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to be able effectually to restore it—the names, marking those absent-a daty sage of positivism, M. Comte ; and quite in keeping with that enumerathe is to do it when he has established ing function of the Roman officer absolute science in everything, and which has left to us the word census put down freedom of opinion by the as a numbering of the people. application of sure scientific deduction So lately as the eighteenth century, in every department of the world's when the monastic or collegiate intellectual pursuits; when it shall system which has now so totally disbe as impossible to question the most appeared from the Scottish universiabstruse propositions in chemistry, ties yet lingered about them, the geology, or social organisation, as to censor was a more important, or at question the multiplication table or least more laborious officer, and, oddly the succession of the tides—then, in- enough, he corresponded in some meadeed, may absolute laws be laid down sure with the character into which, to govern the world in its appreciation in England, the Proctor had been so of intellectual rank. But it is long yet strangely diverted. In a regulation ere that day of certain knowledge—if it adopted in Glasgow, in 1725, it is prois ever destined to dawn on that poor, vided “that all students be obliged, blundering, unfortunate fellow, man. after the bells ring, immediately to We have got but a very, very little repair to their classes, and to keep way yet, and we know not how much within them, and a censor be appointfarther it is permitted us to penetrate. ed to every class, to attend from the Terrible are the chaotic heaps that ringing of the bells till the several have to be cleared away or set in masters come to their classes, and order by the pioneers of intellect, and observe any, either of his own class it is still a question whether our race or of any other, who shall be found can provide those who are strong- walking in the courts during the above headed enough for the task.
time, or standing on the stairs, or There is much truth, however, at looking out at the windows, or making the foundation of the French sage's noise.”—Munimenta Univ. Glasguensis, audacious speculations, that intellect ii. 429. This has something of the must achieve for herself her own con- mere schoolroom characteristic of quests and take her own position. In our modern university discipline, the greatness of the acquirements of but this other paragraph, from the which they are the nursery, must we same set of regulations, is indicative look hereafter to the greatness of our
both of more mature vices among the seminaries of learning. If the univer- precocious youth of Glasgow, and a sity is but a grammar-school or a more inquisitorial corrective organisacollection of popular lecture-rooms, tion:no royal decrees or republican ordi- “ That for keeping order without nances will give it rank-if it be a the College, a censor be appointed to great centre of literary and scientific observe any who shall be in the streets illumination, the pride or enmity of its before the bells ring, and to go now rivals will not tarnish its lustre. But and then to the billiard-tables, and apart from the question between to the other gaming-places, to observe catholicity and positivity, it is, we if any be playing at the times when think, very interesting to notice in they ought to be in their chambers; our universities-humble as we admit and that this censor be taken from them to be the relics of the nomen- the poor scholars of the several classes clature and customs which, in the alternately, as they shall be thought fifteenth century, marked their rank most fit for that office, and that some in the great European cluster of uni- reward be thought of for their pains." versities. The most eminent of their (Ibid., 425). In the fierce street-concharacteristics is that high officer, the flicts, to which we may have occasion Rector, already spoken of. There is to refer, the poor censors had a more a Censor too-but for all the grandeur perilous service. of bis etymological ancestry in Roman In the universities of Central history, he is but a small officer – in Europe, and that of Paris, their stature sometimes, as well as dignity. parent, the censor was a very imHe calls over the catalogue or roll of portant person ; yet he was the subordinate of one far greater in power occasioned so great difficulty in the and influence. In the words of the choice that the Faculty, choosing a writers of the Trevaux, so full of leet of some of them who seemed knowledge about such matters, “Un most to excel and be fittest, did deterRégent est dans sa classe comme un mine the same by lot, which the Souverain ; il crée des charges de Faculty did solemnly go about, and Censeurs comme il lui plait, il les the lot fell upon Mr John Law, who donne à qui il veut, et il les abolit thereupon was this day established quand il le judge à propos." The regent.”-Ibid., vol. iii. p. 596. regents still exist in more than their Sir William Hamilton explains the original potency; for they are that position of the regents with a lucid essential invigorating element of the precision which makes his statement university of the present day, without correspond precisely with the docuwhich it would not exist. Of old, mentary stores before us.
" In the when every magister was entitled to original constitution of Oxford,” he teach in the university, the regents says, “as in that of all the older were persons selected from among universities of the Parisian model, them, with the powers of government the business of instruction was not as separate from the capacity and confided to a special body of privifunction of instructing; at present, in leged professors. The University was so far as the university is a school, the governed, the University was taught, regent is a schoolmaster—and there. by the graduates at large. Profesfore, as we have just said, he is an sor, master, doctor, were originessential element of the establishment. ally synonymous. Every graduate The term regent, like most of the other had an equal right of teaching
publicly university distinctions, was originally in the University the subjects compeof Parisian nomenclature, and there tent to his faculty and to the rank of might be adduced a good deal of learn- his degree; nay, every graduate ining bearing on its signification as dis- curred the obligation of teaching tinct from that of the word professor- publicly, for a certain period, the now so desecrated in its use that we subjects of his faculty-for such was are most familiar with it in connection the condition involved in the grant of with dancing-schools, jugglers' booths, the degree itself. The bachelor, or and veterinary surgeries. Theregency, imperfect graduate, partly as an exeras a university distinction conferred cise towards the higher honour, and as a reward of capacities shown with. useful to himself, partly as a perin the arena of the university, and formance due for the degree obtained, judged of according to its republican and of advantage to others, was principles, seems to have lingered in a bound to read under a master or rather confused shape in our Scottish doctor in his faculty a course of universities, and to have gradually lectures; and the master, doctor, or ingrafted itself on the patronage of perfect graduate, was in like manner, the professorships. So in reference to after his promotion, obliged immediGlasgow, immediately after the Re- ately to commence (incipere), and to volution, when there was a vacancy or continue for a certain period publicly two from Episcopalians declining to to teach (regere), some at least of the take the obligation to acknowledge subjects appertaining to his faculty. the new Church Establishment, there As, however, it was only necessary appears the following notice :
for the University to enforce this " January 2, 1691. - There had obligation of public teaching, compulnever been so solemp and numerous sory on all graduates during the term an appearance of disputants for a of their necessary regency, if there did regent's place as was for fourteen not come forward a competent number days before this, nine candidates of voluntary regents to execute this dispating; and in all their disputes function ; and as the schools belongand other exercises they all behaved ing to the several faculties, and in themselves so well, as that the Faculty which alone all public or ordinary judged there was not one of them but instruction could be delivered, were gave such specimens of their learning frequently inadequate to accommodate as might deserve the place, which the multitude of the incepters, it came to pass that in these universities the the Scottish universities the deans of original period of necessary regency faculty are still nearly as familiar a was once and again abbreviated, and title as they were at Paris or Bologna. even a dispensation from actual teach- The employment in the universities ing during its continuance commonly of a dead language as the means of allowed. At the same time, as the communication was not only a natural University only accomplished the end arrangement for teaching the familiar of its existence through its regents, use of that language, but it was also they alone were allowed to enjoy full evidently courted as one of the tokens privileges in its legislature and govern- of learned isolation from the common ment; they alone partook of its bene- illiterate world. In Scotland, as perficia and sportule. In Paris the non- haps in some other small countries, regent graduates were only assembled such as Holland, the Latin remained on rare and extraordinary occasions : as the language of literature after the in Oxford the regents constituted the great nations England, France, Gerhouse of congregation, which, among many, Italy, and Spain, were making other exclusive prerogatives, was an- a vernacular literature for themselves. ciently the initiatory assembly through In the seventeenth century the Scot which it beloved that every measure
had not been reconciled to the acceptshould pass before it could be admit- ance of the English tongue as his own; ted to the bouse of convocation, com- nor, indeed, could he employ it either posed indifferently of all regents and gracefully or accurately. On the other non-regents resident in the Univer- hand, he felt the provincialism of the sity.”— Dissertations, p. 391-2. Lowland Scottish tongue, the ridicule
But the term Regent became after- attached to its use in books which wards obsolete in the southern uni- happened to cross the Border, and the versities, while it continued by usage narrowness of the field it afforded to to be applied to a certain class of literary ambition. professors in our own. Along with Hence every man who looked to be other purely academic titles and func- a worker in literature or science, threw tions, it fell in England before the himself into the academic practice of rising ascendancy of the heads and cultivating the familiar use of the Laother functionaries of the collegiate tin language. To the Scottish scholars institutions-colleges, halls, inns, and it was almost a revived language, and entries. So, in the same way, eva- they possessed as great a command porated the faculties and their deans, over it as can ever be obtained of a still conspicuous in Scottish academic language confined to a class, and not nomenclature. In both quarters they universally used by the lowest as well were derived from the all-fruitful nur. as the highest of the people. Hence, sery of the Parisian University. But when he had the pen in hand, the Scotland kept and cherished what she educated Scotsman felt the Latin obtained from a friend and ally; Eng- come more naturally to his call than land despised and forgot the example the vernacular; and people accusof an alien and hostile people. The tomed to rummage among old letters Decanus seems to have been a captain by Scotsmen will have sometimes orleader of ten-a sort of tything-man; noticed that the writer, beginning and Ducange speaks of bim as a super- with his native tongue, slips gradually intendent of ten monks. He afterwards into the employment of Latin as a came into general employment as a relief, just as we may find a foreigner sort of chairman and leader. The abandon the arduous labour of breakDoyens of all sorts, lay and ecclesias- ing English, to repose bimself in the tical, were a marked feature of ancient easy fluency of his natural speech. France, as they still are of Scotland, we believe that no language, emwhere there is a large body of lay ployed only by a class, is capable of deans, from the eminent lawyer who the same copiousness and flexibility presides over the Faculty of Advo- as that which is necessarily applicates down to “ my seyther the dea- cable to all purposes, from the meancon,” who gathers behind a balf-doorest to the highest. But such as a the gear that is to make his son a class-language could become, the Lacapitalist and a magistrate. Among tin was among the Scots; and it is to
their peculiar position and academic In a great measure, however, it practices that, among a host of dis- seems to have been less the object tinguished humanists, we possess in in view to inculcate Latin than to George Buchanan the most illustrious discountenance the vernacular lanwriter in the Roman tongue, both in guage of the country. In some inpoetry and prose, since the best days stances the language of France is of Rome.
admitted ; and, from the number of The records before us afford some Scotsmen who carved out their foramusing instances of the anxious zeal tunes in that hospitable and affluent with which any lapse into the verna- country, this acquisition must have cular tongue was prevented, and con- been one of peculiar value. In a set versation among the students was of statutes and laws of the Gramrendered as uneasy and unpleasant as mar School of Aberdeen, adopted possible. In the visitorial regulations in 1553, there is a very singular of King's College, Aberdeen, in 1546, liberty of choice—the pupils might it is provided that the attendant boys— speak in Greek, Hebrew, or even in the gyps, if we may so call them-shall Gaelic, rather than in Lowland Scots: be expert in the use of Latin, lest “ Loquantur omnes Latinè, Græcè, they should give occasion to the mas- Hebraicè, Gallicè Hybernicè—nunters or students to have recourse to quam vernaculė, saltem cum his qui the vernacular speech: “ Ne dent occa- Latinè noscunt." This is by no means sionem magistris et Studentibus lingua to be held as an indication of the vernacula uti.” If Aberdeen supplied familiar acquaintance of the Abera considerable number of waiting-boys donian students with the language of thus accomplished, the stranger wan- the Gael; on the contrary, it shows dering to that far northern region, in how entirely this was placed within the seventeenth century, might have the category of foreign tongues. We been as much astonished as the man know no other instances in which the in Ignoramus, who tested the state of tongue of the Highlander is spoken of education in Paris by finding that in connection with the earlier educaeven the dirty boys in the streets tional institutions of the country; but were taught French. It would, after we think it not improbable that any all, have perhaps been more difficult encouragement it received was for to find waiting-boys who could speak much the same reason that HindosEnglish. The term by which they tanee and the African dialects are now are described is a curious indication sometimes taught to young divines-of the French habits and traditions that they may work as missionaries of the northern universities : they are among the heathen. A few students spoken of as garciones—a word of from this wild region, to which Cbris. obvions origin to any one who has tianity had scarcely penetrated, were been in a French hotel.
indeed a peculiar feature of the eduIn Glasgow, in a law passed in cational institutions of Aberdeen, and 1667, it is provided that * all who in a modified shape so remain to this are delated by the public censor for day, since some wild men from the speaking of English shall be fined in bills, spending a brief period at school an balfpenny toties quoties.” The sum or college to acquire a fragment of is not large, but the imposition of the education, are yet known by the term penalty at that particular juncture extranni, of old applied to them. looks rather unreasonable, since the There is a prevailing, but utterly false Senate and the Facnlty of Arts had impression, that Aberdeen is in the just abandoned the use of Latin in Highlands. It lingers chiefly, in the their public documents, and had present century, with Cockneys beadopted what, if not strictly English, ginning their first northern tour; but was the vernacular tongue—a change in the seventeenth century it may, which was doubtless as much to their perhaps, have been entertained even own ease as it is to the satisfaction of in the metropolis of Scotland. Hence the reader, who becomes painfully the educational institutions there, alive to the continued and progres- though at the extremity of a long sive barbarisation of the academic tract of agricultural lowland, inhabited Latin.
by a Teutonic people, and farther separated from the actual Celtic line tury, M'Lean of Coll causes another than Edinburgh itself, are generally mortification to be applied towards talked of in old documents as those the maintenance and education of such which are peculiarly available for the young man or boy of the name of civilisation of the Highlanders. Glas- M'Lean as shall be recommended gow was nearer and more accessible by me, or my heirs or successors to the great body of the western on the estate of Coll." This is Celts; but in this town the preju- probably the same Highland potendices against them were greater, and tate who frowned so savagely on the alienation, especially in religion, young Colman, when he, seeing an was more emphatic. It was to Aber- old gentleman familiarly called Coll deen then, generally, that the son of by his contemporaries, addressed bim a predatory chief would be sent, to fit as Mr Coll. Such a solecism would him in some measure for converse never be permitted to pass as an acciwith the civilised world, such as it dental mistake, since it would be then was; and the fierce owner of a utterly impossible to convince the despotic power over his clansmen mighty chief of Coll that there existed would appear among the sober bur- in this world a person ignorant gesses of the northern metropolis enough to be unacquainted with his much as an American chief may style and title. At a still later date, among the inhabitants of some dis- a bequest is more gracefully made by tant city in the Union. Lovat studied Sir John M.Pherson: “In testimony at King's College, in Aberdeen, and of my gratitude to the University of there acquired a portion of those ac- Old Aberdeen, I bequeath to ditto, so complishments which made him act as to afford an annual bursary to any the subtle courtier in Paris or Lon- Highland student who may be sedon, and reserve his sanguinary ruf- lected to receive the said bursary, fianism for Castle Dunie. Not un- two thousand five hundred pounds of mindful of the benefits of the institu- my Carnatic stock." tion, some of the Celtic princes be- Here there is a wider range of applistowed endowments on it. Thus, the cation, but still the endowment is to a Laird of Macintosh, who begins in Highland student. Nor, after all, when the true regal style, “We, Lachlan the social state of the Highlanders is Macintosh of that ilk," and who calls considered, can we wonder that their himself the Chief and Principall of the gentry should seek to preserve the Clan Chattan-probably using the wealth which they are constrained to term which he thought would be the deposit in the hands of the stranger for most likely to make his supremacy their own people. Occasionally, at the intelligible to university dignitaries— present day, some wild wiry M'Lean or dispenses to the King's College two M'Dougal makes his appearance, by thousand merks, " for maintaining command of the chief, at the proper hopeful students thereat." He re- time and place, to claim investment serves, however, a dynastic control in the clan bursary. Other of these over the endowment, making it con- endowments are of restricted applicaducive to the clan discipline and the tion, being et propriated support of the hierarchy surrounding to student
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