, the person warned passed the house to which he was going, and entered another, in the same street, where he had friends. From the window he observed a policeman, who had been loitering about as if in the ordinary discharge of his duty, hastily depart. When he had made sure that the coast was clear, he left the house, entered that in which O'Donnell was, saw him, passed into the next house, and departed by the back door. There was soon a cordon of police agents round the house into which he first had gone, but their vigilance was fruitless. I had this anecdote from one of the

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