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to be able effectually to restore it—the names, marking those absent-a daty sage of positivism, M. Comte ; and quite in keeping with that enumerathe is to do it when he has established ing function of the Roman officer absolute science in everything, and which has left to us the word census put down freedom of opinion by the as a numbering of the people. application of sure scientific deduction So lately as the eighteenth century, in every department of the world's when the monastic or collegiate intellectual pursuits; when it shall system which has now so totally disbe as impossible to question the most appeared from the Scottish universiabstruse propositions in chemistry, ties yet lingered about them, the geology, or social organisation, as to censor was a more important, or at question the multiplication table or least more laborious officer, and, oddly the succession of the tides—then, in- enough, he corresponded in some meadeed, may absolute laws be laid down sure with the character into which, to govern the world in its appreciation in England, the Proctor had been so of intellectual rank. But it is long yet strangely diverted. In a regulation ere that day of certain knowledge—if it adopted in Glasgow, in 1725, it is prois ever destined to dawn on that poor, vided “that all students be obliged, blundering, unfortunate fellow, man. after the bells ring, immediately to We have got but a very, very little repair to their classes, and to keep way yet, and we know not how much within them, and a censor be appointfarther it is permitted us to penetrate. ed to every class, to attend from the Terrible are the chaotic heaps that ringing of the bells till the several have to be cleared away or set in masters come to their classes, and order by the pioneers of intellect, and observe any, either of his own class it is still a question whether our race or of any other, who shall be found can provide those who are strong- walking in the courts during the above headed enough for the task.
time, or standing on the stairs, or There is much truth, however, at looking out at the windows, or making the foundation of the French sage's noise.”—Munimenta Univ. Glasguensis, audacious speculations, that intellect ii. 429. This has something of the must achieve for herself her own con- mere schoolroom characteristic of quests and take her own position. In our modern university discipline, the greatness of the acquirements of but this other paragraph, from the which they are the nursery, must we same set of regulations, is indicative look hereafter to the greatness of our
both of more mature vices among the seminaries of learning. If the univer- precocious youth of Glasgow, and a sity is but a grammar-school or a more inquisitorial corrective organisacollection of popular lecture-rooms, tion:no royal decrees or republican ordi- “ That for keeping order without nances will give it rank-if it be a the College, a censor be appointed to great centre of literary and scientific observe any who shall be in the streets illumination, the pride or enmity of its before the bells ring, and to go now rivals will not tarnish its lustre. But and then to the billiard-tables, and apart from the question between to the other gaming-places, to observe catholicity and positivity, it is, we if any be playing at the times when think, very interesting to notice in they ought to be in their chambers; our universities-humble as we admit and that this censor be taken from them to be the relics of the nomen- the poor scholars of the several classes clature and customs which, in the alternately, as they shall be thought fifteenth century, marked their rank most fit for that office, and that some in the great European cluster of uni- reward be thought of for their pains." versities. The most eminent of their (Ibid., 425). In the fierce street-concharacteristics is that high officer, the flicts, to which we may have occasion Rector, already spoken of. There is to refer, the poor censors had a more a Censor too-but for all the grandeur perilous service. of bis etymological ancestry in Roman In the universities of Central history, he is but a small officer – in Europe, and that of Paris, their stature sometimes, as well as dignity. parent, the censor was a very imHe calls over the catalogue or roll of portant person ; yet he was the subordinate of one far greater in power occasioned so great difficulty in the and influence. In the words of the choice that the Faculty, choosing a writers of the Trevaux, so full of leet of some of them who seemed knowledge about such matters, “Un most to excel and be fittest, did deterRégent est dans sa classe comme un mine the same by lot, which the Souverain ; il crée des charges de Faculty did solemnly go about, and Censeurs comme il lui plait, il les the lot fell upon Mr John Law, who donne à qui il veut, et il les abolit thereupon was this day established quand il le judge à propos." The regent.”-Ibid., vol. iii. p. 596. regents still exist in more than their Sir William Hamilton explains the original potency; for they are that position of the regents with a lucid essential invigorating element of the precision which makes his statement university of the present day, without correspond precisely with the docuwhich it would not exist. Of old, mentary stores before us.
" In the when every magister was entitled to original constitution of Oxford,” he teach in the university, the regents says, “as in that of all the older were persons selected from among universities of the Parisian model, them, with the powers of government the business of instruction was not as separate from the capacity and confided to a special body of privifunction of instructing; at present, in leged professors. The University was so far as the university is a school, the governed, the University was taught, regent is a schoolmaster—and there. by the graduates at large. Profesfore, as we have just said, he is an sor, master, doctor, were originessential element of the establishment. ally synonymous. Every graduate The term regent, like most of the other had an equal right of teaching
publicly university distinctions, was originally in the University the subjects compeof Parisian nomenclature, and there tent to his faculty and to the rank of might be adduced a good deal of learn- his degree; nay, every graduate ining bearing on its signification as dis- curred the obligation of teaching tinct from that of the word professor- publicly, for a certain period, the now so desecrated in its use that we subjects of his faculty-for such was are most familiar with it in connection the condition involved in the grant of with dancing-schools, jugglers' booths, the degree itself. The bachelor, or and veterinary surgeries. Theregency, imperfect graduate, partly as an exeras a university distinction conferred cise towards the higher honour, and as a reward of capacities shown with. useful to himself, partly as a perin the arena of the university, and formance due for the degree obtained, judged of according to its republican and of advantage to others, was principles, seems to have lingered in a bound to read under a master or rather confused shape in our Scottish doctor in his faculty a course of universities, and to have gradually lectures; and the master, doctor, or ingrafted itself on the patronage of perfect graduate, was in like manner, the professorships. So in reference to after his promotion, obliged immediGlasgow, immediately after the Re- ately to commence (incipere), and to volution, when there was a vacancy or continue for a certain period publicly two from Episcopalians declining to to teach (regere), some at least of the take the obligation to acknowledge subjects appertaining to his faculty. the new Church Establishment, there As, however, it was only necessary appears the following notice :
for the University to enforce this " January 2, 1691. - There had obligation of public teaching, compulnever been so solemp and numerous sory on all graduates during the term an appearance of disputants for a of their necessary regency, if there did regent's place as was for fourteen not come forward a competent number days before this, nine candidates of voluntary regents to execute this dispating; and in all their disputes function ; and as the schools belongand other exercises they all behaved ing to the several faculties, and in themselves so well, as that the Faculty which alone all public or ordinary judged there was not one of them but instruction could be delivered, were gave such specimens of their learning frequently inadequate to accommodate as might deserve the place, which the multitude of the incepters, it came to pass that in these universities the the Scottish universities the deans of original period of necessary regency faculty are still nearly as familiar a was once and again abbreviated, and title as they were at Paris or Bologna. even a dispensation from actual teach- The employment in the universities ing during its continuance commonly of a dead language as the means of allowed. At the same time, as the communication was not only a natural University only accomplished the end arrangement for teaching the familiar of its existence through its regents, use of that language, but it was also they alone were allowed to enjoy full evidently courted as one of the tokens privileges in its legislature and govern- of learned isolation from the common ment; they alone partook of its bene- illiterate world. In Scotland, as perficia and sportula. In Paris the non- haps in some other small countries, regent graduates were only assembled such as Holland, the Latin remained on rare and extraordinary occasions: as the language of literature after the in Oxford the regents constituted the great nations England, France, Gerhouse of congregation, which, among many, Italy, and Spain, were making other exclusive prerogatives, was an- a vernacular literature for themselves. ciently the initiatory assembly through In the seventeenth century the Scot which it behoved that every measure had not been reconciled to the acceptshould pass before it could be admit- ance of the English tongue as his own; ted to the house of convocation, com- nor, indeed, could he employ it either posed indifferently of all regents and gracefully or accurately. On the other non-regents resident in the Univer- hand, he felt the provincialism of the sity."— Dissertations, p. 391-2. .Lowland Scottish tongue, the ridicule
But the term Regent became after attached to its use in books which wards obsolete in the southern uni- happened to cross the Border, and the versities, while it continued by usage narrowness of the field it afforded to to be applied to a certain class of literary ambition. professors in our own. Along with Hence every man who looked to be other purely academic titles and func- a worker in literature or science, threw tions, it fell in England before the himself into the academic practice of rising ascendancy of the heads and cultivating the
familiar use of the Laother functionaries of the collegiate tin language. To the Scottish scholars institutions-colleges, halls, inns, and it was almost a revived language, and entries. So, in the same way, eva- they possessed as great a command porated the faculties and their deans, over it as can ever be obtained of a still conspicuous in Scottish academic language confined to a class, and not nomenclature. In both quarters they universally used by the lowest as well were derived from the all-fruitful nur. as the highest of the people. Hence, sery of the Parisian University. But when he had the pen in hand, the Scotland kept and cherished what she educated Scotsman felt the Latin obtained from a friend and ally ; Eng- come more naturally to his call than land despised and forgot the example the vernacular; and people accusof an alien and hostile people. The tomed to rummage among old letters Decanus seems to have been a captain by Scotsmen will have sometimes orleader of ten—a sort of tything-man; noticed that the writer, begivning and Ducange speaks of him as a super- with his native tongue, slips gradually intendent of ten monks. Heafterwards into the employment of Latin as a came into general employment as a relief, just as we may find a foreigner sort of chairman and leader. The abandon the arduous labour of breakDoyens of all sorts, lay and ecclesias- ing English, to repose bimself in the tical, were a marked feature of ancient easy fluency of his natural speech. France, as they still are of Scotland, We believe that no language, emwhere there is a large body of lay ployed only by a class, is capable of deans, from the eminent lawyer who the same copiousness and flexibility presides over the Faculty of Advo- as that which is necessarily applicates down to “my feyther the dea cable to all purposes, from the meancon," who gathers bebind a half-door est to the highest. But such as a the gear that is to make his son a class-language could become, the Lacapitalist and a magistrate. Among tin was among the Scots; and it is to
In a great measure, however, it seems to have been less the object in view to inculcate Latin than to discountenance the vernacular language of the country. In some instances the language of France is admitted; and, from the number of Scotsmen who carved out their fortunes in that hospitable and affluent country, this acquisition must have been one of peculiar value. In a set of statutes and laws of the Grammar School of Aberdeen, adopted in 1553, there is a very singular liberty of choice-the pupils might speak in Greek, Hebrew, or even in Gaelic, rather than in Lowland Scots: "Loquantur omnes Latinè, Græcè, Hebraicè, Gallicè Hybernicè-nunquam vernaculè, saltem cum his qui Latinè noscunt." This is by no means to be held as an indication of the familiar acquaintance of the Aberdonian students with the language of the Gael; on the contrary, it shows how entirely this was placed within the category of foreign tongues. We know no other instances in which the tongue of the Highlander is spoken of in connection with the earlier educational institutions of the country; but we think it not improbable that any encouragement it received was for much the same reason that Hindostanee and the African dialects are now sometimes taught to young divinesthat they may work as missionaries among the heathen. A few students from this wild region, to which Christianity had scarcely penetrated, were indeed a peculiar feature of the educational institutions of Aberdeen, and in a modified shape so remain to this day, since some wild men from the hills, spending a brief period at school or college to acquire a fragment of education, are yet known by the term extranni, of old applied to them. There is a prevailing, but utterly false impression, that Aberdeen is in the Highlands. It lingers chiefly, in the present century, with Cockneys beginning their first northern tour; but in the seventeenth century it may, perhaps, have been entertained even in the metropolis of Scotland. Hence the educational institutions there, though at the extremity of a long tract of agricultural lowland, inhabited by a Teutonic people, and farther
their peculiar position and academic practices that, among a host of distinguished humanists, we possess in George Buchanan the most illustrious writer in the Roman tongue, both in poetry and prose, since the best days of Rome.
The records before us afford some amusing instances of the anxious zeal with which any lapse into the vernacular tongue was prevented, and conversation among the students was rendered as uneasy and unpleasant as possible. In the visitorial regulations of King's College, Aberdeen, in 1546, it is provided that the attendant boys the gyps, if we may so call them-shall be expert in the use of Latin, lest they should give occasion to the masters or students to have recourse to the vernacular speech: "Ne dent occasionem magistris et Studentibus lingua vernacula uti." If Aberdeen supplied a considerable number of waiting-boys thus accomplished, the stranger wandering to that far northern region, in the seventeenth century, might have been as much astonished as the man in Ignoramus, who tested the state of education in Paris by finding that even the dirty boys in the streets were taught French. It would, after all, have perhaps been more difficult to find waiting-boys who could speak English. The term by which they are described is a curious indication of the French habits and traditions of the northern universities: they are spoken of as garciones-a word of obvious origin to any one who has been in a French hotel.
In Glasgow, in a law passed in 1667, it is provided that "all who are delated by the public censor for speaking of English shall be fined in an halfpenny toties quoties." The sum is not large, but the imposition of the penalty at that particular juncture looks rather unreasonable, since the Senate and the Faculty of Arts had just abandoned the use of Latin in their public documents, and had adopted what, if not strictly English, was the vernacular tongue—a change which was doubtless as much to their own ease as it is to the satisfaction of the reader, who becomes painfully alive to the continued and progressive barbarisation of the academic Latin.
separated from the actual Celtic line than Edinburgh itself, are generally talked of in old documents as those which are peculiarly available for the civilisation of the Highlanders. Glasgow was nearer and more accessible to the great body of the western Celts; but in this town the prejudices against them were greater, and the alienation, especially in religion, was more emphatic. It was to Aberdeen then, generally, that the son of a predatory chief would be sent, to fit him in some measure for converse with the civilised world, such as it then was; and the fierce owner of a despotic power over his clansmen would appear among the sober burgesses of the northern metropolis much as an American chief may among the inhabitants of some distant city in the Union. Lovat studied at King's College, in Aberdeen, and there acquired a portion of those accomplishments which made him act the subtle courtier in Paris or London, and reserve his sanguinary ruffianism for Castle Dunie. Not unmindful of the benefits of the institution, some of the Celtic princes bestowed endowments on it. Thus, the Laird of Macintosh, who begins in the true regal style, "We, Lachlan Macintosh of that ilk," and who calls himself the Chief and Principall of the Clan Chattan-probably using the term which he thought would be the most likely to make his supremacy intelligible to university dignitaries dispenses to the King's College two thousand merks, "for maintaining hopeful students thereat." He reserves, however, a dynastic control over the endowment, making it conducive to the clan discipline and the support of the hierarchy surrounding the chief. It was a condition that the beneficiary should be presented "by the lairds of Macintosh sively in all time coming youth of the name of M Clan Chattan shall
those of any othe 206. This doc records, "Ma according to plication of land, to
Student Life in Scotland.
tury, M'Lean of Coll causes another
cation, but still the endowment is to a