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The European Alliance and Russia.

115 protecting powers in the ruin of her operate in his own defence. It is true commerce and finances. After much for that treaties exist which stipulate the bearance and much advice, abused and neutrality of Belgium in case of war. rejected, French and English troops These treaties, however, are well now occupy the Piræus, and the nea- known to have been drawn up with trality Greece refused to observe she a view to France, in order to detach is now forced to maintain ; and the from her an ally lying so temptingly brigandage she has encouraged by in her way; bat such as they are, no Bea has been checked by our cruisers one believes that they would stand a and those of France. In that part of week after the first cannon-shot was Europe, then, Russia has no further fired near her frontier. If Belgium chance of a useful diversion in her desire to be really independent, she favour; and we may be pretty sure must prove that, when the occasion that, with agitation paralysed in comes, she is worthy of it.

“ If BelGreece, and the Hellenic government gium conduct herself like a woman," bound to its good behaviour, the in- observed a foreign diplomatist on a surrection of their co-religionists in recent occasion, "she must be married the states of the Sultan will not be of to some one who shall be willing and long continuance. The withdrawal able to protect her.” That marriage, of the aliment which fed it will have we hope and believe, will not be nethe effect of soon tranquillising the cessary; and we are sure that, should country; and the vigilance of our own the necessity arise, Belgium will not agents, and those of France, will pre- be found wanting. vent the excesses of the Turkish When we come to Sweden and Denauthorities, which have too often mark, the question assumes greater occasioned and justified insurrection. importance. Sweden has wrongs to What we have said with respect to avenge, and rights to recover. She Switzerland, applies with equal, and has not entirely abandoned, even even with greater, force to Belgium. after a lapse of forty-six years, the The King of the Belgians has given hope of again possessing Finland, too many proofs of sound judgment, which was torn from her by her ginot to understand that the independ- gantic neighbour. Such, however, ence secured to his kingdom by France is not the only motive which would and England can only be maintained induce the Swedish people to join the on the condition of accepting the re- alliance against Russia; for the dansponsibility, and frankly executing gers to their existence as an indepenthe duties, of his position. King Leo- dent nation in the success of that pold had the good sense to abstain, Power, afford us a better security at the critical moment, from entering than even the recollection of the into the coalition against France past, and the desires and hopes which which, more than two years ago, the it may call forth. Sweden stands in Emperor of Russia was forming, and a position similar to that of Turkey; into wbich, with the aid of bis and it is certain that, if Russia were cellent” and accommodating friend, once mistress of the Dardanelles, England was expected to enter. This she would before long be supreme in combination, wbich bad a twofold ob- the Sound. That strait also is a key ject-first, the absolute predominance to her empire, and the possession of of Russia in Europe ; and second, the Sweden and Denmark is quite as restoration of the Bourbon family to desirable for Northern, as that of the throne from which they have been Turkey for Southern Russia. We driven-failed, as we have seen, not- have no doubt that the absorpwithstanding the favourable circum- tion of these States forms part of stance of Lord Aberdeen's presence the vast plan of Russia, who finds in in the Cabinet. King Leopold must them elements for the extension of have fully comprehended the danger her empire by means of her maritime that would menace his dynasty by power. The sort of armed neutrality participation in such an intrigue. But at first adopted by Sweden was perhis Belgian Majesty must now feel fectly intelligible. Until the allied that one of bis first duties is to co- fleets were completely established in

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the Baltic, it was difficult to make the situation, a partition was made, any movement indicative of hostility; to which the belligerents gave their whilst the presence of our fleet, and of assent, but in which the first-rate & considerable force ready to act si. Powers dictated the law. That law multaneously on various points of the was unfortunate for Germany, as it Russian coast, would remove all mo- created rivalries which were chiefly tive for hesitation, and enable Sweden to the advantage of Russia. The to throw herself heartily into the con- Holy Alliance, too, in which Russia test against an enemy from whom she played the principal part, reduced the has quite as much to dread as the Sab- secondary governments to a condition lime Porte has. But let her remem- of tutelage, and, in fact, excluded ber—and we have no doubt she well them altogether from the European knows the fact—that perseverance in combination. The evil was, it is such neutrality would not be the true, somewhat mitigated by the Quadmeans of conciliating Russia, while ruple Treaty, which, as we have said, she would hardly meet with syma was conceived in opposition to the pathy or respect from the rest of Holy Alliance—the constitutionalism Europe. To us, the co-operation of of the south against the absolutism of Sweden and Denmark would be of the north. It now becomes the duty, the greatest advantage. Their ports as it is the interest, of the great are admirably adapted as a base for Powers to make an appeal to the our naval operations. Their troops secondary States, to furnish their rewould be in the theatre of operations spective contingents for the defence the moment hostilities were declared; of the cause-a cause not of private in four-and-twenty hours they would interest, of aggrandisement, or of conbe in Finland, or in the Gulf of Both- quest, but of general defence. There nia. Of the active co-operation of is not a powerful sovereign or a petty Sweden with us, we have little doubt. prince, who values his honour, or cares The peculiarity of her position, the to preserve his dominions- there is deep injury she has already sustained not a people that loves its indepenat the hands of Russia, and the anni. dence, but is bound to assist in repelhilation of Swedish independence that ng the invasion of the barbarians ; would follow from the triumphant for the present war against Russia progress of that Power, appear to us is a crusade of civilisation and liberty, à fair guarantee for her complete and from which none can draw back active adhesion.

without a stigma being affixed to Whatever be the faults that have them for ever. He who yields to the been committed with respect to second seductions of Russia, will have sealed and third rate States, this is not the his fate as surely as if he were conmoment to remember them. With quered by her arms; and wherever an aggregate population of not less the Russian cross is planted, there than fifty millions, they do not deserve servitude must be. The term of the the indifference with which they have mighty struggle in which we are enin great part been treated, nor the gaged, we do not venture to predict; oblivion in which they have been left. nor, should our enemy be aided by Their weight thrown into the scale any of the governments of Europe to at so momentous a period as the pre- carry it to a successful issue, can sent, must be considerable, whether we say for what people is reserved we regard their territorial extent, the gracious indulgence granted by their numerical strength, or their geo- the Cyclops to Ulysses of being degraphical position. It has been re- voured the last; but we are certain marked that Cardinal Richelieu and that we are all marked as the prey, Napoleon, no mean authorities in sooner or later. The conquest of the such matters, sedulously cultivated Ottoman Empire, and the annihilation the alliance of secondary States; they of Islamism, is not the only object of did not neglect or despise any alli- the Czar. The creeds of Western anco, or any contingent, however Europe are as obnoxious to him as is small. At the Congress of Vienna, the Koran; and in both cases religious owing principally to the peculiarity of zeal is but the pretext for territorial aggrandisement. The orthodox ritual has always been stronger in it than is the prelude to conquest, and the the errors and the passions of men; mission which the Emperor of Russia and she has the intimate conviction believes to have received from Heaven that it will be stronger than all its is its propagation, without respect to enemies. She knows, moreover, that any other creed or sect. Lutheranism, at this moment, as for ages past, the Calvinism, Catholicism, are equally Christian destinies of the West are the objects of that mission; and, unless still in the hands of Rome; and she now arrested, he will follow on in his confidently hopes that, in the day of career, until the Russian cross is the grand reconciliation, Rome will planted on the dome of every Cathe- restore to her the sacred deposit dral in Europe, and the entire West intact." acknowledge his temporal and spirit- : Towards the close of the year 1845, Dal supremacy.. Panslavism with its the cities of Naples and Palermo were double device, the tiara and the visited by the Empress of Russia, who sceptre, is the banner unfurled to the sought in the soft and genial climate Slavonic nations and tribes of Europe, of the south the restoration of her who are summoned to rally round it, health, which had been seriously afand beneath its folds is a policy the fected at St Petersburg. Such at most faithless, and an ambition the least was the reason assigned for the most unbounded and unscrupulous, presence of the Czarina. It afforded that the world has ever known. a favourable pretext to the Emperor The orthodox Church of Russia, of himself to visit Italy, and soon Europe whose powers, rights, purity of doc- was surprised at learning that the trine, and infallibility, the Czar is the Emperor Nicholas, the head of the personification, claims to be consi- Orthodox Church, had gone to salute dered as the sole depository of the the Prince who claimed to be Christ's religious and moral truth from which vicar on earth, and the head of the all other churches bave strayed, and Latin Church. The event occurred which must one day be absorbed by not long after the story of the tortured her. She alone is orthodox; all puns of Poland had rung all over others are heretical. Rome she con- Europe. The cause at first assigned siders as preserving the Christian for the journey was not credited. principle, among those who acknow- Compensation for past misdeeds, parledge her spiritual supremacy, merely don implored at the tombs of the for the ultimate triumph of ortho- saints, reconciliation and union bedoxy; and she believes that the time tween the Eastern and Western is fast approaching when the last of Churches, which had been separated the Pontiffs shall hand over his long- for centuries, were the explanations usurped authority to the Czar, shall that accorded better with the popular avow his errors, and ask to be received feeling, and were more readily beinto the faith from which the Latin lieved. Great were the hopes, and Church has deviated. "The ortho- bigh the exultation, in the Eternal dox Church has never despaired of City. Rome put on her festal robes. such a result," writes a Russian of The Cupola of St Peter's, encircled high diplomatic rank, in a Mémoire with its illuminated diadem, rose in which appeared in the Revue de Deux light and glory to the heavens. The Mondes of January 1850. “That old castle of St Angelo, that had witchurch waits and counts upon it, not nessed many high festivities, spoke merely with confidence, but with cer- out its welcome in thunder, and the tainty. And why should not that bells of every tower and church in which is one in principle, which is that proud city hailed the imperial one in eternity, triumph over the stranger. Such visits bad not often disanion that has crept in by time? occurred before. When, in 452, Attila, In spite of the separation of many the “Scourge of God," appeared beages, and in spite of human preju- fore the walls of Rome, the Pontiff dices, she has not ceased to recognise Leo presented himself alone, unprothat the Christian principle has not tected, and bearing aloft, as his only died in the Church of Rome, that it weapon, the cross, and summoned the savage cohorts to retire. Six cen- matic West ;-the holiness of Eastern turies later, the Emperor of the West tradition, uncorrupted and unaltered. bowed before the anger of Gregory, His mission was to close the schism and expiated, in the court of the Pon- of centuries, and to bestow, out of the tifical Palace, the oppression of his plenitude of his bounty, pardon and Saxon subjects. But it was for no protection to the West. When the expiation, it was to make no confes- Czar prostrated himself on the cold sion of past crimes, nor was it to marble before the shrines of the Aposdemand forgiveness or reconciliation, tles, in presence of a silent and astonthat the Emperor Nicholas now knelt ished multitude, he was not alone in beneath the dome of St Peter's. The that act of humiliation; all Russia head of the Orthodox Faith had no bent with him. After centuries of idea of asking pardon from any one absence, Russia, represented by the on earth, for he deemed all on earth be- Czar, the future head of universal neath him. He did not visit Rome Christianity, took possession of the to seek the spiritual or moral con- Papacy, as the prelude of what was secration of his power; his mission to follow. was rather to consecrate, and to re- The total absorption in his own ceive the repentance of the Papacy. person of spiritual and temporal authoCharlemagne had been the servant rity all over Europe, is the fixed idea and the protector of the Papacy; he of the Czar, and for that object the bestowed much upon it, but he receiv- fanaticism of his people has been ed more. But the orthodox Emperor roused to 'frenzy. It is for those of our day, who entered Rome in 1845, States who value religion and political brought all to the Pope, without ask- independence, and who are not preing anything in return.

He was

pared to see civilisation and liberty ready to restore to him all the force recede before the barbarians of the which the Papacy had lost since its North, to make a united and deterunhappy connection with the schis- mined stand against the enemy of all.

Printed by William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh,

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We certainly owe an apology to ment, particularly, one likes to see our Greek ambassador. The nine what a living Greek, with a pen in his hundred and ninety-ninth edition of hand, has to say for himself; his a declamatory old play of Euripides, language and his power of utterance cut and slashed into the most new- is an element in the great Turko-Rusfangled propriety by some J. A. Har- sian question that cannot be lost sight tung, or other critical German, with a of. Doubly welcome, therefore, is tomahawk, is a phenomenon in the this first instalment of Mr Tricoupi's literary world that can excite no at- long-expected history ; and as it haptention; but when a regularly built pens opportunely that the most interliving Greek comes forward in the esting portion of Sir A. Alison's third middle of this pineteenth century, volume is occupied with the same exactly four hundred years after the theme, we eagerly seize the present last Byzantine chronicler had been opportunity at once to acquit ourselves blown into the air by our brave allies of an old debt to our Hellenic ambasthe Turks—and within the precincts sador, and to thank Sir A. Alison for of the Red Lion Court, London-e the spirited, graphic, and thoroughly Tỉ ávaņ tov épv@pôv léovios-pats forth sympathetic style in which he has prea regularly built history of the Greek sented to the general English reader Revolution of 1821, thereby claiming the history of a bright period of Greek -not without impudence, as some history, which recent events have think-a place on our classical shelves somewhat tended to becloud. It is alongside of Herodotus, Thucydides, not our intention on the present and Xenophon, and a great way above occasion to attempt à sketch of Diodorus Siculus, and other such re- the strategetical movements of the tailers of venerable hearsay: this truly Greek war, 1821-6. A criticism of is an event in the Greek world that these will be more opportune when claims notice from the general reviewer Mr Tricoupi shall have finished his even more than from the professed great work.* We shall rather confine classical scholar. At the present mo- ourselves to bringing out a few salient

(1.) Σπυριδωνος Τρικουπη ιστορία της "Ελληνικής επαναστάσεως. Τόμος Α.

London, 1853. (History of the Greek Revolution. By Spiridion Tricoupi,

Greek Minister, London. Vol. i.) (2.) History of Europe from the Fall of Napoleon in 1815, to the Aocession of

Louis Napoleon in 1852. By Sir ARCHIBALD Alison, Bart. Vol. iii. * The work, when completed, will, we understand, consist of four volumes octavo ; the second volume is expected to appear in a few weeks. VOL. LXXVI. —NO. CCCCLXVI.

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