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points of that great movement, which to turn it to practical account. For, may serve, by way of contrast or as the pure Greek of Mr Tricoupi's similitude, to throw light on the very book is no private invention of his significant struggle in wbich we are own, but the very same dialect which now engaged. A single word, how- is at present used as an organ of inever, in the first place, with regard to tellectual utterance by a large phalanx the dialect in which Mr Tricoupils of talented professors in the University work is written ; as that is a point on of Athens, and is in fact the language which all persons are not well in- of polite intercourse over the whole of formed, and a point also by no means Greece, it follows that Greek, which unimportant in the decision of the is at present almost universally studied question,- What are the hopes, pro- as a dead language, and that by a most spects, and capabilities of the living laborious and tedious process of gramrace of Greeks?

matical indoctrination, may be more Now, with regard to this point, Mr readily picked up, like German or Tricoupi's book furnishes the most French, in the course of the liv. decided and convincing evidence that ing practice of a few months. It is the language of Aristotle and Plato worthy of serious consideration, inyet survives in a state of the most deed, how far the progress of our perfect purity, the materials of which young men in an available knowledge it is composed being genuine Greek, of the finest language of the world may and the main difference between the have been impeded by the perverse style of Tricoupi and that of Xenophon methods of teachers who could not consisting in the loss of a few super- speak, and who gave themselves no fuous verbal flexions, and the adop- concern to speak, the language which tion of one or two new syntactical they were teaching ; who invented, forms to compensate for the loss—the also, an arbitrary system of pronouncmerest points of grammar, indeed, which ing the language, which completely to a schoolmaster great in Attic forms separated them from the nation who may appear mighty, but to the general speak it. But this is a philological scholar, and the practical linguist, are matter on which we have no vocation of no moment. A few such words of to enter here: we only drop a hint Turkish extraction, as fáumov, a mosque; for the wise, who are able to inquire puppavlov, a firman; Bečupns, a vizier; and to conclude for themselves. γενίτσαρος, α janitary; ραγιάδης, ο We now proceed to business. There rajah, so far from being any blot on are five points connected with the the purity of Mr Tricoupi's Greek, do late Greek Revolution which stand out in fact only prove his good sense ; for with a prominent interest at the preeven the ancient Greeks, ultra-national sent moment. as they were in all their habits, never First,—The character, conduct, and scrupled to adopt a foreign word—such position of Russia at the outbreak of as γάζα, παράδεισος, έγγαρος-when it the Revolution. came in their way, just as we have Second,—The character and conduct κοδράντης, κηνσος, σουδάριον, and a few of the TURKS and the Turkish governother Latinisms in the New Testa- ment, as displayed by the manner in ment. The fact is, that the modern which the revolt was met. Greeks are rather to be blamed for Third, — The character, conduct, the affectation of extreme purity in and political significance of the GREEK their style, than for any undue admix. PEOPLE, as exhibited during the five ture of foreign words, such as we find years' struggle. by scores in every German newspaper. Fourth, — The character, conduct, But this is their affair. It is a vice and position of Russia, as more fully that leans to virtue's side, and springs developed at the conclusion of the manifestly from that strong and struggle. obstinate vitality of race which has Fifth, -The character, conduct, and survived the political revolutions of political significance of the GREEK nearly two thousand years ; and a PEOPLE, as exhibited since the battle vice, moreover, that may prove of the of Navarino and the establishment of utmost use to our young scholars, who the existing Bavarian dynasty. may have the sense and the enterprise On all these points we shall offer a few remarks in the order in which own mouth, and the absolute sponthey are set down.

taneity of an imperial ukase been First,-Asto the conduct of Russia. forestalled by a vagabond Greek capIt is a remarkable fact, and very sig- tain. But the Greeks were, from the nificant of the nature of Russian in- beginning, out of their reckoning in fluence in Turkey, that the Greek supposing that the then Czar would, Revolution did not commence where as a matter of course, patronise their one might have expected it to come insurrectionary movement against the mence, in Greece proper-i.e., the Turks. Alexander, though not namountainous strongholds of Acarnania turally a very bellicose person, had and the Peloponnesus—but in those already done as much for the terrivery Principalities where we are now torial aggrandisement of Russia as fighting, and where the Muscovites would have contented the most warare always intriguing. How was like of his predecessors. He had this? Plainly because all those rounded off the north-west corner of Greeks who had for years been brew. his vast domain in the most neat and ing revolt in their étaipiai, or secret dexterous way by the appropriation conspiracies, took it for granted that of Finland in 1808; and he had proon that nominally Turkish but really fited alike in the upshot by the friendRussian ground, Russia would at once ship of Napoleon at Tilsit in 1807, come forward and help them to kill and by his enmity at Moscow in 1812. -We use the Imperial simile—the sick That he should enter upon a new, and old Infidel, who had been so long lying in all probability a severe contest with with his diseased lumpish body on another enemy, and put himself at the the back of the Christian population; head of a great insurrectionary moveand accordingly the man whom they ment, disturbing all the peaceful relaset up to raise the flag of Christian tions so recently established, and in insurrection on the banks of the such friendly amity with the great Pruth and the Sereth, was an officer conservative powers at Paris and in the Russian service, Alexander Vienna, was a proceeding not to be Ypsilanti by name; and the first thing looked for from a moderate and a he did when he came forward as mili- prudent man. This the Greeks might tary head of the revolt in the Princi. bave known, had they not been bepalities, was to put forth a proclama- fooled by patriotic passion. A "holy tion, in which the Christian tribes of alliance" no doubt it was which, in Turkey were told that “ a great Euró 1815, the pious soul of the good Czar pean power ” might be depended on as had made with his brother kings; but * patronising the insurrection"-ote this holiness" was either a mere fraμια μεγάλη δύναμις τους προστατευει. termisation of sentiment, too vague to Now, here was a lie to begin with, to be of any practical force, or at best a rewhich perhaps the old Græcia mendax ligious stamp placed upon a document, may seem not inapplicable: but in the contents of which were essentially fact it was a most probable lie; and political, and did not at all warrant if lies were at all justifiable, either on the expectation that the most Chris. principle or policy, at the opening tian crowned Allies should be called scene of a great war, certainly this upon to interfere in supporting every was the lie which at that time and revolt which Christian subjects in any place looked most like the truth. Bat land might feel themselves called upon it is a dangerous thing to raise war- to make against their traditional lords. like enthusiasm at any time, especi- Then as to politics : Though Alexanally when an emperor is concerned, by der was a most kind-hearted, truly sounding_statements not founded on popular, and very liberal sovereign, truth. Had the Czar been ever so and bad made speeches at Paris, Warwilling to assist the movement of the saw, and elsewhere, equal to anything Wallachian Greeks, and to lead his ever spouted by the present Majesty victorious Cossacks, scarcely returned of Prussia in his most liberal fits, yet from fair Paris, to magnificent Stam- he was very little of a constitutionalist, boul, he could not but feel offended at and not at all a democrat. From Laythe unceremonious manner in which bach, therefore, where he was when his decision had been taken out of his the revolution broke out in March 1821, he gave his decision in the mat- very vain and foolish, no man can ter of the Greek insurrection in the deny that the Czar behaved with following very remarkable words :- great moderation, like a gentleman, in

fact, and a Christian, as he was—and " The motives of the Emperor are now known, from the best of all sources, his politician. For we can scarcely agree

moreover, we must add, like a wise own words, in confidential conversation with Mons. de Chateaubriand. The time

with some strong indications of feeling, is past,' said he, 'when there can be a

both in Tricoupi and in Sir Archibald French, Russian, Prussian, or Austrian Alison,* that any Christian power policy. One only policy for the safety of would have been justified in supportall can be admitted in common by all ing a revolt of Christian subjects people and all kings. It devolves on me against their lawful sovereign, being to show myself the first to be convinced an Infidel, till these Christians had of the principles on which the Holy first shown, by their own exertions, Alliance is founded, An opportunity

that they were worthy of the interpresented itself on occasion of the insur.

vention which afterwards took place rection of the Greeks. Nothing certainly could have been more for my interests, Lord Aberdeen, in some late remarks

in their favour. We see, also, that those of my people, and the opinion of my country, than a religious war against the

in the House of Lords, was quite Turks; but I discerned in the troubles of correct historically when he called the Peloponnesus the revolutionary mark, attention to the comparative “modeFrom that moment I kept aloof from them. ration" of Russian counsels in some Nothing has been spared to turn me aside of her dealings with Turkey. Russia, from the Alliance; but in vain. My self- in fact, never has displayed any very love has been assailed, my prejudices flagrant rapacity in her dealings with appealed to; but in vain. What need Turkey, for the best of all possible have I for an extension of my empire ? reasons,—because, having as much of Providence has not put under my orders the fox as of the bear in her nature, 800,000 soldiers to satisfy my ambition,

she does not wish to alarm the but to protect religion, morality, and justice, and to establish the principles of European powers on a point where order on which human society reposes.'

she knows they are peculiarly sensiIn pursuance of these principles, Count tive. Her policy has been to poison Nesselrode declared officially that his the sick old man, not to kill him; and Imperial Majesty could not regard the in this very moderation, as all the enterprise of Ypsilanti as anything but world now knows, lies the peculiar the effect of the exaltation which charac- danger of her encroachments. Like a terises the present epoch, as well as of deep swirling river, she rolls beneath the inexperience and levity of that young the fat mud - banks of your political man, whose name is ordered to be erased from the Russian service. Orders were

BTATUS QUO, and you suspect no harm, at the same time sent to the imperial

and can walk on the green bank with forces on the Pruth and in the Black Sea

delectation; but when the flood comes, to observe the strictest neutrality.

there will be a shaking and a pre

cipitation; and then God help the The publication of this resolution sleepers ! on the part of the Imperial govern- So much for Russia. Our next ment effectually quashed the move- question relates to the Turks. How ment in the Principalities ; and poor did they behave at the outbreak of the Ypsilanti, after a few awkward and insurrection? The answer is given in ill-managed plunges, was obliged to two words—like butchers, and like back out of his position, and, leaving blunderers. Like butchers in the first "Olympian George," and other sturdy place. Their way of crushing an inGreek mountaineers, in the lurch, seek surrection was truly a brutal one for refuge, and find a prison in Austria. Todtekń Anprádns, as Mr Tricoupi In this whole affair, however, though says; or shall we not rather say the Greeks had shown themselves devilish. Certainly Sylla, in his most

* Sir A. Alison, perhaps, as we shall see afterwards, confines his sympathy to the assertion that, after the infamous butchery of the Greeks at Chios, the intervention of the Christian States in behalf of the oppressed Christian people became a duty.


sanguinary humours, never enacted a vivid glimpse of the very natural anytbing more inhuman and more manner in which, unassisted by any diabolical than the wholesale massacre evil arts of diplomacy, that power of the prosperous Greeks in Scios, can continually earn for itself golden April 1822, which, next to certain opinions among the Christian nations scenes when the Furies were let loose of the south. in France, forms the most bloody "On the evening of Easter Saturpage of modern history.* When a day, or great Saturday—To uéya gásTurk suspects a Greek of treason, he barov, as the Greeks call it-being the makes short work of it: no forms of 9th of March, there were seen dislaw, no investigation, no trial, no persed in the neighbourhood of the proof; but right on with the instinct Patriarch's palace, within and without of a tiger, in the very simple and the Fanar, about five thousand armed effective old Oriental style, “Why Janizaries, without any person knowshould this dead dog curse my lord the ing why. The Janizaries perambu. king? let me go over, I pray thee, and lated the streets of the Fanar the take off his head.So an old Jew whole night, but did no harm to any once said to King David; but Sultan At midnight, as is the use in Mahmoud did not require that a word our Church, the church-crier made of cursing should have been spoken. proclamation, and the Christian people, Sufficient that the individual marked though under great apprehensions, for butchery stood in a prominent immediately obeyed the sacred sumsituation, and was of the same brother- mons, and assembled without hinderhood as those who had spoken or ance or disturbance in the church of acted treason : if he was not guilty in the Patriarchate. The Patriarch himhis own person, he was bound to be self officiated as usual, with twelve cognisant of the guilt of others; and other priests; and after the service for not revealing this guilt he must was finished, the people were disdie. Such is the simple theory on missed, and retired quietly to their which proceeded the wholesale mur- own homes. The Patriarch went to ders which took place at Constantin- his palace, when the first streaks ople so soon as word was brought of of day were beginning to appear; but the insurrectionary movement in the scarcely had he entered, when word Principalities. As a specimen of these was brought that Staurakis Aristarinfamous proceedings, we shall select ches, the great Interpreter, wished to from Mr Tricoupi's book the account speak with him. The Patriarch proof the death of the Patriarch Gregory, posed to go with him to his private a murder committed with the most room, but the Interpreter replied that flagrant disregard of all the forms of he preferred being taken immediately justice (if there be such forms in to the great Hall of the Synod. There Turkey), and under circumstances he came with one of the Secretaries calculated to rouse to the utmost of State, and forthwith produced a pitch the spirit of the people whom it firman, which he declared be bad was intended to crush; a murder, orders to read aloud without a motherefore, not merely cruel and bar- ment's delay in the presence of the barous, but stupid and impolitic. The Patriarch, the chief priests, the heads account given by our author of this of the Greek people, and the deacons most characteristic event is somewhat of corporations. These parties were circumstantial, as might be expected sent for, and the firman instantly from the piety of a true Greek writing read as follows: "Forasmuch as the on such a subject. We curtail it, Patriarch Gregory has shown himself however, as little as possible,—espe- unworthy of the patriarchal throne, cially as the closing scene, in which ungrateful to the Porte, and a deviser Russia appears a chief actor, affords of plots,—for these reasons he is de

* That this "bloody and brutal” policy is still exercised by the Turks, when they have their free swing, is evident from the letter of Mr Saunders, the British Consul at Prevesa, which appeared about two months ago in the Times, and of which a Greek translation now lies before us in the Adnva-- an Athenian newspaper -- of the 9th June.

posed from his office. The Patriarch, accordingly led him into his own accompanied by his faithful archdea. palace, and there the executioner hung con, was immediately led off to prison; him as he was praying on the threshand as soon as he had left the ball, a old of the principal entrance at the second firman was read out in the hour of noon on Easter Sunday-80 that following terms: "Forasmuch as the at the very moment when the wretched Sublime Porte does not desire to de- Christians above were singing the prive his faithful subjects of their hymn of welcome to their new Patri. spiritual superintendence, he hereby arch, with the accustomed words ens commands them to elect a patriarch πολλά έτη δέσποτα, his predecessor was according to their ancient custom.' hung on the ground floor like a thief A consultation immediately took place and a malefactor ; the very holy per. among the clergy; and they agreed son who only a few hours before had that they should call to the patriarchal offered the bloodless sacrifice for the throne Cyril, who had been formerly sins of the people, and had blessed patriarch, and was now in Adrianople; his faithful Hock, who, with devoutbut the secretary replied that this ness and contrition of heart, had could not be allowed, as the proposed kissed the band that had been hallowpatriarch was absent, and under pre- ed by the handling of the holiest sent circumstances the Porte could elements. The last moments of Grenot allow the throne to be vacant for gory were moments of pure faith and a single hour; wherefore he com- resignation, springing from an unmanded them instantly to make elec- spotted conscience, a heart the fountion of a new patriarch from the number tain of good deeds, a calm contempt of the clergy then present. Another of this ephemeral life, and a bright consultation immediately took place; expectation of futurity. The writing and after considerable difficulty the of condemnation, by virtue of which he vote fell upon Peisidias Eugenios, who, died, called, in Turkish, Yiaftás, was according to usage, was immediately fixed upon the dead body, and set forth sent to the Porte, the rest remaining the causes of his death as follows." till he should return. After three Here Mr Tricoupi gives the Turkish hours he appeared, environed with a act of condemnation at full length; pomp and circumstance more magni- but the substance of it is contained in ficent than usual.

two points : first, “ that the Patriarch “This ceremony of electing the new did not use his spiritual weapons of pontiff was still going on, when Gre- excommunication, &c., against the gory was led out of prison, where he revolters; and, second, that he was had been preparing himself by con- personally privy to the conspiracy." stant prayer for the death which he To which iwo charges the bistorian had too good reason for supposing was answers shortly that the first is prepared for him. After taking him directly contrary to the fact (for the from the prison, they put him into a revolters were excommunicated by boat, and disembarked him on the the Greek hierarchy in the capital); strand of the Fanar. There the vene- and with regard to the second, he rable old man, looking up steadfastly avers, that though it was quite imto heaven, * made the sign of the cross, possible for the head of the Greek and knelt down, and inclined his Church to be ignorant of the existhoary head to the executioner's axe; ence of a conspiracy of which thoubut the headsman ordered him to rise, sands of the most notable Greeks in saying that here was not the place Europe were members, yet he was where he was to be executed. They never a member of the secret socie

* It may be interesting to observe here, as a proof of the permanency of the Greek language, that the phrase used by our modern Greek ambassador in this place, atevioas eis tov ovpavov, is exactly the same as that used by St Luke in the account of the martyrdom of St Stephen, Acts, vii. 55. Indeed, the vocabulary of the living Greeks, as well as their syntax, is strongly tinged by the language of the Septuagint and the New Testament ; a fact, of which our students of theology, if they have any sense, will take note.

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