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ties, and had, on the contrary, like him), bound together the feet of the many other influential persons of his corpse, and dragged it away to the pation, considered the movement pre- extreme end of the quay of the Fanar, mature, * and warned his countrymen with mockery and blasphemous words. against it as likely to lead to the Then they threw it into the sea, and most pernicious consequences. But gave the end of the rope with which

they had bound the feet to the hangman, it is vain, as we already remarked, who, having gone before, was waiting to look for reasons that would them in a little boat. He immediately, satisfy any European ideas of justice seizing the rope and dragging the body in proceedings between Turks in after him, came to the middle of the authority and rebellious Giaours. bay,t and there attached to the body a The calm and solemn gentleman, stone which he had brought with him in enveloped in smoke and coffee fumes, order to sink it : but it proved not whose bland dignity we so much weighty enough for this purpose; so he admired in time of peace, becomes left the corpse floating on the water, suddenly seized with a preternatural and, making for the strand, came back fury when the scent of Greek blood with two other stones, which he attached

to the body; and then, giving it two or is in the gale. It is a primary law

three stabs with his knife, to let out the of his religion, inherited from the water, he immediately sunk it. After oldest Oriental theocracies, that no

some days, however, it came to the infidel is entitled to live ; and if the surface at Galata between two ships head seems more serviceable for the lying at the point where a great many nonce than the capitation-tax, which boats are always stationed, for passing is its substitute, the law of the over to the city. One of these ships Prophet is satisfied, and no man has was a Slavonian, and the other a Greek, a right to complain. Mr Tricoupi Slavonian saw the body first, and threw

from Cephalonia. The captain of the now proceeds with his narrative.

some straw matting over it, with the « The execution being over, the great view of concealing it till the night, when interpreter, the secretary, and their he meant to bury it, like a good Chrisattendants, left the palace of the Pa- tian. But when the evening came, the triarch. In the evening of the same Cephalonian captain anticipated him, and day, Beterli Ali Pasha, who had recent- perceiving from the unshaven chin that ly been appointed Grand Vizier, went it was the body of a priest, brought into through the Fanar with only one at- his ship secretly some Christians, who tendant, and, asking for a chair, sat assured him that it was the body of the down for five or six minutes on the Patriarch. The pious Cephaliote immestreet opposite the suspended body of diately swathed the body in a windingthe Patriarch, looking at him, and sheet, and, transporting it to Odessa, speaking to his attendant.

After an deposited it in the Lazaretto there. I hour the Sultan himself passed the same There the body was examined by the way, and cast his eye on the Patriarch. order of the governor, and was recog. The body remained suspended three nised by certain signs as that of the days; but on the fourth the hangman Patriarch. took it down to throw it into the sea, it “ Information of this being sent to St being contrary to law in Turkey that Petersburg, orders were to bury persons hung or beheaded should receive the body with all appropriate honours. burial. Then there came to the hang- The sacred Russian synod came to assist man certain Jews, and having received in the funeral ceremony; and on the 17th his permission (some say that they bribed of June there were assembled in the

* Δεν συστελλομαι να ομολογήσω ότι ήμην εναντιος του τοιούτου κινήματυς κατά του Σουλτανου - όχι διότι θεν επεθύμουν την ελευθερίαν του έθνους μου αλλά διότι μ' εφαινετο άωρον το κίνημα, με το να ήσαν άπειροπολεμοι οι Έλληνες και οι πλείστοι άοπλοι, ο δε κίνδυνος μεγας.-PERRHAEBUS, Military Memoirs. Athens, 1836.

† Tov Kepatlov Kód Trou—that is, we have no doubt, the large expansion of the Golden Horn west of Galata, and north of the Fanar.

The modern Greek has lost not a whit of the fine rich flexibility which has made the ancient dialect such a convenient organ for our scientific terminology. The word for Lazaretto used here is noluokaðaprýpov; and scores of such words are seen on the signboards of the streets of Athens at the present hour.

Lazaretto all the local authorities, politi- vitude of nearly four hundred years— cal and military, the two metropolitan that they were, in fact, so awed by the bishops, Cyril of Silistria, and Gregory hereditary authority of their baughty of Hieropolis; also Demetrius, bishop of masters, that in the beginning of the Bender and 'Akerman, all the clergy war, as Gordon expressly testifies, of the province, a great number of Greek three hundred of them could not be refugees, who had Hed from the butchery made to stand against thirty Turks ; at Constantinople. Then the church bells were rung, the funeral psalms were

that their only effective leaders were sung, a salute of cannons was given, and,

a few brigand chiefs from the wild with the accompaniment of military regions of Acarnania, Ætolia, and music and the prayers of the congregated Epirus ; that the land was of such a faithful, the remains of the venerated nature as to be kept in subjection by Patriarch were carried to the metropo- fortresses, all of which were in the litan church of Odessa. Here they possession of the lords of the soil ; remained three days, till the 19th, when that the sea was open to the men of the burial-service was again sung, and a Stamboul as much as to those of funeral oration was pronounced by Con: Hydra and to Mehemet Ali's Egypstantine Economos

, preacher to the tians, we shall see plainly that noEcomenic Patriarchate, who happened to be in Odessa; after which the body thing but a wonderful combination of was removed with great pomp to the slowness, stupidity, and cowardice on church of the Greeks, and deposited in a the part of the Turks could have new sepulchre within the railing of the allowed the Greek revolt to protract holy altar, at the north side of the holy its existence during the space of those table, as being the body of a martyr. first four years, when—not without And thus—to use the very words of the large aids from English gold-it consemi-official journal of St Petersburg—by tinued to present a prosperous front the command of the most pious Autocrat to the world. What strikes us most of all the Russians, Alexander I., were in the account of the war given by rendered due honours of faith and love Gordon—who will always be a main to Gregory, the holy Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church of the Greeks, anthority—is the great want of capawho suffered a martyr's death.”

city and enterprise in the Turkish

commanders both by sea and landNext to the butchery-which, by the very same weakness, in fact, the way, the Greeks, as opportunity which is remarked at the present hour offered, were not ashamed to retaliate as afflicting the Turkish armies—a -the most noticeable thing in the want of good officers. There is in Turkish conduct of the war was their Turkey a want of a high-minded, inextraordinary slowness, fickleness, dependent, and energetic middle class, inefficiency, and bungling of every without which an army never can be sort. The insurrection, though at- well officered. Only one efficient tempted in Thessaly and Macedonia, Turkish captain appeared in the did, in fact, never extend with any whole course of the Greek war; and permanent force beyond the narrow he took Missolonghi. boundaries of the present kingdom We have been anxious to bring of Greece, with the addition of Crete, forward this sad account of the conand one or two of the Ægean islands, duct of the Turks in the iosurrection now in the possession of the Turks; distinctly, as there is a danger, at the but to suppress this petty revolt of present moment, of the Turkish milian ill-peopled and divided district, tary virtue being overrated. No man occupying a small corner of a vast who knew that nation ever doubted empire, all the strength of Turkey, that they could defend a fort well in both Asiatic and European, proved in the present war, as they have ever vain; for it was not till Ibrahim done where they happened to have a Pasha, in 1825, was sent by his good commander, and acted under father, Mehemet Ali, with a large encouraging circumstances. This is Egyptian armament that the Morea the secret of the recent successful dewas recovered to the Sultan, and the fence of Silistria, for which we feel insurrection virtually quashed. Now, all respect. With the English and when we consider that the Greeks of French fleet to guard their flank, and the Morea were stamped with the ser- all Europe as spectators of their


mettle, with the very existence of which the heroism of the Greeks bad their empire perhaps at stake, and excited. We may say, upon a review with the choice of their own battle of the whole five years' struggle, that field—that is, the defence of forts, the Greeks displayed on that occasion the Turks would have been dull truly, all the weakness, and indeed all the never to be roused, if the old heroism vices, that belonged to a people just had not flamed out with more than rising from under the weight of cenwonted fierceness. But the success- turies of oppression—but virtues also ful defence of this fort affords no proof of the highest order, which it is of the that the people who made it possess a very nature of oppression to make a spirit and an organisation able to people forget. Oppression, in fact, cope in a continued campaign with had never done its perfect work with some Paskiewitch or Diebitch of the this noble-spirited people ; it had next generation. Let us look to the made intriguers of those who remainhistory of the Greek Revolution, and ed in the Fanar, and mere moneynot believe that the Turks are great changers and money-makers of those masters in the art of war till they who peopled the cities; the base have successfully conducted a great stamp of slavery also might be found campaign. Above all things, mat- on the plains : but freedom remained ters must be so arranged at the next among the mountains ; and in Maina pacification that the preservation of and Souli every brigand chief was a the peace of Europe may not be left hero. In fact, under such a military to depend on them.

despotism as that of Turkey, brigandOur third question has reference to age, which is outlawed by a good the Greeks. Their conduct in the government, becomes the very church great revolt by which their indepen- militant of liberty. Whatsoever virdence was ultimately achieved, de- tues, therefore, belong to the indomi. serves to be noted with the greater table spirit of nationality when forced care at the present moment, because to create its own law, and redeem there are not a few persons in this itself from destruction by the descountry who are only too ready, in perate efforts of individual self-asserthe unhappy blunder of 1854, to forget tion, belonged to the Greek people, the glorious beroism of 1821-26. Sir and those Albanian tribes who were A. Alison, we are bappy to say, with identified with them in the highest that large spirit of appreciation for degree. But there was more than which he is remarkable, has shown no that. The Greeks, as the whole spirit tendency to chime in with this vulgar and tendency of Corai's writings cry. He is not surprised that the show, were intellectually an advancbrigands of Thessaly and Epirus ing people. They had scholars, and should not possess all the virtues of thinkers, and poets among them, who Pericles and Aristides ; and therefore were fighting not merely for the rude he is not offended. The Greeks, in privilege of freedom—which a brute fact, in 1821, were the authors of can understand as well as a mantheir own liberty, as much as the but for the vindication of an intellecTurks now are the authors of the tual heritage of wbich they were retreat of the Russians from Silistria proud. To these men the possession Most true it is, that without the in- of the uncorrupted Greek tongue was tervention of the Allied Powers, not- not a mere pretty plaything, as it may withstanding their utmost efforts, be to many of our academical men ; their cause was lost ; 80 also will the but it was the badge which publicly defence of Silistria have proved in proclaimed their brotherhood with vain, if England and France, in the that great hierarchy of intellect which proceedings that are yet waited for, had conquered ancient Rome, and show weakness or vacillation. But inspired modern Europe. These men the Greeks, in 1821, had this decided did not fight with the mere impatient moral vantage-ground over the Turks spirit of vulgar insurrection : they of the present day, that the interven- came, like banished kings, claiming a tion would never have taken place long-lost throne; and Europe felt had it not been forced upon the great that there was a dignity in their work Powers by the popular sympathy not belonging to every exile. But there was another element of strength resistance had not been made in vain. It in the Greek revolt, without which it laid the foundation of Greek independnever could bave succeeded, and an ence; for it preserved that blessing element which, like their zeal for during a period of despondence and doubt, intellectual culture, proved that the when its very existence had come to be modern Greeks are the true sons of endangered. By drawing the whole forces Themistocles and Pericles. This ele- its heroic garrison allowed the nation to

of the Ottoman empire upon themselves, ment was their use of the sea. The remain andisturbed in other quarters, and Turks, though they had possessed prevented the entire reduction of the the finest barbour in the world for Morea, which was threatened during the four centuries, though they governed first moments of consternation consequent a country where arms of the sea on Ibrahim's success. By holding out so serve the same purpose that railroads long, and with such resolute perseverdo elsewhere, had not only made no ance, they not only inflicted a loss upon progress in the nautical art, but had the enemy greater than they themselves allowed their enterprising slaves to experienced, but superior to the whole create for themselves a navy by which garrison of the place put together. The they were to succeed in driving

their Western nations watched the struggle masters out of the field. When Ibra- it terminated in the daring sally, and the

with breathless interest; and when at last him Pasha, in his march across the cutting through of the enemy's lines by a Morea in 1825, had arrived at that high body of intrepid men, fighting for them. ground between Tripolizza and Argos selves, their wives, and children, the pubwhere the island of Hydra becomes lio enthusiasm knew no bounds. It will visible, pointing with his hand to that appear immediately that it was this warm little nest of daring adventurers, he sympathy which mainly contributed to exclaimed, Thou LITTLE ENGLAND, the success of the Philhellenic societies when shall I hold thee!" This little which had sprung up in every country of England it was which saved Greece. Europe, and ultimately rendered public There is nothing in the records of opinion so strong as to lead to the treaty modern history more interesting than of July, the battle of Navarino, and the

establishment of Greek independence.” the dashing exploits of the gallant Ipsariote Canaris with his fire-ships On the other hand, we must not in the Greek war; and wherever shut our eyes to the faults of the Miaulis the Hydriote appeared with Greek people—which were, in fact, his squadron, there everything that just the faults of their ancestors made could be done was done. But great more large and more prominent by as were the exploits of the islanders, the long-continued action of circumEurope, perbaps, knew more, and stances favourable to their developwas justly more astonished at the ment. Will it be believed ?-during gallant conduct of the land army in the time that this heroic struggle was the two sieges of Missolonghi-a going on, by a people manifestly unfortress protected only by shallow ablo, even with their strongest comlagoons and a mud rampart, and bined exertions, to withstand their utterly unprovided with those long gigantic adversary-even in the midlines of fire-spouting barricades that heat and the critical turning-point of make Cronstadt and Sevastopol so this grapple for free existence, the difficult of approach. Yet Misso- Greek captains were quarrelling among longhi was maintained against the themselves ! There were actually whole force of the Turks for two at one time, as Gordon assures us, years; and when it did fall, the reso- seven civil wars among a people who lute garrison made no capitulation, could only collect hundreds to plant but after having exhausted the last against the thousands of their masscraps of raw hides and sea-weeds ters! Such a self-divided people, one which served them for food, cut their might almost say, was unworthy of way with gallant desperation, men liberty. Certainly if they could not and women together, through the agree to fight for themselves, it did sabred ranks of their enemies. Nor not seem the business either of France were they without their reward. Let or England to force them to be paMr Alison speak :

triotic. But, after all, what was “ Thus fell Missolonghi ; but its heroic this but the natural result of the geo

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graphy of the country, and of the circumstances under which its latent liberty had been maintained? What was it else but the same thing, on a small scale, which the Peloponnesian war exhibited on a large scale? Division is the weak point of Greece, and always was; and as for other vices which stank so strongly in the nostrils of some of our sentimental Philhellenes-cunning, falsehood, selfishness, rapacity, and blushless impudence of all kinds-such rank weeds grow from a neglected moral soil, not only in Greece, but in the streets of London and Edinburgh, and elsewhere; the only difference being that in our case a wicked or neglectful parent brings up corrupt individuals, while in the case of the modern Greeks, a wicked and neglectful government had brought up a corrupt people. There is, no doubt, some truth in the doctrine of races and hereditary propensities; and the Greek may probably be more subtle in speculation, and more cunning in practice, than the other families of the Indo-European stock. Nevertheless, we are inclined to believe that the proverbial falsehood of the Greeks, which is the worst vice now continually thrown in their teeth, is as much the result of circumstances as of blood, and that, under the same influences, any Teutonic race whose honesty is now most loudly bepraised, would exhibit a large development of the same vice. When a people is not allowed to play the lion, it must either learn to play the fox or perish.

We shall now make a few remarks on the fourth point stated-viz., the circumstances attending the conclusion of the war, as illustrative of the policy of Russia. Here a very interesting contrast immediately presents itself. Alexander, as we have seen, occupied with various benevolent projects and perambulations, fearing also not a little everything in the shape of rebellion and revolution, refused to have anything to do with the Greek insurrection. In this he behaved like a man, a gentleman, and a king, but not like a Russian. As a Russian he would have followed the footsteps of Catherine, who twice, in the latter half of the last century, raised a rebellion in the Morea, and assisted Greece not from any


classical enthusiasm, we may be sure, (such as helped not a little to fan the Greek fire of ourselves and the Germans), but that she might cripple Turkey by inflicting such a deep wound on her left leg as would render amputation necessary. this became plain in a few years. Alexander died. In the year 1826 Nicholas succeeded; and matters were at that period, by the fall of Missolonghi, and Ibrahim Pasha's occupation of the Morea, brought to such a pass that the bloody five years' struggle, with all its heroism, must have gone for nothing, had not the tide of popular sympathy begun to move so strongly in favour of intervention among the great European nations, that the governments were forced to take the matter up. England, as the most classical, and, may we not say also, the most generous, country in matters of international feeling, was the first to make overtures for a European demonstration in favour of Greek independence; and of the consulted Powers none came forward with greater alacrity than the new Emperor of the North. On the invitation of the Duke of Wellington, Nicholas was invited to send ships into the Mediterranean to co-operate with the fleets of France and England in coercing the Porte. Here was an opportunity thrown in his way, by pure accident, to achieve in a few days results more favourable to the most cherished projects of Russian aggrandisement than might have been brought about by the tortuous diplomacy and bloody encounters of long years; and this not only without exciting suspicion of ambitious views, but amid acclamations, and cheers, and philanthropic hurrahs innumerable. By joining England and France in establishing the independence of Greece, the Czar felt that not only would Turkey be reft of one of her limbs, but a new field would be opened for diplomatic intrigue in regions hitherto preserved, by the blessings of barbarism, from such refinements. A little tinselled court at Athens, with some German princeling on the throne, was no doubt even then seen in near vista, as the best possible theatre for the display of those arts of political falsehood and finesse in

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