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which the Russian Nesselrodes and of a single fortress by the Turks equiPozzo di Borgos excel. But more. valent to the loss of a whole campaign Might not the Turk, who is by no by the Russians. means a milksop, and who can deal The last of our five points only reheavy blows, as we have just seen, mains—How has the establishment even from his sick-bed-might not of Greek independence, by the treaty the Turk oppose the armed interven- of 1827, answered the expectations of tion of the Powers, and might not its founders ? — What is the actual some untoward collision be the result, state of Greece, material, moral, and and might not the Turkish navy be intellectual ?— Are the Greeks under annihilated ; and then – 01 then, German Otho substantially more prosmight not the way to Constantinople perous than they were under the be more open, and the Balkan more Turkish Mahmouds? We cannot, of easily crossed ? Such were the cogi- course, hope to answer these questions tations that might naturally begin to satisfactorily within the limits at premove in the brain of a thoroughly sent prescribed to us; but one or two Russian energetic and enterprising observations we are compelled to young Czar, when the proposal was make, for the sake of taming down made to coerce the Sultan into the to somewhat of a more sober temper recognition of the total or partial in- the glowing observations with which dependence of one of bis revolted pro- Sir Archibald Alison concludes his vinces. And the result, as we all fourteenth chapter. There is a class know, was exactly such as the most of wise men in the world who show brilliant imagination of a brisk young their wisdom only in the negative way emperor could have conceived. In of seeing difficulties and making objecthe course of a few months the Turk- tions. Sir Archibald Alison certainly ish fleet was destroyed at Navarino; does not belong to this class. Once in two years Kustendji and Varna, possessed by a grand idea, he marches and the whole sea-road to Stamboul, on fearlessly to its realisation, and were in the hands of the Russian fleet; lets difficulties shift for themselves. and in three years General Diebitch He gives you a project for a marble had made himself immortal by sur- palace and a granite bridge; but mounting the unsurmountable Balkan, seems to forget sometimes that there and was resting with twenty thousand are only bricks to build with. We men (supposed, however, to be sixty like this error, which leans to virtue's thousand I) on the banks of the He- side, and has a savour of something brus at Adrianople. Never was game positive and productive; nevertheless better played. The Turko-Russian the truth must be spoken—for in policampaign of 1828–9, which we can tics the best intentions are often the now study to such advantage, was, we mother of the greatest blunders. The may say, impossible, but for the battle remarks of Sir Archibald Alison, which of Navarino, which was only the na- we think require a little chastening, tural result of the armed intervention are as follows:of the three Powers in favour of Greece. Add to this the disorganisa- 8th July 1827 having been an unjustifi

“In truth, so far from the treaty of tion of the Turkish army, caused by able interference with the rights of the the massacre of the Janizaries in Ottoman Government as an independent 1826, and the consequent disaffection power, it was just the reverse ; and the among the old Turkish conservatives; only thing to be regretted is that the and we shall see at once how the Christian powers did not interfere earlier campaign of 1828-9 ended so glori. in the contest, and with far more exten. ously for Russia, while that of 1854 sive views for the restoration of the Greek has proved so shameful. The cause empire. After the massacre of Chios, the of the difference lies obviously in the Turks had thrown themselves out of the command of the Black Sea, which pale of civilisation : they had proved Russia, by the disaster of Navarino, human race, and no longer entitled to

themselves to be pirates, enemies of the then had, and which, by the Anglo- toleration from the European family. Ex: French alliance, she now has not. pulsion from Europe was the natural and This, and this only, has on the pre- legitimate consequence of their flagrant sent occasion made the gallant defeuce violation of its usages in war. Had this been done in 1822–had the Congress of the worn-out materials of Mahommedan Verona acceded to the prayers of the despotism, but with the rising energy of Greeks, and restored the Christian empire Christian civilisation. of the East under the guarantee of the “But modern Turkey, it is said, is diAllied Powers—what an ocean of blood vided by race, religion, and situation ; would have been dried up, what bound- three-fourths of it are Christian, oneless misery prevented, what prospects of fourth Mahommedan : there are six mil. felicity to the human race opened! Alions of Sclavonians, four millions of Bul. Christian monarchy of ten millions of souls, garians, two millions and a half of Turks, with Constantinople for its capital, would, and only one million of Greeks ;-how ere this, have added a half to its popula- can a united and powerful empire be tion, wealth, and all the elements of na- formed of such materials ? Most true ; tional strength. The rapid growth, since and in what state was Greece anterior to the Crescent was expelled from their ter- the Persian invasion ; Italy before the ritories, of Servia, Greece, the Isles of the Pụnic wars ; England during the HepArchipelago, Wallachia, and Moldavia, tarchy ; Spain in the time of the Moors ; and of the Christian inhabitants in all France during its civil wars? Has the parts of the country, proves what might existence of such apparently fatal elehave been expected had all Turkey in ments of division prevented these coun. Europe been blessed by a similar libera- tries from becoming the most renowned, tion. The fairest portion of Europe would the most powerful, the most prosperous have been restored to the rule of religion, communities upon earth ? In truth, diver. liberty, and civilisation, and a barrier sity of race, so far from being an eleerected by European freedom against ment of weakness, is, when duly coerced, Asiatic despotism in the regions where it the most prolific source of strength; it was first successfully combated.


is to the body politio what the intermix, * What is the grand difficulty that now ture of soils is to the richness of the surrounds the Eastern question, which earth. It is the meagreness of unmingled has rendered it all but insoluble even to race which is the real source of weakness; the most far-seeing statesman, and has for it leaves hereditary maladies uncompelled the Western Powers, for their changed, hereditary defects unsupplied. own sake, to ally themselves with a state Witness the unchanging ferocity in every which they would all gladly, were it age of the Ishmaelite, the irremediable practicable without general danger, see indolence of the Irish, the incurable arroexpelled from Europe? Is it not that gance of the Turk ; while the mingled the Ottoman empire is the only barrier blood of the Briton, the Roman, the Saxon, which exists against the encroachments the Dane, and the Norman, has proof Russia, and that if it is destroyed the duced the race to which is destined the independence of every European state is sceptre of half the globe. endangered by the extension of the Mus. “Such was the resurrection of Greece ; covite power from the Baltic to the thus did old Hellas rise from the grave Mediterranean? All see the necessity of of nations. Scorched by fire, riddled by this barrier, yet all are sensible of its shot, baptised in blood, she emerged vicweakness, and feel that it is one which is torious from the contest ; she achieved daily becoming more feeble, and must in her independence because she proved herthe progress of time be swept away. This self worthy of it ; she was trained to

; difficulty is entirely of our own creation; manhood in the only school of real imit might have been obviated, and a firm provement, the school of suffering. bulwark erected in the East, against Twenty-five years have elapsed since which all the surges of Muscovite ambition her independence was sealed by the would have beat in vain. Had the dic. battle of Navarino, and already the tates of humanity, justice, and policy been warmest hopes of her friends have been listened to in 1822, and a Christian mon. realised. Her capital, Athens, now conarchy been erected in European Turkey, tains thirty thousand inhabitants, quadunder the guarantee of Austria, France, ruple what it did when the contest terand England, the whole difficulties of thé minated ; its commerce has doubled, and Eastern Question would have been obvi- all the signs of rapidly advancing prosated, and European independence would perity are to be seen on the land. The have found an additional security in the inhabitants have increased fifty per cent; very quarter where it is now most seri- they are now above seven hundred thou. ously menaced. Instead of the living sand, but the fatal chasms produced by being allied to the dead, they would the war, especially in the male populahave been linked to the living ; and a tion, are still in a great measure unsupbarrier against Eastern conquest erected plied, and vast tracts of fertile land, on the shores of the Hellespont, not with spread with the bones of its defenders, await in every part of the country the believethis is natural; that Sir Archirobust arm of industry for their cultiva. bald Alison should believe it, carried tion. The Greeks, indeed, have not all away by a noble sympathy with a the virtues of freemen ; perhaps they are

heroic theme, is but the radiation of never destined to exhibit them. Like that fire with which the noblest minds the Muscovites, and from the same cause, barn most intensely ; but we have they are often cunning, fraudulent, deceitful ; slaves always are such ; and a

never conversed with an individual nation is not crushed by a thonsand years practically conversant with the eleof Byzantine despotism, and four hun- ments of which Christian Turkey is dred of Mahommedan oppression, without composed, who looked upon such a having some of the features of the servile consummation, in the present age at character impressed upon it. But they ex: least, as possible. A very intelligent hibit also the cheering symptoms of social and patriotic Greek gentleman once reimprovement; they have proved they still marked in our hearing, that the Greek possess the qualities to which their an- kingdom could never prosper in its cestors' greatness was owing. They are present tiny dimensions ; that the lively, ardent, and persevering, passion Greek Islands-except Corcyra, which ately desirous of knowledge, and indefatigable in the pursuit of it.' The whole the English must keep as a naval sta. life which yet animates the Ottoman Em- tion-with

Thessaly, and part of Thrace pire is owing to their intelligence and and Macedonia, must be added to it activity. The stagnation of despotism is before it could be free from that spirit unknown among them; if the union of civi- of petty intrigue which is the great lisation is unhappily equally unknown, that vice of small governments. This is is a virtue of the manhood, and not to be intelligible ; because the population looked for in the infancy of nations. The included under such an extended Greek consciousness of deficiencies is the first kingdom would, by a great predominstep to their removal ; the pride of bar. barism, the self-sufficiency of ignorance; be essentially Greek. But when it is

ance both of numbers and moral forces, is the real bar to improvement ; and a nation which is capable of making the proposed seriously to revive a Byzanefforts for improvement which the tine empire, Greek merely in name, Greeks are doing, if not in possession of and comprising such large sections of political greatness, is on the road to it.” a non-Hellenic population as Servia,

for instance, and Bulgaria, then, we Now, to the first proposition con- confess, we feel staggered; and all the tained in the above remarks, that the historic analogies which Sir Archibald Great Powers were perfectly justified Alison so skilfully presses into his serin their intervention to save the Greeks vice will not give wings to our droopfrom the lawless ferocity of the Turks, ing faith. The best-instructed man we have no objections to offer. It is with whom we ever conversed on the a gladdening thing to believe and to subject-Dr George Finlay, who has see that the strong cry of human sym- lived among the Greeks all his lifepathy will sometimes be listened to declares that such a combination is even by politicians, and that heart impossible: the principle of cohesion less di macy in the public inter is too weak, that of repulsion too course between people and people is strong : the splendid aggregate would not all in all. But the summary ex- fall to pieces in a few years; and out pulsion of the Turks from European of the confused elements a new comTurkey, even supposing it were pulsory crystallisation take place unnot too great a punishment for der the influence- very likely-of the offence, would, when achieved, Russian polarity. Sir Archibald Alison leave the most difficult part of the himself, in one of the phrases which Greek problem unsolved. Sir Archi- he accidentally drops, seems to admit bald assumes that the discordant and the truth of this view. “Diversity of crude elements of which European race," he says, “ so far from being an Turkey, less the Turks, is composed, element of weakness, is, when duly would, in 1827, have readily coalesced, coerced, the most prolific source of or is ready now, in 1854, to coalesce, strength." Very true, wben duly into a great Greek empire, of which coerced; but it is this very principle Constantinople shall be the capital. of coercion that would not exist in That the Greeks themselves should the supposed Byzantine empire ; and

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could exist only, according to one of sion of the limits of the existing monSir A. Alison's own analogies, through archy, no person practically acquaintthe violent subjection of all the other ed with the events of Greek governraces by the one that happened to ment, or rather misgovernment, since be strongest ; for so it was, as Livy the creation of Otho's kingdom in shows in bloody detail, that the differ- 1832, can imagine that the evils under ent races of Italy were coerced into a which the country has groaned would grand national unity by the Roman have been less, had Thessaly and MaLatins. But even after all that bloody cedonia been at that time included cementing, the aggregate of the Italian within the Hellenic border. We States, as no one knows better than should still have had German bureau. Sir Archibald Alison, was kept to- cracy, French constitutionalism, Fanagether by the loosest possible cohesion; riote intrigue, Ætolian brigandage, as the terrible outburst of the Marsic and modern diplomacy, thrown toor Social war testifies, which well- gether to brew a devil's soup of jobnigh split Italy into two, at a time bery, and falsehood, and feebleness, when Julius Cæsar, its future master, over which the wisest man can only had not yet begun to trim his beard. bold up bis hands, and with a hopeless He certainly, the lion, and his nephew wonderment exclaimAugustus, the fox after him, did use

“ Double, double, toil and trouble ; the bloody cement successfully, and

Fire burn, and cauldron bubble !" exercised a strong coercion, the effect of which is visible even now among In conclusion, we need hardly say the again-divided possessors of the that we cannot agree with Sir A. Alison Italian soil ; such a coercion as the when he states, so strongly as he does present Czar of Russia might perhaps in the last paragraph, that already at the present moment be in the fair the warmest hopes of the friends of way of exercising for the sake of the Greece have been realised ; and all the Orthodox Church, had Sir Archibald signs of advancing prosperity are to be Alison's Byzantine empire been patch- seen in the land." It is a great mised together with a few purple rags in take to imagine that the country is the year 1828. Or again, to take an. really in a prosperous state because other of his analogies, has Sir Archi- Athens has trebled its population in bald Alison forgotten what was the thirty years. Athens has a well-furstate of Greece, not anterior to, but nished and rather a flourishing apimmediately after the Persian inva- pearance, for the same reason that sion ?- did it not plunge at once into Nauplia looks out upon the beautiful all the pettiness of provincial rivalry? Bay of Argos in such a state of woeand was not the great Peloponnesian ful dismantlement and dilapidation : war & speaking proof, that there the court has left the Argive city, and were no elements of cohesion even travelled to the Attic; and all the among pure Greeks, and in the best gilded gingerbread, which you call days of Greece, strong enough to keep prosperity, has gone with it. Let no that unfortunate country from con- man be hasty to draw sanguine prosuming its own vitals in civil war, and mises of Greek prosperity from anybecoming, by voluntary self- betrayal, thing good or glittering that may defirst the scoff of the Persian, and light his eyes in the streets of Athens. then the prey of the Macedonian ?- That splendid palace of the little GerWith these examples before us, we

man prince, now called King of Greece, cannot but consider ourselves more with its fine well-watered gardens near the truth in following the prac- without, and its fine pictures within, tical statesmen who declared that the and its large dancing-saloon, the wonnew Greek kingdom should be con- der even of London beauties—this fined within the limits where the insur- palace was a mere toy of the boy's rection had chiefly raged, and where poetical papa, and has no more to do the battle had been fought. Sober with the progress of real prosperity in politicians could not but look upon the Greece than a wax-doll bas to do with whole affair as experimental; and life and organisation. Nay, it may whatever arguments may in the course

be most certainly affirmed, that not a of events be advanced for an expan- small part of that sudden growth of

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the capital of Greece is, with reference would by no means despair of Young to the country at large, a positive evil, Greece; there is much to admire in a brilliant excrescence, which owes her, especially her schools, university, its existence altogether to the artificial and the wonderful culture of her attraction of the nutritive fluids of the deathless language in its most recent body politic to one prominent point, shape; and only in a fit of foolish petwhile the largest and most useful tishness would any Englishman enlimbs are left without their natural tertain the thought of blotting her supply. If there are shining white again out of the map of nations, for palaces, and green Venetian blinds, any of the many sins she has commitin one Greek city, there is desolation ted, whether by her own fault, orand dreariness, stagnation and every what we suspect to be the real truth sort of barbarism, in the fields. But by the ignorant and officious agency

commerce flourishes;" it has doubled, of German bureaucratists, Anglosays Sir A. Alison, since the battle French constitutionalists, and Musof Navarino. Be it so. Patras is a covite diplomatists. Nevertheless, in goodly city, preferable, in some points, so slippery a science as politics, and to Athens, we think ; but were there with creatures so difficult to manage not rich merchants at Hydra before as human beings, it is always better to the Revolution ? and are the Greeks avoid the temptation of drawing paat Patras more prosperous than at noramic pictures in rose colour; and Salonica, at Odessa, at Trieste, at with regard to Greece, a country to Leghorn, at Manchester? There were which humauity owes so much, our always clever merchants among the first duty, in the present very critical Greeks, just as generally as there are state of Europe, is to look soberly at sharp bankers and money-changers a reality full of perilous problems, among Jews and Armenians. We and to possess our souls in patience.

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